The effect of chemical treatments in laboratory and broiler plant studies on the microbial status and shelf-life of poultry

D J Bolton, H Meredith, D Walsh, D A McDowell

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    13 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Poultry products are highly perishable with a short shelf-life of approximately 4–5 days. Chemical treatments have the potential to inhibit microbial spoilage and extend shelf-life. Preliminary tests were carried out on broiler skin samples in the laboratory and the most promising treatments tested on carcasses in the broiler processing plant. In the laboratory, the immediate and storage (3 days at 4 °C) effect of trisodium phosphate (TSP, 10 & 14%, w/v), lactic acid (LA, 1 & 5% v/v), citric acid (CA, 1 & 5%, w/v), peroxyacids (POA, 100 & 200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC, 500 & 1,200 ppm) on TVC (mesophiles and psychrotrophs), Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts/moulds were investigated. In general, TSP and CA were the most effective immediate treatments and in the broiler processing plant, the effect of dipping and spraying carcasses with these chemicals on microbial shelf-life was examined over 15 days at 4 °C. Although a significant (P < 0.05) immediate reduction in TVC (mesophiles and psychrotrophs) was observed with TSP in the laboratory experiment, there was no further inhibition and after 3 days the treated and control samples had similar counts. The organic acids also caused a significant (P < 0.05) immediate reduction in TVC (mesophiles and psychrotrophs) but, in contrast to TSP, a mild inhibition of subsequent growth was also observed. In the processing plant, a microbial shelf-life of approximately 4 days was obtained at 4 °C on the control (water-treated) samples which was extended by 1–2 days after treatment with TSP (14%, dip) and by up to 4 days with CA (5%, dip). It was concluded that the microbial quality and microbial shelf-life of poultry may be considerably enhanced using selective chemical treatments.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages230-237
    JournalFood Control
    Volume36
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2013

    Fingerprint

    chemical treatment
    shelf life
    poultry
    psychrotrophic bacteria
    broiler chickens
    meat processing plants
    chlorites
    poultry products
    sodium phosphate
    dipping
    Enterobacteriaceae
    microbiological quality
    spoilage
    skin (animal)
    sampling
    citric acid
    molds (fungi)
    Pseudomonas
    lactic acid
    spraying

    Cite this

    Bolton, D J ; Meredith, H ; Walsh, D ; McDowell, D A. / The effect of chemical treatments in laboratory and broiler plant studies on the microbial status and shelf-life of poultry. 2013 ; Vol. 36. pp. 230-237.
    @article{020e8b3f0f4247d8abb86e019afc467b,
    title = "The effect of chemical treatments in laboratory and broiler plant studies on the microbial status and shelf-life of poultry",
    abstract = "Poultry products are highly perishable with a short shelf-life of approximately 4–5 days. Chemical treatments have the potential to inhibit microbial spoilage and extend shelf-life. Preliminary tests were carried out on broiler skin samples in the laboratory and the most promising treatments tested on carcasses in the broiler processing plant. In the laboratory, the immediate and storage (3 days at 4 °C) effect of trisodium phosphate (TSP, 10 & 14{\%}, w/v), lactic acid (LA, 1 & 5{\%} v/v), citric acid (CA, 1 & 5{\%}, w/v), peroxyacids (POA, 100 & 200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC, 500 & 1,200 ppm) on TVC (mesophiles and psychrotrophs), Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts/moulds were investigated. In general, TSP and CA were the most effective immediate treatments and in the broiler processing plant, the effect of dipping and spraying carcasses with these chemicals on microbial shelf-life was examined over 15 days at 4 °C. Although a significant (P < 0.05) immediate reduction in TVC (mesophiles and psychrotrophs) was observed with TSP in the laboratory experiment, there was no further inhibition and after 3 days the treated and control samples had similar counts. The organic acids also caused a significant (P < 0.05) immediate reduction in TVC (mesophiles and psychrotrophs) but, in contrast to TSP, a mild inhibition of subsequent growth was also observed. In the processing plant, a microbial shelf-life of approximately 4 days was obtained at 4 °C on the control (water-treated) samples which was extended by 1–2 days after treatment with TSP (14{\%}, dip) and by up to 4 days with CA (5{\%}, dip). It was concluded that the microbial quality and microbial shelf-life of poultry may be considerably enhanced using selective chemical treatments.",
    author = "Bolton, {D J} and H Meredith and D Walsh and McDowell, {D A}",
    note = "Reference text: Alonso-Calleja, C., Mart{\'i}nez-Fern{\'a}ndez, B., Prieto, M., & Capita, R. (2004). Microbiological quality of vacuum-packed retail ostrich meat in Spain. Food Microbiology, 21, 241e246. {\'A}lvarez-Astorga, M., Capita, R., Alonso-Calleja, C., Moreno, B., & Garc{\'i}a- Fern{\'a}ndez, M. C. (2002). Microbiological quality of retail chicken by-products in Spain. Meat Science, 62, 45e50. Bin Jasass, F. (2008). Effectiveness of trisodium phosphate, lactic acid, and acetic acid in reduction of E. coli and microbial load on chicken surfaces. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 2, 50e55. Burfoot, D., & Mulvey, E. (2011). Reducing microbial counts on chicken and turkey carcasses using lactic acid. Food Control, 22, 1729e1735. Capita, R., Alonson-Calleja, C., Garcia-Arias, M. T., Moreno, B., & del Camino Garcia-Fernandez, M. C. (2000). Effect of trisodium phosphate on mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacterial flora attached to the skin of chicken carcasses during refrigerated storage. Food Science and Technology International, 6(4), 345e350. Charles, N., Williams, S. K., & Rodrick, G. E. (2006). Effects of packaging systems on the natural microflora and acceptability of chicken breast meat. Poultry Science, 85, 1798e1801. Coppen, P. S., Fenner, S., & Salvat, G. (1998). Antimicrobial efficacy of AvGard carcase wash under industrial processing conditions. British Poultry Science, 39, 229e234. Dolezalova, M., Molatova, Z., Bunka, F., Brezina, P., & Marounek, M. (2010). Effect of organic acids on growth of chilled chicken skin microflora. Journal of Food Safety, 30, 353e365. European Food safety Authority (EFSA). (2005). Opinion of the scientific panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) on a request from the commission related to treatment of poultry carcasses with chlorine dioxide, acidified sodium chlorite, trisodium phosphate and peroxyacids. EFSA Journal, 297, 1e27. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). (2011). Scientific opinion on Campylobacter in broiler meat production: control options and performance objectives and/or targets at different stages of the food chain. EFSA Journal, 9(4), 1e141, 2105. FAO. (2012). Databases: Food balance sheets. Available at http://faostat3.fao.org. Gill, C. O., & Badoni, M. (2004). Effects of peroxyacetic acid, acidified sodium chlorite or lactic acid solutions on the microflora of chilled beef carcasses. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 91, 43e50. Ismail, S. A., Deak, T., Abd El-Rahman, H. A., Yassien, M. A., & Beuchat, L. R. (2001). Effectiveness of immersion treatments with acids, trisodium phosphate, and herb decoctions in reducing populations of Yarrowia lipolytica and naturally occurring aerobic microorganisms on raw chicken. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 64, 13e19. Jimenez, S. M., Salsi, M. S., Tiburzi, M. C., Rafaghelli, R. C., Tessi, M. A., & Coutaz, V. R. (1997). Spoilage microflora in fresh chicken breast stored at 4 degrees C: influence of packaging methods. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 83, 613e618. Kim, C. R., & Marshall, D. L. (1999). Microbiological, color and sensory changes of refrigerated chicken legs treated with selected phosphates. Food Research International, 32, 209e215. Kim, J.-W., & Slavik, M. F. (1994). Removal of Salmonella typhimurium attached to chicken skin by rinsing with trisodium phosphate solution: scanning electron microscopic examination. Journal of Food Safety, 14, 77e84. Loretz, M., Stephan, R., & Zweifel, C. (2010). Antimicrobial activity of decontamination treatments for poultry carcasses: a literature survey. Food Control, 21, 791e804. Meredith, H., Walsh, D., McDowell, D., & Bolton, D. J. (2013). An investigation of the immediate and storage effects of chemical treatments on Campylobacter and sensory characteristics of poultry. International Journal of Food Microbiology. Morshedy, A. E. M. A., & Sallam, K. I. (2009). Improving the microbial quality of chicken carcasses by trisodium phosphate and lactic acid dipping. International Journal of Poultry Science, 8(7), 645e650. Nychas, G. J., Skandamis, P. N., Tassou, C. C., & Koutsoumanis, K. P. (2008). Meat spoilage during distribution. Meat Science, 78, 77e89. Patsias, A., Chouliara, I., Paleologos, E. K., Savvaidis, I., & Kontominas, M. G. (2006). Relation of biogenic amines to microbial and sensory changes of precooked chicken meat stored aerobically and under modified atmosphere packaging at 4 degrees C. European Food Research and Technology, 223, 683e689. del Rio, E., Panizo-Moran, M., Prieto, M., Alonso-Calleja, C., & Capita, R. (2007a). Effect of various chemical decontamination treatments on natural microflora and sensory characteristics of poultry. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 115, 268e280. del Rio, E., Muriente, R., Prieto, M., Alonso-Calleja, C., & Capita, R. (2007b). Effectiveness of trisodium phosphate, acidified sodium chlorite, citric acid, and peroxyacids against pathogenic bacteria on poultry during refrigerated storage. Journal of Food Protection, 70(9), 2063e2071. del Rio, E., de Caso, B. G., Prieto, M., Alonso-Calleja, C., & Capita, R. (2008). Effect of poultry decontaminants concentration on growth kinetics for pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. Food Microbiology, 25, 888e894. Russell, S. M., Cox, N. A., & Bailey, J. S. (1997). Sampling poultry carcasses and parts to determine bacterial levels. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 6, 234e237. Sakhare, P. Z., Sachindra, N. M., Yashoda, K. P., & Narashima Rao, D. (1999). Efficacy of intermittent decontamination treatments during processing in reducing the microbial load on broiler chicken carcass. Food Control, 10, 189e194. Salvat, G., Coppen, P., Allo, J. C., Fenner, S., Laisney, M. J., Toquin, M. T., et al. (1997). Effects of AvGardTM treatment on the microbiological flora of poultry carcasses. British Poultry Science, 38, 489e498. Sampathkumar, B., Khachatourians, G. G., & Korber, D. R. (2003). High pH during trisodiumphosphate treatment causes membrane damage and destruction of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69, 122e129. Sampers, I., Habib, I., Berkvens, D., Dumoulin, A., Zutter, L. D., & Uyttendaele, M. (2008). Processing practices contributing to Campyobacter contamination in Belgian chicken meat preparations. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 128(2), 297e303. Sinhamahapatra, M., Biswas, S., Das, A. K., & Bhattacharyya, D. (2004). Comparative study of different surface decontaminants on chicken quality. British Poultry Science, 45, 624e630. Whyte, P., Collins, J. D., McGill, K., Monahan, C., & O’Mahony, H. (2001). Quantitative investigation of the effects of chemical decontamination procedures on the microbiological status of broiler carcasses during processing. Journal of Food Protection, 64, 179e183.",
    year = "2013",
    doi = "10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.08.027",
    language = "English",
    volume = "36",
    pages = "230--237",

    }

    The effect of chemical treatments in laboratory and broiler plant studies on the microbial status and shelf-life of poultry. / Bolton, D J; Meredith, H; Walsh, D; McDowell, D A.

    Vol. 36, 2013, p. 230-237.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The effect of chemical treatments in laboratory and broiler plant studies on the microbial status and shelf-life of poultry

    AU - Bolton, D J

    AU - Meredith, H

    AU - Walsh, D

    AU - McDowell, D A

    N1 - Reference text: Alonso-Calleja, C., Martínez-Fernández, B., Prieto, M., & Capita, R. (2004). Microbiological quality of vacuum-packed retail ostrich meat in Spain. Food Microbiology, 21, 241e246. Álvarez-Astorga, M., Capita, R., Alonso-Calleja, C., Moreno, B., & García- Fernández, M. C. (2002). Microbiological quality of retail chicken by-products in Spain. Meat Science, 62, 45e50. Bin Jasass, F. (2008). Effectiveness of trisodium phosphate, lactic acid, and acetic acid in reduction of E. coli and microbial load on chicken surfaces. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 2, 50e55. Burfoot, D., & Mulvey, E. (2011). Reducing microbial counts on chicken and turkey carcasses using lactic acid. Food Control, 22, 1729e1735. Capita, R., Alonson-Calleja, C., Garcia-Arias, M. T., Moreno, B., & del Camino Garcia-Fernandez, M. C. (2000). Effect of trisodium phosphate on mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacterial flora attached to the skin of chicken carcasses during refrigerated storage. Food Science and Technology International, 6(4), 345e350. Charles, N., Williams, S. K., & Rodrick, G. E. (2006). Effects of packaging systems on the natural microflora and acceptability of chicken breast meat. Poultry Science, 85, 1798e1801. Coppen, P. S., Fenner, S., & Salvat, G. (1998). Antimicrobial efficacy of AvGard carcase wash under industrial processing conditions. British Poultry Science, 39, 229e234. Dolezalova, M., Molatova, Z., Bunka, F., Brezina, P., & Marounek, M. (2010). Effect of organic acids on growth of chilled chicken skin microflora. Journal of Food Safety, 30, 353e365. European Food safety Authority (EFSA). (2005). Opinion of the scientific panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) on a request from the commission related to treatment of poultry carcasses with chlorine dioxide, acidified sodium chlorite, trisodium phosphate and peroxyacids. EFSA Journal, 297, 1e27. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). (2011). Scientific opinion on Campylobacter in broiler meat production: control options and performance objectives and/or targets at different stages of the food chain. EFSA Journal, 9(4), 1e141, 2105. FAO. (2012). Databases: Food balance sheets. Available at http://faostat3.fao.org. Gill, C. O., & Badoni, M. (2004). Effects of peroxyacetic acid, acidified sodium chlorite or lactic acid solutions on the microflora of chilled beef carcasses. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 91, 43e50. Ismail, S. A., Deak, T., Abd El-Rahman, H. A., Yassien, M. A., & Beuchat, L. R. (2001). Effectiveness of immersion treatments with acids, trisodium phosphate, and herb decoctions in reducing populations of Yarrowia lipolytica and naturally occurring aerobic microorganisms on raw chicken. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 64, 13e19. Jimenez, S. M., Salsi, M. S., Tiburzi, M. C., Rafaghelli, R. C., Tessi, M. A., & Coutaz, V. R. (1997). Spoilage microflora in fresh chicken breast stored at 4 degrees C: influence of packaging methods. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 83, 613e618. Kim, C. R., & Marshall, D. L. (1999). Microbiological, color and sensory changes of refrigerated chicken legs treated with selected phosphates. Food Research International, 32, 209e215. Kim, J.-W., & Slavik, M. F. (1994). Removal of Salmonella typhimurium attached to chicken skin by rinsing with trisodium phosphate solution: scanning electron microscopic examination. Journal of Food Safety, 14, 77e84. Loretz, M., Stephan, R., & Zweifel, C. (2010). Antimicrobial activity of decontamination treatments for poultry carcasses: a literature survey. Food Control, 21, 791e804. Meredith, H., Walsh, D., McDowell, D., & Bolton, D. J. (2013). An investigation of the immediate and storage effects of chemical treatments on Campylobacter and sensory characteristics of poultry. International Journal of Food Microbiology. Morshedy, A. E. M. A., & Sallam, K. I. (2009). Improving the microbial quality of chicken carcasses by trisodium phosphate and lactic acid dipping. International Journal of Poultry Science, 8(7), 645e650. Nychas, G. J., Skandamis, P. N., Tassou, C. C., & Koutsoumanis, K. P. (2008). Meat spoilage during distribution. Meat Science, 78, 77e89. Patsias, A., Chouliara, I., Paleologos, E. K., Savvaidis, I., & Kontominas, M. G. (2006). Relation of biogenic amines to microbial and sensory changes of precooked chicken meat stored aerobically and under modified atmosphere packaging at 4 degrees C. European Food Research and Technology, 223, 683e689. del Rio, E., Panizo-Moran, M., Prieto, M., Alonso-Calleja, C., & Capita, R. (2007a). Effect of various chemical decontamination treatments on natural microflora and sensory characteristics of poultry. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 115, 268e280. del Rio, E., Muriente, R., Prieto, M., Alonso-Calleja, C., & Capita, R. (2007b). Effectiveness of trisodium phosphate, acidified sodium chlorite, citric acid, and peroxyacids against pathogenic bacteria on poultry during refrigerated storage. Journal of Food Protection, 70(9), 2063e2071. del Rio, E., de Caso, B. G., Prieto, M., Alonso-Calleja, C., & Capita, R. (2008). Effect of poultry decontaminants concentration on growth kinetics for pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. Food Microbiology, 25, 888e894. Russell, S. M., Cox, N. A., & Bailey, J. S. (1997). Sampling poultry carcasses and parts to determine bacterial levels. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 6, 234e237. Sakhare, P. Z., Sachindra, N. M., Yashoda, K. P., & Narashima Rao, D. (1999). Efficacy of intermittent decontamination treatments during processing in reducing the microbial load on broiler chicken carcass. Food Control, 10, 189e194. Salvat, G., Coppen, P., Allo, J. C., Fenner, S., Laisney, M. J., Toquin, M. T., et al. (1997). Effects of AvGardTM treatment on the microbiological flora of poultry carcasses. British Poultry Science, 38, 489e498. Sampathkumar, B., Khachatourians, G. G., & Korber, D. R. (2003). High pH during trisodiumphosphate treatment causes membrane damage and destruction of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69, 122e129. Sampers, I., Habib, I., Berkvens, D., Dumoulin, A., Zutter, L. D., & Uyttendaele, M. (2008). Processing practices contributing to Campyobacter contamination in Belgian chicken meat preparations. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 128(2), 297e303. Sinhamahapatra, M., Biswas, S., Das, A. K., & Bhattacharyya, D. (2004). Comparative study of different surface decontaminants on chicken quality. British Poultry Science, 45, 624e630. Whyte, P., Collins, J. D., McGill, K., Monahan, C., & O’Mahony, H. (2001). Quantitative investigation of the effects of chemical decontamination procedures on the microbiological status of broiler carcasses during processing. Journal of Food Protection, 64, 179e183.

    PY - 2013

    Y1 - 2013

    N2 - Poultry products are highly perishable with a short shelf-life of approximately 4–5 days. Chemical treatments have the potential to inhibit microbial spoilage and extend shelf-life. Preliminary tests were carried out on broiler skin samples in the laboratory and the most promising treatments tested on carcasses in the broiler processing plant. In the laboratory, the immediate and storage (3 days at 4 °C) effect of trisodium phosphate (TSP, 10 & 14%, w/v), lactic acid (LA, 1 & 5% v/v), citric acid (CA, 1 & 5%, w/v), peroxyacids (POA, 100 & 200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC, 500 & 1,200 ppm) on TVC (mesophiles and psychrotrophs), Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts/moulds were investigated. In general, TSP and CA were the most effective immediate treatments and in the broiler processing plant, the effect of dipping and spraying carcasses with these chemicals on microbial shelf-life was examined over 15 days at 4 °C. Although a significant (P < 0.05) immediate reduction in TVC (mesophiles and psychrotrophs) was observed with TSP in the laboratory experiment, there was no further inhibition and after 3 days the treated and control samples had similar counts. The organic acids also caused a significant (P < 0.05) immediate reduction in TVC (mesophiles and psychrotrophs) but, in contrast to TSP, a mild inhibition of subsequent growth was also observed. In the processing plant, a microbial shelf-life of approximately 4 days was obtained at 4 °C on the control (water-treated) samples which was extended by 1–2 days after treatment with TSP (14%, dip) and by up to 4 days with CA (5%, dip). It was concluded that the microbial quality and microbial shelf-life of poultry may be considerably enhanced using selective chemical treatments.

    AB - Poultry products are highly perishable with a short shelf-life of approximately 4–5 days. Chemical treatments have the potential to inhibit microbial spoilage and extend shelf-life. Preliminary tests were carried out on broiler skin samples in the laboratory and the most promising treatments tested on carcasses in the broiler processing plant. In the laboratory, the immediate and storage (3 days at 4 °C) effect of trisodium phosphate (TSP, 10 & 14%, w/v), lactic acid (LA, 1 & 5% v/v), citric acid (CA, 1 & 5%, w/v), peroxyacids (POA, 100 & 200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC, 500 & 1,200 ppm) on TVC (mesophiles and psychrotrophs), Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts/moulds were investigated. In general, TSP and CA were the most effective immediate treatments and in the broiler processing plant, the effect of dipping and spraying carcasses with these chemicals on microbial shelf-life was examined over 15 days at 4 °C. Although a significant (P < 0.05) immediate reduction in TVC (mesophiles and psychrotrophs) was observed with TSP in the laboratory experiment, there was no further inhibition and after 3 days the treated and control samples had similar counts. The organic acids also caused a significant (P < 0.05) immediate reduction in TVC (mesophiles and psychrotrophs) but, in contrast to TSP, a mild inhibition of subsequent growth was also observed. In the processing plant, a microbial shelf-life of approximately 4 days was obtained at 4 °C on the control (water-treated) samples which was extended by 1–2 days after treatment with TSP (14%, dip) and by up to 4 days with CA (5%, dip). It was concluded that the microbial quality and microbial shelf-life of poultry may be considerably enhanced using selective chemical treatments.

    U2 - 10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.08.027

    DO - 10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.08.027

    M3 - Article

    VL - 36

    SP - 230

    EP - 237

    ER -