PURPOSEPalmaria palmata (P. Palmata) is reported to contain anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds albeit no study has investigated these effects in humans.METHODSA randomised parallel placebo-controlled human intervention study was carried out to investigate the effect of consuming P. Palmata (5 g/day) incorporated into a bread on serum markers of inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP); cytokine analysis] with secondary analysis investigating changes in lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides), thyroid function [thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)] and antioxidant status ferric reducing antioxidant power. ANCOVA with baseline values as covariates, controlling for age, BMI, sex and smoking status, was used to compare differences between treatment groups over time . In vitro studies investigated the inflammatory activity of P. Palmata extracts (hot water, cold water and ethanol extract), protein extracts and associated protein hydrolysates using a Caco-2 inflammation cell model.RESULTSConsumption of P. Palmata-enriched bread significantly increased serum CRP (+16.1 %, P = 0.011), triglycerides (+31.9 %, P = 0.001) and TSH (+17.2 %, P = 0.017) when compared to the control group. In vitro evaluation of P. palmata extracts and protein hydrolysates identified a significant induction of IL-8 secretion by Caco-2 cells, and the hot water P. palmata extract was shown to increase adipocyte glycerol release (P <0.05).CONCLUSIONEvidence from this human study suggests that P. palmata stimulates inflammation, increases serum triglycerides and alters thyroid function; however, these changes are not likely to impact health as changes remained within the normal clinical range. The data from the in vitro study provided indications that IL-8 may contribute to the apparent immunostimulation noted in the human study.
- Palmaria palmata