Emergency planning is a new science and there is a lack of UK standardisation in regard to NHSemergency planning. A first step to achieving standardisation within emergency planning is elucidationof national training competencies.Aim: This study was designed to find consensus amongst multi-agency chemical, biological,radiological, nuclear and explosive (CBRNe) experts on the factors that must be included infuture NHS CBRNe competencies.Methods: Data was collected using an anonymised online Delphi study. Two rounds of studywere completed. Experts were selected through a combination of purposive and snowball sampling.In total 43 experts agreed to take part in this study. Twenty-one experts responded to thefirst round’s single open-ended question. Fourteen experts responded to the second which contained64 Likert-scored questions. Consensus was achieved in 46 questions.Results: The consensus of expert opinion generated 10 suggested core training competencies.Conclusion: There is an urgent need to standardise national planning, training and evaluationof NHS staff who are expected to respond to CRBNe and other emergencies. Further research isneeded to identify training and response templates so that lessons can be learned from theseexperiences and fed back to improve future response.
|Journal||International Emergency Nursing|
|Publication status||Published (in print/issue) - 5 Apr 2010|
Bibliographical noteReference text: Adini, B., Goldberg, A., Laor, D., Cohen, R., Zadok, R., Bar-Dayan,
Y., 2006. Assessing levels of hospital preparedness. Prehospital
and Disaster Medicine 21 (6), 451–457.
Adini, B., Goldberg, A., Laor, D., Cohen, R., Bar-Dayan, Y., 2007.
Factors that may influence the preparation of standards of
procedures for dealing with mass-casualty incidents. Prehospital
and Disaster Medicine 22 (3), 175–180, <http://pdm.medicine.
wisc.edu/22-3%20PDFs/adini.pdf> (accessed 27.07.08).
Alexander, D., 2005. Towards the development of a standard in
emergency planning. Disaster Prevention and Management 14
ALSG, 2009. Advanced Life Support Group. Online Link Showing Map
of Countries across the World that Subscribe to ALSG. <http://
www.alsg.org/en/?q=overseas> (accessed 23.10.09).
Anathallee, A., Curphey, A., Beeching, N., Carley, S., Crawford, I.,
Mackway-Jones, K., 2007. Emergency departments (EDs) in the
United Kingdom (UK) are not prepared for emerging biological
threats and bioterrorism. Journal of Infection 54, 12–17.
Armstrong, 2006. Delphi Decision Aid. Online Free Access www
Delphi Study Program. <http://armstrong.wharton.upenn.edu/
delphi2/> (accessed 12.11.08).
Auf der Heide, E., 2006. The importance of evidence-based disaster
planning. Annals of Emergency Medicine 47 (1), 34–49.
Carley, S., Mackway-Jones, K., 2005. Major Incident Medical
Management and Support: The Practical Approach in the Hospital.
Advanced Life Support Group, Blackwell Publishing.
Clayton, M., 1997. Delphi: a technique to harness expert opinion for
critical decision-making tasks in education. Educational Psychology.
An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology
17 (4), 373–386, <http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/
content~content=a757635110&db=all> (accessed 22.08.09).
Crawford, I., Mackway-Jones, K., Russell, D., Carley, S., 2004a.
Planning for chemical incidents by implementing a Delphi based
consensus study. Emergency Medicine Journal 21, 20–23.
Crawford, I., Mackway-Jones, K., Russell, D., Carley, S., 2004b.
Delphi based consensus study into planning for chemical
incidents. Emergency Medicine Journal 21, 24–28.
Curtis, T., 2009. Educational program emergency planning. Radiologic
Technology 80/6/51580, 515–522, <http://www.radiologictechnology.
org/cgi/reprint/80/6/515> (accessed 22.08.09).
Delaney, L., 2009. Descriptive statistics: simply telling a story.
British Journal of Cardiac Nursing 4 (6), 283–289.
DoH Emergency Preparedness Division, 2005. NHS Emergency
Planning Guidance. Gateway Ref.: 5638. <http://www.dh.gov.
digitalasset/dh_4121236.pdf> (accessed 23.08.08).
DoH, 2008. The NHS in England: The Operating Framework for
Doughty, E., 2009. Investigating Adaptive Grieving Styles: A Delphi
Study. Death Studies, 1091–7683, vol. 33, no. 5, 2009, pp. 462–
~content=a910570528> (accessed 22.08.09).
Health Care Commission, 2007. Information for healthcare providers.
NHS Acute, 06–07, Meeting Core Standards, Public Health,
Emergency Planning (accessed 23.07.08).
Heptonstall, J., Gent, N., 2008. CRBN Incidents: Clinical Management
& Health Protection. Health Protection Agency, London.
Version 4, September 2008. <http://www.hpa.org.uk/web/
HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1194947377166> (accessed 17.05.09).
Home Office, 2004. The Decontamination of People Exposed to
Chemical, Biological, Radiological or Nuclear (CBRN) Substances
or Material: Strategic National Guidance. Home Office. second
ed., May 2004.
HPA, 2006a. Emergency Planning College. Emergency Preparedness
– A Foundation. Module 1. Morning Lecture: ‘‘Integrated
Emergency Management’’ Course: 2006/21/DOS. 23rd May 2006.
Central City Training Venue. London.
HPA, 2006b. Emergency Planning College. Emergency Preparedness
– A Foundation. Module 1. Afternoon Lecture: ‘‘The Bigger
Picture. Lines of Communication within and beyond the Health
Service Community.’’ Course: 2006/21/DOS. 23rd May 2006.
Central City Training Venue, London.
HPA, 2006c. Emergency Planning College. Emergency Planning
Liaison Officer Training. Module 2 – Hazard Mapping, Risk
Identification & Mitigation. Course: 2006/30/DOS. 25th July
2006. Central City Training Venue, London.
HPA, 2009. Reports of Swine Flu in Mexico and US. HPA Press
Release, 24th April, 2009. <http://www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAweb&
Lachance, D., Plante, E´., Bouchard-Thomassin, A.-A., Champetier,
S., Roussel, E´., Drolet, M.-C., Couet, J., Arsenault, M., 2009.
Moderate Exercise Training Improves Survival and Ventricular
Remodelling in an Animal Model of Left Ventricular Volume
Overload Circ Heart Fail in American Heart Association. Published
June 15, 2009. doi:10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.108.845487.
CIRCHEARTFAILURE.108.845487v1> (accessed 22.08.09).
NEPEC, 2003. Educational Competencies for Registered Nurses
Responding to Mass Casualty Incidents. Nursing Emergency
Preparedness Education Coalition. Vanderbilt University, Nashville,
Tennessee, USA. <http://www.nursing.vanderbilt.edu/
incmce/competencies.html> (accessed 29.10.09).
NVivo8, 2008. Qualitative Data Analysis Software; QSR International
Pty., Ltd., Version 8, 2008. <http://www.qsrinternational.com/
support_faqs_detail.aspx?view=11> (accessed 23.10.09).
Oren, M., 2009. Medical Complications. CBRNe World. Falcon
Communications Ltd., Autumn 2009, pp. 94–95.
Powell, C., 2002. The Delphi technique: myths and realities.
Journal of Advanced Nursing 41 (4), 376–382.
Rosatto, C., 2009. Crystal Ball. CBRNe World. Falcon Communications
Ltd., Autumn 2009, pp. 110–111.
Ru¨ter, A., 2006. Disaster Medicine – Performance Indicators.
Information Support and Documentation: A Study of an Evaluation
Tool. Linko¨ping University Medical Dissertations No. 972,
7990> (accessed 08.07.08).
Sundnes, K., Birnbaum, M., 2003. Health disaster management:
guidelines for evaluation and research in the Utstein style.
Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 17 (Suppl. 3).
UK Resilience, 2009. Civil Contingencies Act, 2004. Cabinet Office,
ccact.aspx#part1> (accessed 30.05.09).
WADEM, 2009. World Association for Disaster and Emergency
Medicine. <http://www.wadem.org/mission.html> (accessed
- Delphi study
- Emergency department
- Major incident