The effects of long-term exposure to high temperatures on the ILSS and impact performance of carbon fibre reinforced bismaleimide

M Akay, GR Spratt, BJ Meenan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

52 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Carbon fibre composite materials with high temperature bismaleimide resin systems as the matrix component are currently being used on structures for both military and civilian aircraft. A major concern with these materials is the effect of long-term exposure to service environments on their physical and mechanical properties. A carbon fibre reinforced bismaleimide composite was evaluated to determine the effect of fibre type and exposure to a high temperature environment on its interlaminar-shear strength and impact performance. Interlaminar shear and Charpy notched impact specimens were prepared, aged for certain periods of time at three different temperatures in air-circulating ovens and tested. The results reflected the degradation of matrix and the fibre-matrix interface with ageing, accordingly the interlaminar-shear strength deteriorated progressively and the failure mode of the impact specimens changed from a brittle failure in the unaged state to a progressive delamination in the aged state. Change in the impact failure modes influenced the energy dissipation characteristics of the specimens.
LanguageEnglish
Pages1053-1059
JournalComposites Science and Technology
Volume63
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2003

Fingerprint

Carbon fibers
Shear strength
Failure modes
Fibers
Composite materials
Ovens
Delamination
Temperature
Energy dissipation
Resins
Physical properties
Aging of materials
Aircraft
Degradation
Mechanical properties
Air
carbon fiber

Keywords

  • A. Polymer-matrix composites
  • A. Carbon fibres
  • Thermal ageing
  • B. Import behaviour
  • B. Interfacial strength

Cite this

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title = "The effects of long-term exposure to high temperatures on the ILSS and impact performance of carbon fibre reinforced bismaleimide",
abstract = "Carbon fibre composite materials with high temperature bismaleimide resin systems as the matrix component are currently being used on structures for both military and civilian aircraft. A major concern with these materials is the effect of long-term exposure to service environments on their physical and mechanical properties. A carbon fibre reinforced bismaleimide composite was evaluated to determine the effect of fibre type and exposure to a high temperature environment on its interlaminar-shear strength and impact performance. Interlaminar shear and Charpy notched impact specimens were prepared, aged for certain periods of time at three different temperatures in air-circulating ovens and tested. The results reflected the degradation of matrix and the fibre-matrix interface with ageing, accordingly the interlaminar-shear strength deteriorated progressively and the failure mode of the impact specimens changed from a brittle failure in the unaged state to a progressive delamination in the aged state. Change in the impact failure modes influenced the energy dissipation characteristics of the specimens.",
keywords = "A. Polymer-matrix composites, A. Carbon fibres, Thermal ageing, B. Import behaviour, B. Interfacial strength",
author = "M Akay and GR Spratt and BJ Meenan",
note = "Reference text: 1. D.A. Scola and J.H. Vontell, High temperature polyimides, chemistry and properties. Polym Compos 9 6 (1988), pp. 443–452. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (6) 2. P. Delvigs, Graphite/polyimide composites with improved toughness. Polym Compos 10 2 (1989), pp. 134–139. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (4) 3. D. Wilson, Polyimide matrix composites: candidates for high speed commercial aircraft or not. High Perform Polym 3 2 (1991), pp. 73–97. 4. T. Stevens, PMR-15 is a-OK. Mater Eng 107 10 (1990), pp. 34–38. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (4) 5. D. Wilson, PMR-15 processing, properties and problems—a review. Br Polym J. 20 5 (1988), pp. 405–416. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (49) 6. M.M. Konarski, Development of a toughened bismaleimide resin matrix for use in advanced composites. High Perform Polym 1 4 (1989), pp. 299–310. 7. Gawin I. New tough bismaleimide resin system for high performance composites. Antec 90. Plastics in the environment: yesterday, today & tomorrow. In: Conference Proceedings, Dallas, TX May 1990 [1295-9. 012 SPE]. 8. B.H. Lee, M.A. Chandhari and Y. Blyakhman, Recent developments of high performance bismaleimide resins. Polym News 13 10 (1988), pp. 297–301. 9. S. Chou, H.C. Chen and C.C. Wu, BMI resin composites reinforced with 3D carbon-fibre fabrics. Compos Sci Technol 43 (1992), pp. 117–128. Abstract | PDF (4123 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (18) 10. H. Wang, P.H. Chen and Z. Shen, Experimental studies on compression-after-impact behaviour of quasi-isotropic composite laminates. Sci Eng Compos Mater 6 1 (1997), pp. 19–35. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (2) 11. A.R. Wedgewood, K.B. Su and J.A. Narin, Toughness properties and service performance of high temperature thermoplastics and their composites. SAMPE J. 24 1 (1988), pp. 41–129. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (2) 12. Akay M, Rowney D. Influence of nett edges on the performance of carbon-fibre/epoxy laminates [ICCM/9]. In: Conference Proceedings, vol. VI, Madrid, July 1993. p. 768–77. 13. Curtis PT. CRAG test methods for the measurement of the engineering properties of fibre reinforced plastics. Royal Aerospace Establishment technical report no. TR88012, 1988. 14. Standard test method for in-plane shear strength of reinforced plastics [ASTM D 3846-94]. 15. D. Barkley and M. Akay, The design and evaluation of an instrument impact tester. Polym Testing 11 (1992), pp. 249–270. Abstract | PDF (1172 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (12) 16. M.R. Wisnom, Modelling of stable and unstable fracture of short beam shear specimens. Composites 25 6 (1994), p. 394. Abstract | PDF (671 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (7) 17. W.C. Jackson and C.C. Poe, The use of impact force as a scale parameter for the impact response of composite laminates. J Compos Technol Res. 15 4 (1993), pp. 282–289. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (41) 18. Bradshaw FJ, Dorey G, Sidney GR. The fracture of notched CFRP charpy specimens. Royal Aircraft Establishment technical report 1973 [TR72240]. 19. Chamis CC, Sinclair JH. Impact response of fibre composites: energy absorbing mechanisms and environmental effects [ASTM STP864]. In: Vinson JR, Taya M, editors. Recent advances in composites in the United States and Japan. Philadelphia; 1985. p. 326–45.",
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The effects of long-term exposure to high temperatures on the ILSS and impact performance of carbon fibre reinforced bismaleimide. / Akay, M; Spratt, GR; Meenan, BJ.

In: Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 63, No. 7, 05.2003, p. 1053-1059.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effects of long-term exposure to high temperatures on the ILSS and impact performance of carbon fibre reinforced bismaleimide

AU - Akay, M

AU - Spratt, GR

AU - Meenan, BJ

N1 - Reference text: 1. D.A. Scola and J.H. Vontell, High temperature polyimides, chemistry and properties. Polym Compos 9 6 (1988), pp. 443–452. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (6) 2. P. Delvigs, Graphite/polyimide composites with improved toughness. Polym Compos 10 2 (1989), pp. 134–139. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (4) 3. D. Wilson, Polyimide matrix composites: candidates for high speed commercial aircraft or not. High Perform Polym 3 2 (1991), pp. 73–97. 4. T. Stevens, PMR-15 is a-OK. Mater Eng 107 10 (1990), pp. 34–38. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (4) 5. D. Wilson, PMR-15 processing, properties and problems—a review. Br Polym J. 20 5 (1988), pp. 405–416. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (49) 6. M.M. Konarski, Development of a toughened bismaleimide resin matrix for use in advanced composites. High Perform Polym 1 4 (1989), pp. 299–310. 7. Gawin I. New tough bismaleimide resin system for high performance composites. Antec 90. Plastics in the environment: yesterday, today & tomorrow. In: Conference Proceedings, Dallas, TX May 1990 [1295-9. 012 SPE]. 8. B.H. Lee, M.A. Chandhari and Y. Blyakhman, Recent developments of high performance bismaleimide resins. Polym News 13 10 (1988), pp. 297–301. 9. S. Chou, H.C. Chen and C.C. Wu, BMI resin composites reinforced with 3D carbon-fibre fabrics. Compos Sci Technol 43 (1992), pp. 117–128. Abstract | PDF (4123 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (18) 10. H. Wang, P.H. Chen and Z. Shen, Experimental studies on compression-after-impact behaviour of quasi-isotropic composite laminates. Sci Eng Compos Mater 6 1 (1997), pp. 19–35. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (2) 11. A.R. Wedgewood, K.B. Su and J.A. Narin, Toughness properties and service performance of high temperature thermoplastics and their composites. SAMPE J. 24 1 (1988), pp. 41–129. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (2) 12. Akay M, Rowney D. Influence of nett edges on the performance of carbon-fibre/epoxy laminates [ICCM/9]. In: Conference Proceedings, vol. VI, Madrid, July 1993. p. 768–77. 13. Curtis PT. CRAG test methods for the measurement of the engineering properties of fibre reinforced plastics. Royal Aerospace Establishment technical report no. TR88012, 1988. 14. Standard test method for in-plane shear strength of reinforced plastics [ASTM D 3846-94]. 15. D. Barkley and M. Akay, The design and evaluation of an instrument impact tester. Polym Testing 11 (1992), pp. 249–270. Abstract | PDF (1172 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (12) 16. M.R. Wisnom, Modelling of stable and unstable fracture of short beam shear specimens. Composites 25 6 (1994), p. 394. Abstract | PDF (671 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (7) 17. W.C. Jackson and C.C. Poe, The use of impact force as a scale parameter for the impact response of composite laminates. J Compos Technol Res. 15 4 (1993), pp. 282–289. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (41) 18. Bradshaw FJ, Dorey G, Sidney GR. The fracture of notched CFRP charpy specimens. Royal Aircraft Establishment technical report 1973 [TR72240]. 19. Chamis CC, Sinclair JH. Impact response of fibre composites: energy absorbing mechanisms and environmental effects [ASTM STP864]. In: Vinson JR, Taya M, editors. Recent advances in composites in the United States and Japan. Philadelphia; 1985. p. 326–45.

PY - 2003/5

Y1 - 2003/5

N2 - Carbon fibre composite materials with high temperature bismaleimide resin systems as the matrix component are currently being used on structures for both military and civilian aircraft. A major concern with these materials is the effect of long-term exposure to service environments on their physical and mechanical properties. A carbon fibre reinforced bismaleimide composite was evaluated to determine the effect of fibre type and exposure to a high temperature environment on its interlaminar-shear strength and impact performance. Interlaminar shear and Charpy notched impact specimens were prepared, aged for certain periods of time at three different temperatures in air-circulating ovens and tested. The results reflected the degradation of matrix and the fibre-matrix interface with ageing, accordingly the interlaminar-shear strength deteriorated progressively and the failure mode of the impact specimens changed from a brittle failure in the unaged state to a progressive delamination in the aged state. Change in the impact failure modes influenced the energy dissipation characteristics of the specimens.

AB - Carbon fibre composite materials with high temperature bismaleimide resin systems as the matrix component are currently being used on structures for both military and civilian aircraft. A major concern with these materials is the effect of long-term exposure to service environments on their physical and mechanical properties. A carbon fibre reinforced bismaleimide composite was evaluated to determine the effect of fibre type and exposure to a high temperature environment on its interlaminar-shear strength and impact performance. Interlaminar shear and Charpy notched impact specimens were prepared, aged for certain periods of time at three different temperatures in air-circulating ovens and tested. The results reflected the degradation of matrix and the fibre-matrix interface with ageing, accordingly the interlaminar-shear strength deteriorated progressively and the failure mode of the impact specimens changed from a brittle failure in the unaged state to a progressive delamination in the aged state. Change in the impact failure modes influenced the energy dissipation characteristics of the specimens.

KW - A. Polymer-matrix composites

KW - A. Carbon fibres

KW - Thermal ageing

KW - B. Import behaviour

KW - B. Interfacial strength

U2 - 10.1016/S0266-3538(03)00018-6

DO - 10.1016/S0266-3538(03)00018-6

M3 - Article

VL - 63

SP - 1053

EP - 1059

JO - Composites Science and Technology

T2 - Composites Science and Technology

JF - Composites Science and Technology

SN - 0266-3538

IS - 7

ER -