The effects of suspension particle size on the performance of air-jet, ultrasonic and vibrating-mesh nebulisers

Mohammad Najlah, Ishrat Parveen, Mohamed Alhnan, Waqar Ahmed, Ahmed Faheem, David Phoenix, Kevin Taylor, Abdelbary Elhissi

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    23 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Using latex microspheres as model suspensions, the influence of suspension particle size (1, 4.5 and10 m) on the properties of aerosols produced using Pari LC Sprint (air-jet), Polygreen (ultrasonic),Aeroneb Pro (actively vibrating-mesh) and Omron MicroAir NE-U22 (passively vibrating-mesh) nebulisers was investigated. The performance of the Pari nebuliser was independent of latex spheres particle size. For both Polygreen and Aeroneb Pro nebulizers, total aerosol output increased when the size oflatex spheres increased, with highest fine particle fraction (FPF) values being recorded. However, fol-lowing nebulisation of 1 or 4.5 m suspensions with the Polygreen device, no particles were detected in the aerosols deposited in a two-stage impinger, suggesting that the aerosols generated from this deviceconsisted mainly of the continuous phase while the dispersed microspheres were excluded and remained in the nebuliser. The Omron nebuliser efficiently nebulised the 1 m latex spheres, with high output rate and no particle aggregation. However, this device functioned inefficiently when delivering 4.5 or 10 msuspensions, which was attributed to the mild vibrations of its mesh and/or the blockage of the meshapertures by the microspheres. The Aeroneb Pro fragmented latex spheres into smaller particles, butuncontrolled aggregation occurred upon nebulisation. This study has shown that the design of the neb-uliser influenced the aerosol properties using latex spheres as model suspensions. Moreover, for the recently marketed mesh nebulisers, the performance of the Aeroneb Pro device was less dependent onparticle size of the suspension compared with the Omron MicroAir nebuliser.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages234-241
    JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
    Volume461
    Issue number1-2
    Early online date22 Nov 2013
    DOIs
    Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 22 Nov 2013

    Fingerprint

    Nebulizers and Vaporizers
    Microspheres
    Particle Size
    Ultrasonics
    Suspensions
    Air
    Aerosols
    Equipment and Supplies
    Latex
    Vibration

    Keywords

    • Aerosol Latex sphereNebuliser Two-stage impinger Vibrating-mesh

    Cite this

    Najlah, M., Parveen, I., Alhnan, M., Ahmed, W., Faheem, A., Phoenix, D., ... Elhissi, A. (2013). The effects of suspension particle size on the performance of air-jet, ultrasonic and vibrating-mesh nebulisers. 461(1-2), 234-241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2013.11.022
    Najlah, Mohammad ; Parveen, Ishrat ; Alhnan, Mohamed ; Ahmed, Waqar ; Faheem, Ahmed ; Phoenix, David ; Taylor, Kevin ; Elhissi, Abdelbary. / The effects of suspension particle size on the performance of air-jet, ultrasonic and vibrating-mesh nebulisers. 2013 ; Vol. 461, No. 1-2. pp. 234-241.
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    title = "The effects of suspension particle size on the performance of air-jet, ultrasonic and vibrating-mesh nebulisers",
    abstract = "Using latex microspheres as model suspensions, the influence of suspension particle size (1, 4.5 and10 m) on the properties of aerosols produced using Pari LC Sprint (air-jet), Polygreen (ultrasonic),Aeroneb Pro (actively vibrating-mesh) and Omron MicroAir NE-U22 (passively vibrating-mesh) nebulisers was investigated. The performance of the Pari nebuliser was independent of latex spheres particle size. For both Polygreen and Aeroneb Pro nebulizers, total aerosol output increased when the size oflatex spheres increased, with highest fine particle fraction (FPF) values being recorded. However, fol-lowing nebulisation of 1 or 4.5 m suspensions with the Polygreen device, no particles were detected in the aerosols deposited in a two-stage impinger, suggesting that the aerosols generated from this deviceconsisted mainly of the continuous phase while the dispersed microspheres were excluded and remained in the nebuliser. The Omron nebuliser efficiently nebulised the 1 m latex spheres, with high output rate and no particle aggregation. However, this device functioned inefficiently when delivering 4.5 or 10 msuspensions, which was attributed to the mild vibrations of its mesh and/or the blockage of the meshapertures by the microspheres. The Aeroneb Pro fragmented latex spheres into smaller particles, butuncontrolled aggregation occurred upon nebulisation. This study has shown that the design of the neb-uliser influenced the aerosol properties using latex spheres as model suspensions. Moreover, for the recently marketed mesh nebulisers, the performance of the Aeroneb Pro device was less dependent onparticle size of the suspension compared with the Omron MicroAir nebuliser.",
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    author = "Mohammad Najlah and Ishrat Parveen and Mohamed Alhnan and Waqar Ahmed and Ahmed Faheem and David Phoenix and Kevin Taylor and Abdelbary Elhissi",
    note = "Reference text: Aboudan, M.M., Waldrep, C., Dhand, R., 2004. Comparison of vibrating aperture platenebulizer with standard jet nebulizer using aqueous and liposomal albuterolformulations. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 169, A. Amani, A., York, P., Chrystyn, H., Clark, B.J., 2010. Evaluation of nanoemulsion-basedformulation for respiratory delivery of budesonide by nebulizers. AAPS Pharm.Sci. Tech. 11, 1147–1151. Beck-Broichsitter, M., Kleimann, P., Schmehl, T., Betz, T., Bakowsky, U., Kissel, T.,Seeger, W., 2012. Impact of lyoprotectants for the stabilization of biodegrad-able nanoparticles on the performance of air-jet, ultrasonic, and vibrating-meshnebulizers. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 82, 272–280. Carvalho, T.C., McCook, J.P., Narain, N.R., McConville, J.T., 2013. Development andcharacterization of phospholipid-stablized submicron aqueous dispersions ofcoenzyme Q10 presenting continuous vibrating-mesh nebulization perfor-mance. J. Liposome Res. 23, 276–290. Clark, A.R., 1995. The use of laser diffraction for the evaluation of the aerosol cloudsgenerated by medical nebulizers. Int. J. Pharm. 115, 69–78. Dahlback, M., 1994. Behavior of nebulizing solutions and suspensions. J. AerosolMed. 7 (Suppl 1), S13–S18. Dailey, L.A., Schmehl, T., Gessler, T., Wittmar, M., Grimminger, F., Seeger, W., Kissel,T., 2003. Nebulization of biodegradable nanoparticles: impact of nebulizer tech-nology and nanoparticle characteristics on aerosol features. J. Controlled Release86, 131–144. Davis, S.S., Elson, G., Whitmore, J., 1978. Physico-chemical studies on aerosolsolutions for drug-delivery. I. Water–propylene glycol–ethanol systems. Int. J.Pharm. 1, 71–83. Dhand, R., 2002. Nebulizers that use a vibrating mesh or plate with multiple aper-tures to generate aerosol. Respir. Care 47, 1406–1416, discussion 1416-1408. De Andrade, A.D., Galindo-Filho, V., Ramos, M.E., Barbosa, A., Brand{\~a}o, S., Fink,J., 2012. Pulmonary radioaerosol deposition using mesh and jet nebulizersin healthy normals during noninvasive ventilation. Respir. Care, Open forumabstract. Elhissi, A.M.A., Brar, J., Roberts, S.A., Taylor, K.M.G., 2005. Enhanced fine particledose of nebulised salbutamol sulphate using a proliposome approach. J. Pharm.Pharmacol. 57, S54. Elhissi, A.M.A., Taylor, K.M.G., 2005. Delivery of liposomes generated from prolipo-somes using air-jet, ultrasonic and vibrating-mesh nebulisers. J. Drug Deliv. Sci.Technol. 15, 261–265. Elhissi, A., Karnam, K.K., Danesh-Azari, M.R., Gill, H.S., Taylor, K.M.G., 2006. For-mulations generated from ethanol-based proliposomes for delivery via medicalnebulizers. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 58, 887–894. Elhissi, A., Faizi, M., Naji, W.F., Gill, H.S., Taylor, K.M.G., 2007. Physical stability andaerosol properties of liposomes delivered using an air-jet nebulizer and a novelmicropump device with large mesh apertures. Int. J. Pharm. 334, 62–70. Elhissi, A., Gill, H., Ahmed, W., Taylor, K.M.G., 2011. Vibrating-mesh nebulization ofliposomes generated using an ethanol-based proliposome technology. J. Lipo-some Res. 21, 173–180. Elhissi, A., Ahmed, W., Taylor, K.M.G., 2012. Laser diffraction and electron microscopystudies on inhalable liposomes generated from particulate-based proliposomeswithin a medical nebulizer. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12, 6693–6699. Fink, J.B., Simmons, B.S., 2004. Nebulisation of steroid suspensions: an in vitro eval-uation of the Aeroneb Go and Pari LC Plus nebulisers. Chest 126, 816. Ghazanfari, T., Elhissi, A.M., Ding, Z., Taylor, K.M.G., 2007. The influence of fluidphysicochemical properties on vibrating-mesh nebulization. Int. J. Pharm. 339,103–111. Hallworth, G.W., Westmoreland, D.G., 1987. The twin impinger: a simple device forassessing the delivery of drugs from metered dose pressurized aerosol inhalers.J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 39, 966–972. Hess, D.R., 2000. Nebulizers: principles and performance. Respir. Care 45, 609–622.Kleemann, E., Schmehl, T., Gessler, T., Bakowsky, U., Kissel, T., Seeger, W., 2007.Iloprost-containing liposomes for aerosol application in pulmonary arterialhypertension: formulation aspects and stability. Pharm. Res. 24, 277–287. Labiris, N.R., Dolovich, M.B., 2003. Pulmonary drug delivery. Part I: physiologicalfactors affecting therapeutic effectiveness of aerosolized medications. Br. J. Clin.Pharmacol. 56, 588–599. Leung, K.K.M., Bridges, P.A., Taylor, K.M.G., 1996. The stability of liposomes to ultra-sonic nebulisation. Int. J. Pharm. 145, 95–102. Luckham, P.F., Ukeje, M.A., 1999. Effect of particle size distribution on the rheologyof dispersed system. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 220, 347–356. Luo, Y., Zhai, X., Ma, C., Sun, P., Fu, Z., Liu, W., Xu, J., 2012. An inhalable2-adrenoceptor ligand-directed guanidinylated chitosan carrier for targeteddelivery of siRNA to lung. J. Control. Release 162, 28–36. Maillet, A., Congy-Jolivet, N., Le Guellec, S., Vecellio, L., Hamard, S., Court, Y., Courtois,A., Gauthier, F., Diot, P., Thibault, G., Lemari{\'e}, E., Heuz{\'e}-Vourc’h, N., 2008. Aero-dynamical, immunological and pharmacological properties of the anticancerantibody cetuximab following nebulization. Pharm. Res. 25, 1318–1326. McCallion, O.N.M., Taylor, K.M.G., Thomas, M., Taylor, A.J., 1996. Nebulisation ofmonodisperse latex sphere suspensions in air jet and ultrasonic nebulisers. Int.J. Pharm. 133, 203–214. McCallion, O.N.M., Taylor, K.M.G., 2002. In: Swarbrick, J., Boylan, J.C. (Eds.), Ency-clopaedia of Pharmaceutical Technology. , 2nd ed, pp. 2840–2847. Najlah, M., Vali, A., Taylor, M., Arafat, B.T., Ahmed, W., Phoenix, D.A., Taylor, K.M.G.,Elhissi, A., 2013. A study of the effects of sodium halides on the performance ofair-jet and vibrating-mesh nebulizers. Int. J. Pharm. 456, 520–527. Nerbrink, O., Dahlback, M., Hansson, H.C., 1994. Why do medical nebulizers differ intheir output and particle size characteristics? J. Aerosol Med. 7, 259–276. Newman, S., Gee-Turner, A., 2005. The Omron MicroAir vibrating-mesh technologynebuliser, a 21st century approach to inhalation therapy. J. Appl. Ther. Res. 5,29–33. Nikander, K., Turpeinen, M., Wollmer, P., 1999. The conventional ultrasonic neb-ulizer proved inefficient in nebulizing a suspension. J. Aerosol Med. 12,47–53. Niven, R.W., Ip, A.Y., Mittelman, S., Prestrelski, S.J., Arakawa, T., 1995. Some factorsassociated with the ultrasonic nebulization of proteins. Pharm. Res. 12, 53–59.O’Callaghan, C., Barry, P.W., 1997. The science of nebulised drug delivery. Thorax 52(Suppl 2), S31–S44. Stahlhofen, W., Gebhart, J., Heyder, J., 1980. Experimental determination of theregional deposition of aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract. Am. Ind.Hyg. Assoc. J. 41, 385–398. Tronde, A., Norden, B., Marchner, H., Wendel, A.K., Lennernas, H., Bengtsson, U.H.,2003. Pulmonary absorption rate and bioavailability of drugs in vivo in rats:structure–absorption relationships and physicochemical profiling of inhaleddrugs. J. Pharm. Sci. 92, 1216–1233. Watts, A.B., McConville, J.T., Williams, R.O., 2008. Current therapies and techno-logical advances in aqueous aerosol drug delivery. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 34,913–922. Yoshiyama, Y., Yazaki, T., Arai, M., Asai, K., Kanke, M., 2002. The nebulization ofbudesonide suspensions by a newly designed mesh nebulizer. Res. Drug Deliv.VIII, 487–489.",
    year = "2013",
    month = "11",
    day = "22",
    doi = "10.1016/j.ijpharm.2013.11.022",
    language = "English",
    volume = "461",
    pages = "234--241",
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    }

    Najlah, M, Parveen, I, Alhnan, M, Ahmed, W, Faheem, A, Phoenix, D, Taylor, K & Elhissi, A 2013, 'The effects of suspension particle size on the performance of air-jet, ultrasonic and vibrating-mesh nebulisers', vol. 461, no. 1-2, pp. 234-241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2013.11.022

    The effects of suspension particle size on the performance of air-jet, ultrasonic and vibrating-mesh nebulisers. / Najlah, Mohammad; Parveen, Ishrat; Alhnan, Mohamed; Ahmed, Waqar; Faheem, Ahmed; Phoenix, David; Taylor, Kevin; Elhissi, Abdelbary.

    Vol. 461, No. 1-2, 22.11.2013, p. 234-241.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The effects of suspension particle size on the performance of air-jet, ultrasonic and vibrating-mesh nebulisers

    AU - Najlah, Mohammad

    AU - Parveen, Ishrat

    AU - Alhnan, Mohamed

    AU - Ahmed, Waqar

    AU - Faheem, Ahmed

    AU - Phoenix, David

    AU - Taylor, Kevin

    AU - Elhissi, Abdelbary

    N1 - Reference text: Aboudan, M.M., Waldrep, C., Dhand, R., 2004. Comparison of vibrating aperture platenebulizer with standard jet nebulizer using aqueous and liposomal albuterolformulations. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 169, A. Amani, A., York, P., Chrystyn, H., Clark, B.J., 2010. Evaluation of nanoemulsion-basedformulation for respiratory delivery of budesonide by nebulizers. AAPS Pharm.Sci. Tech. 11, 1147–1151. Beck-Broichsitter, M., Kleimann, P., Schmehl, T., Betz, T., Bakowsky, U., Kissel, T.,Seeger, W., 2012. Impact of lyoprotectants for the stabilization of biodegrad-able nanoparticles on the performance of air-jet, ultrasonic, and vibrating-meshnebulizers. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 82, 272–280. Carvalho, T.C., McCook, J.P., Narain, N.R., McConville, J.T., 2013. Development andcharacterization of phospholipid-stablized submicron aqueous dispersions ofcoenzyme Q10 presenting continuous vibrating-mesh nebulization perfor-mance. J. Liposome Res. 23, 276–290. Clark, A.R., 1995. The use of laser diffraction for the evaluation of the aerosol cloudsgenerated by medical nebulizers. Int. J. Pharm. 115, 69–78. Dahlback, M., 1994. Behavior of nebulizing solutions and suspensions. J. AerosolMed. 7 (Suppl 1), S13–S18. Dailey, L.A., Schmehl, T., Gessler, T., Wittmar, M., Grimminger, F., Seeger, W., Kissel,T., 2003. Nebulization of biodegradable nanoparticles: impact of nebulizer tech-nology and nanoparticle characteristics on aerosol features. J. Controlled Release86, 131–144. Davis, S.S., Elson, G., Whitmore, J., 1978. Physico-chemical studies on aerosolsolutions for drug-delivery. I. Water–propylene glycol–ethanol systems. Int. J.Pharm. 1, 71–83. Dhand, R., 2002. Nebulizers that use a vibrating mesh or plate with multiple aper-tures to generate aerosol. Respir. Care 47, 1406–1416, discussion 1416-1408. De Andrade, A.D., Galindo-Filho, V., Ramos, M.E., Barbosa, A., Brandão, S., Fink,J., 2012. Pulmonary radioaerosol deposition using mesh and jet nebulizersin healthy normals during noninvasive ventilation. Respir. Care, Open forumabstract. Elhissi, A.M.A., Brar, J., Roberts, S.A., Taylor, K.M.G., 2005. Enhanced fine particledose of nebulised salbutamol sulphate using a proliposome approach. J. Pharm.Pharmacol. 57, S54. Elhissi, A.M.A., Taylor, K.M.G., 2005. Delivery of liposomes generated from prolipo-somes using air-jet, ultrasonic and vibrating-mesh nebulisers. J. Drug Deliv. Sci.Technol. 15, 261–265. Elhissi, A., Karnam, K.K., Danesh-Azari, M.R., Gill, H.S., Taylor, K.M.G., 2006. For-mulations generated from ethanol-based proliposomes for delivery via medicalnebulizers. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 58, 887–894. Elhissi, A., Faizi, M., Naji, W.F., Gill, H.S., Taylor, K.M.G., 2007. Physical stability andaerosol properties of liposomes delivered using an air-jet nebulizer and a novelmicropump device with large mesh apertures. Int. J. Pharm. 334, 62–70. Elhissi, A., Gill, H., Ahmed, W., Taylor, K.M.G., 2011. Vibrating-mesh nebulization ofliposomes generated using an ethanol-based proliposome technology. J. Lipo-some Res. 21, 173–180. Elhissi, A., Ahmed, W., Taylor, K.M.G., 2012. Laser diffraction and electron microscopystudies on inhalable liposomes generated from particulate-based proliposomeswithin a medical nebulizer. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 12, 6693–6699. Fink, J.B., Simmons, B.S., 2004. Nebulisation of steroid suspensions: an in vitro eval-uation of the Aeroneb Go and Pari LC Plus nebulisers. Chest 126, 816. Ghazanfari, T., Elhissi, A.M., Ding, Z., Taylor, K.M.G., 2007. The influence of fluidphysicochemical properties on vibrating-mesh nebulization. Int. J. Pharm. 339,103–111. Hallworth, G.W., Westmoreland, D.G., 1987. The twin impinger: a simple device forassessing the delivery of drugs from metered dose pressurized aerosol inhalers.J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 39, 966–972. Hess, D.R., 2000. Nebulizers: principles and performance. Respir. Care 45, 609–622.Kleemann, E., Schmehl, T., Gessler, T., Bakowsky, U., Kissel, T., Seeger, W., 2007.Iloprost-containing liposomes for aerosol application in pulmonary arterialhypertension: formulation aspects and stability. Pharm. Res. 24, 277–287. Labiris, N.R., Dolovich, M.B., 2003. Pulmonary drug delivery. Part I: physiologicalfactors affecting therapeutic effectiveness of aerosolized medications. Br. J. Clin.Pharmacol. 56, 588–599. Leung, K.K.M., Bridges, P.A., Taylor, K.M.G., 1996. The stability of liposomes to ultra-sonic nebulisation. Int. J. Pharm. 145, 95–102. Luckham, P.F., Ukeje, M.A., 1999. Effect of particle size distribution on the rheologyof dispersed system. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 220, 347–356. Luo, Y., Zhai, X., Ma, C., Sun, P., Fu, Z., Liu, W., Xu, J., 2012. An inhalable2-adrenoceptor ligand-directed guanidinylated chitosan carrier for targeteddelivery of siRNA to lung. J. Control. Release 162, 28–36. Maillet, A., Congy-Jolivet, N., Le Guellec, S., Vecellio, L., Hamard, S., Court, Y., Courtois,A., Gauthier, F., Diot, P., Thibault, G., Lemarié, E., Heuzé-Vourc’h, N., 2008. Aero-dynamical, immunological and pharmacological properties of the anticancerantibody cetuximab following nebulization. Pharm. Res. 25, 1318–1326. McCallion, O.N.M., Taylor, K.M.G., Thomas, M., Taylor, A.J., 1996. Nebulisation ofmonodisperse latex sphere suspensions in air jet and ultrasonic nebulisers. Int.J. Pharm. 133, 203–214. McCallion, O.N.M., Taylor, K.M.G., 2002. In: Swarbrick, J., Boylan, J.C. (Eds.), Ency-clopaedia of Pharmaceutical Technology. , 2nd ed, pp. 2840–2847. Najlah, M., Vali, A., Taylor, M., Arafat, B.T., Ahmed, W., Phoenix, D.A., Taylor, K.M.G.,Elhissi, A., 2013. A study of the effects of sodium halides on the performance ofair-jet and vibrating-mesh nebulizers. Int. J. Pharm. 456, 520–527. Nerbrink, O., Dahlback, M., Hansson, H.C., 1994. Why do medical nebulizers differ intheir output and particle size characteristics? J. Aerosol Med. 7, 259–276. Newman, S., Gee-Turner, A., 2005. The Omron MicroAir vibrating-mesh technologynebuliser, a 21st century approach to inhalation therapy. J. Appl. Ther. Res. 5,29–33. Nikander, K., Turpeinen, M., Wollmer, P., 1999. The conventional ultrasonic neb-ulizer proved inefficient in nebulizing a suspension. J. Aerosol Med. 12,47–53. Niven, R.W., Ip, A.Y., Mittelman, S., Prestrelski, S.J., Arakawa, T., 1995. Some factorsassociated with the ultrasonic nebulization of proteins. Pharm. Res. 12, 53–59.O’Callaghan, C., Barry, P.W., 1997. The science of nebulised drug delivery. Thorax 52(Suppl 2), S31–S44. Stahlhofen, W., Gebhart, J., Heyder, J., 1980. Experimental determination of theregional deposition of aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract. Am. Ind.Hyg. Assoc. J. 41, 385–398. Tronde, A., Norden, B., Marchner, H., Wendel, A.K., Lennernas, H., Bengtsson, U.H.,2003. Pulmonary absorption rate and bioavailability of drugs in vivo in rats:structure–absorption relationships and physicochemical profiling of inhaleddrugs. J. Pharm. Sci. 92, 1216–1233. Watts, A.B., McConville, J.T., Williams, R.O., 2008. Current therapies and techno-logical advances in aqueous aerosol drug delivery. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 34,913–922. Yoshiyama, Y., Yazaki, T., Arai, M., Asai, K., Kanke, M., 2002. The nebulization ofbudesonide suspensions by a newly designed mesh nebulizer. Res. Drug Deliv.VIII, 487–489.

    PY - 2013/11/22

    Y1 - 2013/11/22

    N2 - Using latex microspheres as model suspensions, the influence of suspension particle size (1, 4.5 and10 m) on the properties of aerosols produced using Pari LC Sprint (air-jet), Polygreen (ultrasonic),Aeroneb Pro (actively vibrating-mesh) and Omron MicroAir NE-U22 (passively vibrating-mesh) nebulisers was investigated. The performance of the Pari nebuliser was independent of latex spheres particle size. For both Polygreen and Aeroneb Pro nebulizers, total aerosol output increased when the size oflatex spheres increased, with highest fine particle fraction (FPF) values being recorded. However, fol-lowing nebulisation of 1 or 4.5 m suspensions with the Polygreen device, no particles were detected in the aerosols deposited in a two-stage impinger, suggesting that the aerosols generated from this deviceconsisted mainly of the continuous phase while the dispersed microspheres were excluded and remained in the nebuliser. The Omron nebuliser efficiently nebulised the 1 m latex spheres, with high output rate and no particle aggregation. However, this device functioned inefficiently when delivering 4.5 or 10 msuspensions, which was attributed to the mild vibrations of its mesh and/or the blockage of the meshapertures by the microspheres. The Aeroneb Pro fragmented latex spheres into smaller particles, butuncontrolled aggregation occurred upon nebulisation. This study has shown that the design of the neb-uliser influenced the aerosol properties using latex spheres as model suspensions. Moreover, for the recently marketed mesh nebulisers, the performance of the Aeroneb Pro device was less dependent onparticle size of the suspension compared with the Omron MicroAir nebuliser.

    AB - Using latex microspheres as model suspensions, the influence of suspension particle size (1, 4.5 and10 m) on the properties of aerosols produced using Pari LC Sprint (air-jet), Polygreen (ultrasonic),Aeroneb Pro (actively vibrating-mesh) and Omron MicroAir NE-U22 (passively vibrating-mesh) nebulisers was investigated. The performance of the Pari nebuliser was independent of latex spheres particle size. For both Polygreen and Aeroneb Pro nebulizers, total aerosol output increased when the size oflatex spheres increased, with highest fine particle fraction (FPF) values being recorded. However, fol-lowing nebulisation of 1 or 4.5 m suspensions with the Polygreen device, no particles were detected in the aerosols deposited in a two-stage impinger, suggesting that the aerosols generated from this deviceconsisted mainly of the continuous phase while the dispersed microspheres were excluded and remained in the nebuliser. The Omron nebuliser efficiently nebulised the 1 m latex spheres, with high output rate and no particle aggregation. However, this device functioned inefficiently when delivering 4.5 or 10 msuspensions, which was attributed to the mild vibrations of its mesh and/or the blockage of the meshapertures by the microspheres. The Aeroneb Pro fragmented latex spheres into smaller particles, butuncontrolled aggregation occurred upon nebulisation. This study has shown that the design of the neb-uliser influenced the aerosol properties using latex spheres as model suspensions. Moreover, for the recently marketed mesh nebulisers, the performance of the Aeroneb Pro device was less dependent onparticle size of the suspension compared with the Omron MicroAir nebuliser.

    KW - Aerosol Latex sphereNebuliser Two-stage impinger Vibrating-mesh

    U2 - 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2013.11.022

    DO - 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2013.11.022

    M3 - Article

    VL - 461

    SP - 234

    EP - 241

    IS - 1-2

    ER -