The Direct 3D Printing of Functional PEEK/Hydroxyapatite Composites via a Fused Filament Fabrication Approach

A Boyd, BJ Meenan, Preetam Sharma, AT McIlhagger, Mozaffar Mokhtarimotamenishirvan, Krzysztof Rodzen, Foram Dave, David Tormey, Richard Sherlock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)
49 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The manufacture of polyetheretherketone/hydroxyapatite (PEEK/HA) composites is seen as a viable approach to help enhance direct bone apposition in orthopaedic implants. A range of methods have been used to produce composites, including Selective Laser Sintering and injection moulding. Such techniques have drawbacks and lack flexibility to manufacture complex, custom-designed implants. 3D printing gets around many of the restraints and provides new opportunities for innovative solutions that are structurally suited to meet the needs of the patient. This work reports the direct 3D printing of extruded PEEK/HA composite filaments via a Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) approach. In this work samples are 3D printed by a custom modified commercial printer Ultimaker 2+ (UM2+). SEM-EDX and µCT analyses show that HA particles are evenly distributed throughout the bulk and across the surface of the native 3D printed samples, with XRD highlighting up to 50% crystallinity and crystalline domains clearly observed in SEM and HR-TEM analyses. This highlights the favourable temperature conditions during 3D printing. The yield stress and ultimate tensile strength obtained for all the samples are comparable to human femoral cortical bone. The results show how FFF 3D printing of PEEK/HA composites up to 30 wt% HA can be achieved.
Original languageEnglish
Article number545
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
JournalPolymers
Volume13
Issue number4
Early online date12 Feb 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 12 Feb 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The North West Centre for Advanced Manufacturing (NW CAM) project is supported by the European Union?s INTERREG VA Programme, managed by the Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB). The views and opinions in this document do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission or the Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB). If you would like further information about NW CAM please contact the lead partner, Catalyst, for details.



Funding Information:
The North West Centre for Advanced Manufacturing (NW CAM) project is supported by the European Union?s INTERREG VA Programme, managed by the Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB). The views and opinions in this document do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission or the Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB). If you would like further information about NW CAM please contact the lead partner, Catalyst, for details.

Funding Information:
Funding: The North West Centre for Advanced Manufacturing (NW CAM) project is supported by the European Union’s INTERREG VA Programme, managed by the Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB). The views and opinions in this document do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission or the Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB). If you would like further information about NW CAM please contact the lead partner, Catalyst, for details.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors.

Keywords

  • 3D printing
  • PEEK
  • additive manufacturing
  • advanced composite materials
  • fused filament fabrication
  • hydroxyapatite
  • polyetheretherketone

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