The experience of fatigue for people living with hepatitis C

Michèle Glacken, Vivien Coates, George Kernohan, John Hegarty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

49 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

• Hepatitis C affects approximately 3% of the world population, with fatiguebeing acknowledged as the cardinal symptom. Despite growing recognition thathepatitis C fatigue impacts in a negative manner on quality of life, at the time ofthis study no empirical information existed regarding the nature of this fatigue orthe way in which it affects a person’s life. Such information is needed to enablenurses to engage in appropriate sensitive symptom management which is the corenursing activity with this population, as to date there is no vaccine or widelyeffective pharmacological therapy.• The aim of the study was to ascertain the nature of hepatitis C fatigue.• A qualitative approach using a grounded theory approach was employed.Theoretical sampling generated 28 participants for in-depth interview. Dataanalysis consisted of three coding processes, each type of coding having its ownpurpose and method. Ethical approval was obtained, both from the principalauthor’s academic institution and the participating health care institution.• Hepatitis C fatigue emerged as being multidimensional in nature, with bothacute and chronic versions existing.• The hepatology community is beginning to acknowledge the significantprevalence of hepatitis C fatigue. This study provides a valuable insight into itsnature. This information can serve as resource for practitioners in theirdevelopment of interventions to enable the hepatitis C virus population live withfatigue in a proactive manner.
LanguageEnglish
Pages244-252
JournalJournal of Clinical Nursing
Volume12
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2003

Fingerprint

Hepatitis C
Fatigue
Population
Gastroenterology
Hepacivirus
Vaccines
Quality of Life
Pharmacology
Interviews
Delivery of Health Care
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • fatigue
  • grounded theory
  • hepatitis C virus

Cite this

@article{4c19533dae454c9aae298daafb6d1eef,
title = "The experience of fatigue for people living with hepatitis C",
abstract = "• Hepatitis C affects approximately 3{\%} of the world population, with fatiguebeing acknowledged as the cardinal symptom. Despite growing recognition thathepatitis C fatigue impacts in a negative manner on quality of life, at the time ofthis study no empirical information existed regarding the nature of this fatigue orthe way in which it affects a person’s life. Such information is needed to enablenurses to engage in appropriate sensitive symptom management which is the corenursing activity with this population, as to date there is no vaccine or widelyeffective pharmacological therapy.• The aim of the study was to ascertain the nature of hepatitis C fatigue.• A qualitative approach using a grounded theory approach was employed.Theoretical sampling generated 28 participants for in-depth interview. Dataanalysis consisted of three coding processes, each type of coding having its ownpurpose and method. Ethical approval was obtained, both from the principalauthor’s academic institution and the participating health care institution.• Hepatitis C fatigue emerged as being multidimensional in nature, with bothacute and chronic versions existing.• The hepatology community is beginning to acknowledge the significantprevalence of hepatitis C fatigue. This study provides a valuable insight into itsnature. This information can serve as resource for practitioners in theirdevelopment of interventions to enable the hepatitis C virus population live withfatigue in a proactive manner.",
keywords = "fatigue, grounded theory, hepatitis C virus",
author = "Mich{\`e}le Glacken and Vivien Coates and George Kernohan and John Hegarty",
note = "Reference text: Ahmad I., Owens D., Ahmed W., Khan H., Walker M. & Anderson G. (1999) To assess the quality of life and symptoms in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the absence of cirrhosis. Gut 44(Suppl. 1), W216. Barkhuizen A., Rosen H.R., Wolf S., Flora K., Benner K. & Bennett R. (1999) Musculoskeletal pain and fatigue are associated with chronic hepatitis C. American Journal of Gastroenterology 94, 1355–1360. Cauch-Dudek K., Abbey S., Stewart D.E. & Heathcote E.J. (1998) Fatigue in primary biliary cirrhosis. Gut 4, 705–710. Chadler T., Wallace P. & Wessely S. (1997) Self-help treatment of chronic fatigue in the community: a randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Health Psychology 2(3), 189–197. Charmaz K. (1995) Between positivism and postmodernism: implications for methods. Studies in Symbolic Interaction 17, 43–72. Dana F., Becherer P.R. & Bacon B.R. (1994) Hepatitis C virus. What recent studies can tell us. Postgraduate Medicine 95(121–122), 125–130. Desmet V.J., Gerber M., Hoofnagle J.H., Manns M. & Scheuer P.J. (1994) Classification of chronic hepatitis: diagnosis, grading and staging. Hepatology 19, 1513–1520. Di Bisceglie A.M., Conjeevaram H.S., Fried M.W., Sallie R., Park Y., Yurday-din C. & Swain M. (1995) Ribarvarin as therapy for chronic hepatitis C. A randomised double-blind, placebocontrolled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 123, 897–903. Dietrich R., Bachmann C. & Lauterburg B.H. (1990) Exercise induced hyperammoniemia in patients with compensated liver disease. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 25, 329–334. Dolan M. (1997) The Hepatitis C Handbook. Catalyst Press, London. Eidelman D. (1980) Fatigue: towards an analysis and a unified definition. Medical Hypotheses 6, 517–526. Fattovich G., Giustina G., Degos F., Tremolda F., Diodati G., Almasio P., Nevens F., Solinas A., Mura D., Brouwer J.T., Thomas H., Njapoum C., Casarin C., Bonetti P., Fuschi P., Basho J., Tocco A., Bhalla A., Galassini R., Noventa F., Schalm S.W. & 250 M. Glacken et al. 2003 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 12, 244–252 Realdi G. (1997) Morbidity and mortality in compensated cirrhosis type C: a retrospective follow-up study of 384 patients. Gastroenterology 112, 463–472. Ferrell B.R., Grant M., Dean G.E., Funk B. & Ly J. (1996) ‘Bone Tired’: the experience of fatigue and its impact on quality of life. Oncology Nursing Forum 23, 1539–1547. Gerber L., Schulman B., Smith C., Thornton B., Liang M., Cullen K., Stevens M.B. & Gilbert N. (1987) Patient education program to teach energy conservation behaviors to patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 68, 442–445. Gift A.G. (1997) Clarifying Concepts in Nursing Research. Springer Publishing Co., California. Glacken M. (2000) Fatigue in the hepatitis C population. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Ulster, Ulster. Glacken M., Kernohan G. & Coates V. (2001) Diagnosed with hepatitis C: a descriptive-exploratory study. International Journal of Nursing Studies 38, 107–116. Glaus A. (1996) Fatigue in patients with cancer. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Surrey, Surrey. Glaus A., Crow R. & Hammond S. (1996) A qualitative study to explore the concept of fatigue/tiredness in cancer patients and in healthy individuals. Support Care Cancer 4, 82–96. Goh J., Coughlan B., Quinn J., O’Keane J.C. & Crowe J. (1999) Fatigue does not correlate with the degree of hepatitis or the presence of autoimmune disorders in chronic hepatitis C. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 11, 833– 838. Hoofnagle J.H. (1997) Hepatitis C: the clinical spectrum of disease. Hepatology 26, 15S–20S. Huet P.-M. & Deslauriers J. (1996) Impact of fatigue on quality of life of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 110, A1215. Huet P.-M., Deslauriers J., Faucher C. & Charbonneau J. (1996) Fatigue, mental health and depression in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology 24, 167A. International Council of Nurses (1996) Ethical Guidelines for Nursing Research. ICN, Geneva. Jones E.A. (1995) Fatigue associated with chronic liver disease: a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma. Hepatology 22, 1606–1608. Jones E.A. (1999) Relief from profound fatigue associated with chronic liver disease by long-term ondansetron therapy. Lancet 354(9176), 397. Kenny-Walsh E. (1999) Clinical outcomes after hepatitis C infection from contaminated anti-D immune globulin. New England Journal of Medicine 340, 1228–1233. Kuratsune H., Yamaguti K., Lindh G., Takahashi M., Machii T., Matsumura K., Takaishi J., Kawata S., Langstrom B., Kanakura Y., Kitani T. & Watanabe Y. (1998) Low levels of serum acylcarnitine in chronic fatigue syndrome and chronic hepatitis C, but not seen in other diseases. International Journal of Molecular Medicine 2, 51–56. Lee D.H., Jamal H., Regenstein F.G. & Perrillo R.P. (1997) Morbidity of chronic hepatitis C as seen in a tertiary care medical centre. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 42, 186–191. Lewis G. & Wessely S. (1992) The epidemiology of fatigue: more questions than answers. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 46, 92–97. Lorig K., Holman H., Sobel D., Laurent D., Gonzalez V. & Minor M. (1994) Living a Healthy Life with Chronic Conditions. Bull Publishing Co., Pao Alto, CA. Mahony J. (1998) A Medical Blunder Wrecked my Life. Marie- Clare (UK edition). February, pp. 157–158. van Mens-Verhulst J., van Dijkum C., Lam N. & van Kuijk E. (1999) Dealing with fatigue: the importance of health-related action patterns. Patient Education and Counselling 36, 65–74. Monks J. (1989) Experiencing symptoms in chronic illness: fatigue in multiple sclerosis. International Disability Studies 11, 78–83. Morse J.M., Hupcey J.E., Mitcham C.&Lenz E.R. (1997) Choosing a strategy for concept analysis in nursing research moving beyond Wilson. In Clarifying Concepts in Nursing Research (Gift AG, ed.). Springer Publishing Co., New York, pp. 73–95. Murray T.J. (1985) Amantadine therapy for fatigue in multiple sclerosis. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 12, 251–254. Neuberger G.B., Press A.N., Linsley H.B., Hinton R., Cagle P.E., Carlson K., Scott S., Dahl J. & Kramer B. (1997) Effects of exercise on fatigue, aerobic fitness, and disease activity measures in persons with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Research in Nursing and Health 20(3), 195–204. Paterson B.L. (1994) A framework to identify reactivity in qualitative research. Western Journal of Nursing Research 16, 310–316. Pearse S. & Richardson A. (1996) Fatigue in cancer: a phenomenological perspective. European Journal of Cancer Care 5, 111–115. Plevris J.N. & Blair C. (1997) Chronic fatigue is associated with increased interleukin-6 levels in patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatology 26(Suppl. 2), 583A. Portenoy E.K. & Itri L.M. (1999) Cancer-related fatigue: guidelines for evaluation and management. Oncologist 4(1), 1–10. Price J.R. & Couper J. (2001) Cognitive behaviour therapy for adults with chronic fatigue syndrome. The Cochrane Library (Oxford), 4. Prince M., Ashley D., Edwards N., Mitchison H., Bramble M., James O. & Jones. D. (1999) Fatigue significantly impairs the quality of life of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology 30, 1613. Ream E. & Richardson A. (1997) Fatigue in patients with cancer and chronic obstructive airways disease: a phenomenological enquiry. International Journal of Nursing Studies 34, 44–53. Ream E. & Richardson A. (1999) Continuing education. From theory to practice: designing interventions to reduce fatigue in patients with cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum 26(8), 1295–1305. Rose L., Pugh L.C., Lears K. & Gordon D.L. (1998) The fatigue experience: persons with HIV infection. Journal of Advanced Nursing 28, 295–304. Schaefer K. & Potylcycki M. (1993) Fatigue associated with congestive heart failure: use of. Levine’s Conservation model. Journal of Advanced Nursing 18, 260–268. Shakil A.O., Conry-Contilena C., Alec H.J., Hayaski P., Kleiner D.E., Tedeschni V. & Krawczynski K. (1995) Volunteer blood donors with antibody to hepatitis C virus. Clinical, biochemical, virologic and histologic features. Annals of Internal Medicine 123, 330–337. Silverman D. (1993) Interpreting Qualitative Data: Methods for Analysing Talk, Text and Interaction. Sage Publications, London. Small S. & Lamb M. (1999) Fatigue in chronic illness: the experience of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and with asthma. Journal of Advanced Nursing 30, 469–478. Clinical nursing related to specific disorders The nature of hepatitis C fatigue 251 2003 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 12, 244–252 Spray G. (1998) Blood, Sweat and Tears. The Hepatitis C Scandal. Wolfhound Press, Dublin. Strader D.B. & Seeff L.B. (1996) The natural history of chronic hepatitis infection. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 8, 324–328. Strauss A.L. & Corbin J. (1990) Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. Sage Publications, Inc., Newbury Park, CA. Swain M.G. & Maric M. (1995) Defective corticotropin-releasing hormone mediated neuroendocrine and behavioural responses in cholestatic rats: implications for cholestatic liver disease-related sickness behaviour. Hepatology 22, 1560–1564. Swain M.G. & Maric M. (1997) Improvement in cholestasis associated fatigue with a serotonin receptor agonist using a novel rat model of fatigue assessment. Hepatology 25, 291–294. Tanguy G., Remy A.-J., Hyrailles V., Daures J.-P. & Larrey D. (1999) Effects of antiviral treatment on the quality of life in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 30, 1902. Tiesinga L.J., Dassen T.W.N., Halfens R.J.G. & van den Heuvel W.J.A. (1999) Factors related to fatigue: priority of interventions to reduce or eliminate fatigue and the exploration of a multidisciplinary research model for further study of fatigue. International Journal of Nursing Studies 36(4), 265–280. Tong M.J., El-Ferra N.S. & Reikes A.R. (1995) Clinical outcomes after transfusion associated hepatitis C. New England Journal of Medicine 332, 1463–1466. Wessely S., Hotopf M. & Sharpe M. (1998) Chronic Fatigue and its Syndromes. Oxford University Press, Oxford. World Health Organisation (1997) WHO Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) 74(46), 341–349. Younossi Z.M., O’Neil M., Kiwi M.L., Rosian R., Larive B. & Calabrese L. (1998) Hepatitis C: health-related quality of life, rheumatologic, virologic and histologic outcomes. Gastroenterology 114, L0704.",
year = "2003",
doi = "10.1046/j.1365-2702.2003.00709.x",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
pages = "244--252",
journal = "Journal of Clinical Nursing",
issn = "0962-1067",
number = "2",

}

The experience of fatigue for people living with hepatitis C. / Glacken, Michèle; Coates, Vivien; Kernohan, George; Hegarty, John.

In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2003, p. 244-252.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The experience of fatigue for people living with hepatitis C

AU - Glacken, Michèle

AU - Coates, Vivien

AU - Kernohan, George

AU - Hegarty, John

N1 - Reference text: Ahmad I., Owens D., Ahmed W., Khan H., Walker M. & Anderson G. (1999) To assess the quality of life and symptoms in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the absence of cirrhosis. Gut 44(Suppl. 1), W216. Barkhuizen A., Rosen H.R., Wolf S., Flora K., Benner K. & Bennett R. (1999) Musculoskeletal pain and fatigue are associated with chronic hepatitis C. American Journal of Gastroenterology 94, 1355–1360. Cauch-Dudek K., Abbey S., Stewart D.E. & Heathcote E.J. (1998) Fatigue in primary biliary cirrhosis. Gut 4, 705–710. Chadler T., Wallace P. & Wessely S. (1997) Self-help treatment of chronic fatigue in the community: a randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Health Psychology 2(3), 189–197. Charmaz K. (1995) Between positivism and postmodernism: implications for methods. Studies in Symbolic Interaction 17, 43–72. Dana F., Becherer P.R. & Bacon B.R. (1994) Hepatitis C virus. What recent studies can tell us. Postgraduate Medicine 95(121–122), 125–130. Desmet V.J., Gerber M., Hoofnagle J.H., Manns M. & Scheuer P.J. (1994) Classification of chronic hepatitis: diagnosis, grading and staging. Hepatology 19, 1513–1520. Di Bisceglie A.M., Conjeevaram H.S., Fried M.W., Sallie R., Park Y., Yurday-din C. & Swain M. (1995) Ribarvarin as therapy for chronic hepatitis C. A randomised double-blind, placebocontrolled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 123, 897–903. Dietrich R., Bachmann C. & Lauterburg B.H. (1990) Exercise induced hyperammoniemia in patients with compensated liver disease. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 25, 329–334. Dolan M. (1997) The Hepatitis C Handbook. Catalyst Press, London. Eidelman D. (1980) Fatigue: towards an analysis and a unified definition. Medical Hypotheses 6, 517–526. Fattovich G., Giustina G., Degos F., Tremolda F., Diodati G., Almasio P., Nevens F., Solinas A., Mura D., Brouwer J.T., Thomas H., Njapoum C., Casarin C., Bonetti P., Fuschi P., Basho J., Tocco A., Bhalla A., Galassini R., Noventa F., Schalm S.W. & 250 M. Glacken et al. 2003 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 12, 244–252 Realdi G. (1997) Morbidity and mortality in compensated cirrhosis type C: a retrospective follow-up study of 384 patients. Gastroenterology 112, 463–472. Ferrell B.R., Grant M., Dean G.E., Funk B. & Ly J. (1996) ‘Bone Tired’: the experience of fatigue and its impact on quality of life. Oncology Nursing Forum 23, 1539–1547. Gerber L., Schulman B., Smith C., Thornton B., Liang M., Cullen K., Stevens M.B. & Gilbert N. (1987) Patient education program to teach energy conservation behaviors to patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 68, 442–445. Gift A.G. (1997) Clarifying Concepts in Nursing Research. Springer Publishing Co., California. Glacken M. (2000) Fatigue in the hepatitis C population. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Ulster, Ulster. Glacken M., Kernohan G. & Coates V. (2001) Diagnosed with hepatitis C: a descriptive-exploratory study. International Journal of Nursing Studies 38, 107–116. Glaus A. (1996) Fatigue in patients with cancer. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Surrey, Surrey. Glaus A., Crow R. & Hammond S. (1996) A qualitative study to explore the concept of fatigue/tiredness in cancer patients and in healthy individuals. Support Care Cancer 4, 82–96. Goh J., Coughlan B., Quinn J., O’Keane J.C. & Crowe J. (1999) Fatigue does not correlate with the degree of hepatitis or the presence of autoimmune disorders in chronic hepatitis C. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 11, 833– 838. Hoofnagle J.H. (1997) Hepatitis C: the clinical spectrum of disease. Hepatology 26, 15S–20S. Huet P.-M. & Deslauriers J. (1996) Impact of fatigue on quality of life of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 110, A1215. Huet P.-M., Deslauriers J., Faucher C. & Charbonneau J. (1996) Fatigue, mental health and depression in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology 24, 167A. International Council of Nurses (1996) Ethical Guidelines for Nursing Research. ICN, Geneva. Jones E.A. (1995) Fatigue associated with chronic liver disease: a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma. Hepatology 22, 1606–1608. Jones E.A. (1999) Relief from profound fatigue associated with chronic liver disease by long-term ondansetron therapy. Lancet 354(9176), 397. Kenny-Walsh E. (1999) Clinical outcomes after hepatitis C infection from contaminated anti-D immune globulin. New England Journal of Medicine 340, 1228–1233. Kuratsune H., Yamaguti K., Lindh G., Takahashi M., Machii T., Matsumura K., Takaishi J., Kawata S., Langstrom B., Kanakura Y., Kitani T. & Watanabe Y. (1998) Low levels of serum acylcarnitine in chronic fatigue syndrome and chronic hepatitis C, but not seen in other diseases. International Journal of Molecular Medicine 2, 51–56. Lee D.H., Jamal H., Regenstein F.G. & Perrillo R.P. (1997) Morbidity of chronic hepatitis C as seen in a tertiary care medical centre. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 42, 186–191. Lewis G. & Wessely S. (1992) The epidemiology of fatigue: more questions than answers. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 46, 92–97. Lorig K., Holman H., Sobel D., Laurent D., Gonzalez V. & Minor M. (1994) Living a Healthy Life with Chronic Conditions. Bull Publishing Co., Pao Alto, CA. Mahony J. (1998) A Medical Blunder Wrecked my Life. Marie- Clare (UK edition). February, pp. 157–158. van Mens-Verhulst J., van Dijkum C., Lam N. & van Kuijk E. (1999) Dealing with fatigue: the importance of health-related action patterns. Patient Education and Counselling 36, 65–74. Monks J. (1989) Experiencing symptoms in chronic illness: fatigue in multiple sclerosis. International Disability Studies 11, 78–83. Morse J.M., Hupcey J.E., Mitcham C.&Lenz E.R. (1997) Choosing a strategy for concept analysis in nursing research moving beyond Wilson. In Clarifying Concepts in Nursing Research (Gift AG, ed.). Springer Publishing Co., New York, pp. 73–95. Murray T.J. (1985) Amantadine therapy for fatigue in multiple sclerosis. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 12, 251–254. Neuberger G.B., Press A.N., Linsley H.B., Hinton R., Cagle P.E., Carlson K., Scott S., Dahl J. & Kramer B. (1997) Effects of exercise on fatigue, aerobic fitness, and disease activity measures in persons with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Research in Nursing and Health 20(3), 195–204. Paterson B.L. (1994) A framework to identify reactivity in qualitative research. Western Journal of Nursing Research 16, 310–316. Pearse S. & Richardson A. (1996) Fatigue in cancer: a phenomenological perspective. European Journal of Cancer Care 5, 111–115. Plevris J.N. & Blair C. (1997) Chronic fatigue is associated with increased interleukin-6 levels in patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatology 26(Suppl. 2), 583A. Portenoy E.K. & Itri L.M. (1999) Cancer-related fatigue: guidelines for evaluation and management. Oncologist 4(1), 1–10. Price J.R. & Couper J. (2001) Cognitive behaviour therapy for adults with chronic fatigue syndrome. The Cochrane Library (Oxford), 4. Prince M., Ashley D., Edwards N., Mitchison H., Bramble M., James O. & Jones. D. (1999) Fatigue significantly impairs the quality of life of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology 30, 1613. Ream E. & Richardson A. (1997) Fatigue in patients with cancer and chronic obstructive airways disease: a phenomenological enquiry. International Journal of Nursing Studies 34, 44–53. Ream E. & Richardson A. (1999) Continuing education. From theory to practice: designing interventions to reduce fatigue in patients with cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum 26(8), 1295–1305. Rose L., Pugh L.C., Lears K. & Gordon D.L. (1998) The fatigue experience: persons with HIV infection. Journal of Advanced Nursing 28, 295–304. Schaefer K. & Potylcycki M. (1993) Fatigue associated with congestive heart failure: use of. Levine’s Conservation model. Journal of Advanced Nursing 18, 260–268. Shakil A.O., Conry-Contilena C., Alec H.J., Hayaski P., Kleiner D.E., Tedeschni V. & Krawczynski K. (1995) Volunteer blood donors with antibody to hepatitis C virus. Clinical, biochemical, virologic and histologic features. Annals of Internal Medicine 123, 330–337. Silverman D. (1993) Interpreting Qualitative Data: Methods for Analysing Talk, Text and Interaction. Sage Publications, London. Small S. & Lamb M. (1999) Fatigue in chronic illness: the experience of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and with asthma. Journal of Advanced Nursing 30, 469–478. Clinical nursing related to specific disorders The nature of hepatitis C fatigue 251 2003 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 12, 244–252 Spray G. (1998) Blood, Sweat and Tears. The Hepatitis C Scandal. Wolfhound Press, Dublin. Strader D.B. & Seeff L.B. (1996) The natural history of chronic hepatitis infection. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 8, 324–328. Strauss A.L. & Corbin J. (1990) Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. Sage Publications, Inc., Newbury Park, CA. Swain M.G. & Maric M. (1995) Defective corticotropin-releasing hormone mediated neuroendocrine and behavioural responses in cholestatic rats: implications for cholestatic liver disease-related sickness behaviour. Hepatology 22, 1560–1564. Swain M.G. & Maric M. (1997) Improvement in cholestasis associated fatigue with a serotonin receptor agonist using a novel rat model of fatigue assessment. Hepatology 25, 291–294. Tanguy G., Remy A.-J., Hyrailles V., Daures J.-P. & Larrey D. (1999) Effects of antiviral treatment on the quality of life in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 30, 1902. Tiesinga L.J., Dassen T.W.N., Halfens R.J.G. & van den Heuvel W.J.A. (1999) Factors related to fatigue: priority of interventions to reduce or eliminate fatigue and the exploration of a multidisciplinary research model for further study of fatigue. International Journal of Nursing Studies 36(4), 265–280. Tong M.J., El-Ferra N.S. & Reikes A.R. (1995) Clinical outcomes after transfusion associated hepatitis C. New England Journal of Medicine 332, 1463–1466. Wessely S., Hotopf M. & Sharpe M. (1998) Chronic Fatigue and its Syndromes. Oxford University Press, Oxford. World Health Organisation (1997) WHO Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) 74(46), 341–349. Younossi Z.M., O’Neil M., Kiwi M.L., Rosian R., Larive B. & Calabrese L. (1998) Hepatitis C: health-related quality of life, rheumatologic, virologic and histologic outcomes. Gastroenterology 114, L0704.

PY - 2003

Y1 - 2003

N2 - • Hepatitis C affects approximately 3% of the world population, with fatiguebeing acknowledged as the cardinal symptom. Despite growing recognition thathepatitis C fatigue impacts in a negative manner on quality of life, at the time ofthis study no empirical information existed regarding the nature of this fatigue orthe way in which it affects a person’s life. Such information is needed to enablenurses to engage in appropriate sensitive symptom management which is the corenursing activity with this population, as to date there is no vaccine or widelyeffective pharmacological therapy.• The aim of the study was to ascertain the nature of hepatitis C fatigue.• A qualitative approach using a grounded theory approach was employed.Theoretical sampling generated 28 participants for in-depth interview. Dataanalysis consisted of three coding processes, each type of coding having its ownpurpose and method. Ethical approval was obtained, both from the principalauthor’s academic institution and the participating health care institution.• Hepatitis C fatigue emerged as being multidimensional in nature, with bothacute and chronic versions existing.• The hepatology community is beginning to acknowledge the significantprevalence of hepatitis C fatigue. This study provides a valuable insight into itsnature. This information can serve as resource for practitioners in theirdevelopment of interventions to enable the hepatitis C virus population live withfatigue in a proactive manner.

AB - • Hepatitis C affects approximately 3% of the world population, with fatiguebeing acknowledged as the cardinal symptom. Despite growing recognition thathepatitis C fatigue impacts in a negative manner on quality of life, at the time ofthis study no empirical information existed regarding the nature of this fatigue orthe way in which it affects a person’s life. Such information is needed to enablenurses to engage in appropriate sensitive symptom management which is the corenursing activity with this population, as to date there is no vaccine or widelyeffective pharmacological therapy.• The aim of the study was to ascertain the nature of hepatitis C fatigue.• A qualitative approach using a grounded theory approach was employed.Theoretical sampling generated 28 participants for in-depth interview. Dataanalysis consisted of three coding processes, each type of coding having its ownpurpose and method. Ethical approval was obtained, both from the principalauthor’s academic institution and the participating health care institution.• Hepatitis C fatigue emerged as being multidimensional in nature, with bothacute and chronic versions existing.• The hepatology community is beginning to acknowledge the significantprevalence of hepatitis C fatigue. This study provides a valuable insight into itsnature. This information can serve as resource for practitioners in theirdevelopment of interventions to enable the hepatitis C virus population live withfatigue in a proactive manner.

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