Purpose: This study aims to explore the joint effects of environmental customer and green reputation pressures (GRP) on environmental management systems (EMSs), and their linkages to environmental and business performance, especially among export manufacturers. Design/methodology/approach: This study collected empirical data from 437 manufacturers in multiple countries to explore differences in handling environmental customer and reputation pressures among export and domestic manufacturers and the subsequent performance implications. Findings: The results indicate that although the GRPs might initially enhance firms’ environmental compliance and reputation, they can also support EMSs and sustainable performance. Furthermore, as firms increase their engagement in exports, both environmental customer and GRPs intensify, leading to stronger EMS implementation as well as sustainable performance, mainly in environmental measures. Practical implications: The findings suggest that the international market orientation is an important context to understand sustainability developments. Originality/value: The study offers an alternative approach to understanding the environmental customer and GRPs, to accommodate resources for sustainability development.
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- Environmental compliance
- Environmental management
- Green supply chain
- Green supply chain management