The development and testing of Person-centred Practice Inventory - Staff (PCPI-S)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective
The aim of the study was to develop and test an instrument, underpinned by a recognised theoretical framework, that examines how staff perceive person-centred practice, using proven methods of instrument design and psychometric analysis.

Design
The study used a mixed method multiphase research design involving: two Delphi studies to agree definitions and items to measure the constructs aligned to the person-centred practice theoretical framework (phase 1); and a large scale quantitative cross sectional survey (phase 2).

Setting
Phase one was an international study involving representatives from 7 countries across Europe and Australia, with phase 2 conducted in one country across 5 organisations.

Participants
Two international panels of experts (n = 33) in person-centred practice took part in the Delphi study and a randomly selected sample of registered nurses (n=703, 23.8%) drawn from across a wide range of clinical settings completed the Person-centred Practice Inventory – Staff.

Main Outcome Measures
The main outcome is to establish a measure of staff perceptions of person-centred Practice.

Results
Broad consensus on definitions relating to 17 constructs drawn from a person-centred practice framework was achieved after 2 rounds; likewise with the generation of 108 items to measure the constructs; a final instrument comprising 59 items with proven psychometric properties was achieved.

Conclusions
The PCPI-S is psychometrically acceptable instrument validated by an international expert panel that maps specifically to a theoretical framework for person-centred practice and provides a generic measure of person-centredness.
LanguageEnglish
Pages541-547
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal for Quality in Health Care
Volume29
Issue number4
Early online date6 Jun 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2017

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Equipment and Supplies
Delphi Technique
Psychometrics
Consensus
Research Design
Cross-Sectional Studies
Nurses

Keywords

  • Person-centred
  • Instrument design
  • psychometrics
  • Delphi technique
  • factor analysis

Cite this

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title = "The development and testing of Person-centred Practice Inventory - Staff (PCPI-S)",
abstract = "ObjectiveThe aim of the study was to develop and test an instrument, underpinned by a recognised theoretical framework, that examines how staff perceive person-centred practice, using proven methods of instrument design and psychometric analysis.DesignThe study used a mixed method multiphase research design involving: two Delphi studies to agree definitions and items to measure the constructs aligned to the person-centred practice theoretical framework (phase 1); and a large scale quantitative cross sectional survey (phase 2). SettingPhase one was an international study involving representatives from 7 countries across Europe and Australia, with phase 2 conducted in one country across 5 organisations.ParticipantsTwo international panels of experts (n = 33) in person-centred practice took part in the Delphi study and a randomly selected sample of registered nurses (n=703, 23.8{\%}) drawn from across a wide range of clinical settings completed the Person-centred Practice Inventory – Staff. Main Outcome MeasuresThe main outcome is to establish a measure of staff perceptions of person-centred Practice.ResultsBroad consensus on definitions relating to 17 constructs drawn from a person-centred practice framework was achieved after 2 rounds; likewise with the generation of 108 items to measure the constructs; a final instrument comprising 59 items with proven psychometric properties was achieved. ConclusionsThe PCPI-S is psychometrically acceptable instrument validated by an international expert panel that maps specifically to a theoretical framework for person-centred practice and provides a generic measure of person-centredness.",
keywords = "Person-centred, Instrument design, psychometrics, Delphi technique, factor analysis",
author = "Paul Slater and Tanya McCance and B McCormack",
note = "Reference text: References 1. DeSilva, D. (2014). Helping measure person-centred care: A review of evidence about commonly used approaches and tools used to help measure person-centred care. The Health Foundation. London. 2. McCormack, B. and McCance, T. (2010) Person-centred Nursing; Theory and Practice. London: Wiley-Blackwell. 3. McCormack B., Borg, M., Cardiff, S., Dewing, J., Jacobs, G., Janes, N., Karlsson, B., McCance, TV., Mekki, T., Porock, D., Van Lieshout, F. and Wilson, V. (2015a) Person-centredness – the state of the art. Inter Pract Develop J. Special Edition Sept Vol 5, article 1. 4. Smull, M.W., Bourne, M.L. and Sanderson, H. (2009) Becoming a Person Centered System: A Brief Overview of What We are Learning in the USA and UK. Retrieved from :http://sdaus.com/{\%}20person-centered-organizations-systems (Last accessed 6th July 2015). 5. Gask, L. and Coventry, P. (2012) Person-centred mental health care: the challenge of implementation. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. Vol. 21. No. 2. pp 139-144. 6. Neitzke, A.B. (2013) Bringing a critical structural frame to person-centered care. The Am J Bioeth. Vol. 13. No. 8. pp 57-58. 7. McCormack, B., Dewing, J. and McCance, T. (2011) Developing person-centred care: addressing contextual challenges through practice development. Online J Issues Nurs. Vol. 16. No. 2. Manuscript 13. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-16-2011/No2-May-2011/Developing-Person-Centred-Care.html (Last accessed 6th July 2015). 8. McCance, T., Telford, L., Wilson, J., MacLeod, O. and Dowd, A. (2012) Identifying key performance indicators for nursing and midwifery care using a consensus approach. J Clin Nurs. Vol. 21. Nos. 7-8. pp 1145-1154. 9. McCance TV., Gribben, B., McCormack, B. and Laird, EA. (2013). Promoting person-centred practice within acute care: the impact of culture and context on a facilitated practice development programme. Inter Pract Develop J. 3 (1) (2). 10. Laird, E., McCance, T., McCormack, B. and Gribben, B. (2015) Patients’ experiences of in-hospital care when nursing staff were engaged in a practice development programme to promote person-centredness: a narrative analysis study. Int J Nurs Stud. Vol. 52. pp 1454- 1462. 11. McCormack, B., B. Karlsson, J. Dewing and A. Lerdal, (2010). Exploring person-centredness: A qualitative meta-synthesis of four studies. Scandinavian J. Caring Sci., 240: 620-634. 12. Edvardsson, D. and Innes, A. (2010) Measuring person-centred care: a critical comparative review of published tools. Gerontologist. Vol. 50. No. 6. pp 834- 846. 13. Harding, E., Wait, S., and Scrutton, J. (2015). The state of play in Person-centred Care: A pragmatic review of how person-centred care is defined, applied and measured. The Health Policy Partnership. The Health Foundation, December 2015. 14. Ulschak, F. L. (1983). Human resource development: The theory and practice of need assessment. Reston, VA: Reston Publishing Company, Inc. 15. Green, P. J. (1982, March). The content of a college-level outdoor leadership course. Paper presented at the Conference of the Northwest District Association for the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, Spokane, WA. 16. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structur Equ Modeling, 6, 1–55 17. Kline, P. (1994) An easy guide to factor analysis. London, Routledge. 18. Hair, J.F., W.C. Black, B.J. Babin, R.E. Anderson R.L. and Tatham, 2010. Multivariate Data Analysis. 7th Edn., Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey. 19. Wilson V. and McCance TV. (2015). Good Enough Evaluation. Inter Pract Develop J. Special Edition Sept Vol 5, article 10. 20. Slater P., McCance, TV., and McCormack, B. (2015). Exploring person-centred practice within acute hospital settings. Inter Pract Develop J, Special Edition Sept Vol 5, article 9. 21. McKenna, HP. (2000). Nursing Theories and Models, 3rd Ed. Routledge New York.",
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The development and testing of Person-centred Practice Inventory - Staff (PCPI-S). / Slater, Paul; McCance, Tanya; McCormack, B.

In: International Journal for Quality in Health Care, Vol. 29, No. 4, 01.08.2017, p. 541-547.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - The development and testing of Person-centred Practice Inventory - Staff (PCPI-S)

AU - Slater, Paul

AU - McCance, Tanya

AU - McCormack, B

N1 - Reference text: References 1. DeSilva, D. (2014). Helping measure person-centred care: A review of evidence about commonly used approaches and tools used to help measure person-centred care. The Health Foundation. London. 2. McCormack, B. and McCance, T. (2010) Person-centred Nursing; Theory and Practice. London: Wiley-Blackwell. 3. McCormack B., Borg, M., Cardiff, S., Dewing, J., Jacobs, G., Janes, N., Karlsson, B., McCance, TV., Mekki, T., Porock, D., Van Lieshout, F. and Wilson, V. (2015a) Person-centredness – the state of the art. Inter Pract Develop J. Special Edition Sept Vol 5, article 1. 4. Smull, M.W., Bourne, M.L. and Sanderson, H. (2009) Becoming a Person Centered System: A Brief Overview of What We are Learning in the USA and UK. Retrieved from :http://sdaus.com/%20person-centered-organizations-systems (Last accessed 6th July 2015). 5. Gask, L. and Coventry, P. (2012) Person-centred mental health care: the challenge of implementation. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. Vol. 21. No. 2. pp 139-144. 6. Neitzke, A.B. (2013) Bringing a critical structural frame to person-centered care. The Am J Bioeth. Vol. 13. No. 8. pp 57-58. 7. McCormack, B., Dewing, J. and McCance, T. (2011) Developing person-centred care: addressing contextual challenges through practice development. Online J Issues Nurs. Vol. 16. No. 2. Manuscript 13. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-16-2011/No2-May-2011/Developing-Person-Centred-Care.html (Last accessed 6th July 2015). 8. McCance, T., Telford, L., Wilson, J., MacLeod, O. and Dowd, A. (2012) Identifying key performance indicators for nursing and midwifery care using a consensus approach. J Clin Nurs. Vol. 21. Nos. 7-8. pp 1145-1154. 9. McCance TV., Gribben, B., McCormack, B. and Laird, EA. (2013). Promoting person-centred practice within acute care: the impact of culture and context on a facilitated practice development programme. Inter Pract Develop J. 3 (1) (2). 10. Laird, E., McCance, T., McCormack, B. and Gribben, B. (2015) Patients’ experiences of in-hospital care when nursing staff were engaged in a practice development programme to promote person-centredness: a narrative analysis study. Int J Nurs Stud. Vol. 52. pp 1454- 1462. 11. McCormack, B., B. Karlsson, J. Dewing and A. Lerdal, (2010). Exploring person-centredness: A qualitative meta-synthesis of four studies. Scandinavian J. Caring Sci., 240: 620-634. 12. Edvardsson, D. and Innes, A. (2010) Measuring person-centred care: a critical comparative review of published tools. Gerontologist. Vol. 50. No. 6. pp 834- 846. 13. Harding, E., Wait, S., and Scrutton, J. (2015). The state of play in Person-centred Care: A pragmatic review of how person-centred care is defined, applied and measured. The Health Policy Partnership. The Health Foundation, December 2015. 14. Ulschak, F. L. (1983). Human resource development: The theory and practice of need assessment. Reston, VA: Reston Publishing Company, Inc. 15. Green, P. J. (1982, March). The content of a college-level outdoor leadership course. Paper presented at the Conference of the Northwest District Association for the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, Spokane, WA. 16. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structur Equ Modeling, 6, 1–55 17. Kline, P. (1994) An easy guide to factor analysis. London, Routledge. 18. Hair, J.F., W.C. Black, B.J. Babin, R.E. Anderson R.L. and Tatham, 2010. Multivariate Data Analysis. 7th Edn., Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey. 19. Wilson V. and McCance TV. (2015). Good Enough Evaluation. Inter Pract Develop J. Special Edition Sept Vol 5, article 10. 20. Slater P., McCance, TV., and McCormack, B. (2015). Exploring person-centred practice within acute hospital settings. Inter Pract Develop J, Special Edition Sept Vol 5, article 9. 21. McKenna, HP. (2000). Nursing Theories and Models, 3rd Ed. Routledge New York.

PY - 2017/8/1

Y1 - 2017/8/1

N2 - ObjectiveThe aim of the study was to develop and test an instrument, underpinned by a recognised theoretical framework, that examines how staff perceive person-centred practice, using proven methods of instrument design and psychometric analysis.DesignThe study used a mixed method multiphase research design involving: two Delphi studies to agree definitions and items to measure the constructs aligned to the person-centred practice theoretical framework (phase 1); and a large scale quantitative cross sectional survey (phase 2). SettingPhase one was an international study involving representatives from 7 countries across Europe and Australia, with phase 2 conducted in one country across 5 organisations.ParticipantsTwo international panels of experts (n = 33) in person-centred practice took part in the Delphi study and a randomly selected sample of registered nurses (n=703, 23.8%) drawn from across a wide range of clinical settings completed the Person-centred Practice Inventory – Staff. Main Outcome MeasuresThe main outcome is to establish a measure of staff perceptions of person-centred Practice.ResultsBroad consensus on definitions relating to 17 constructs drawn from a person-centred practice framework was achieved after 2 rounds; likewise with the generation of 108 items to measure the constructs; a final instrument comprising 59 items with proven psychometric properties was achieved. ConclusionsThe PCPI-S is psychometrically acceptable instrument validated by an international expert panel that maps specifically to a theoretical framework for person-centred practice and provides a generic measure of person-centredness.

AB - ObjectiveThe aim of the study was to develop and test an instrument, underpinned by a recognised theoretical framework, that examines how staff perceive person-centred practice, using proven methods of instrument design and psychometric analysis.DesignThe study used a mixed method multiphase research design involving: two Delphi studies to agree definitions and items to measure the constructs aligned to the person-centred practice theoretical framework (phase 1); and a large scale quantitative cross sectional survey (phase 2). SettingPhase one was an international study involving representatives from 7 countries across Europe and Australia, with phase 2 conducted in one country across 5 organisations.ParticipantsTwo international panels of experts (n = 33) in person-centred practice took part in the Delphi study and a randomly selected sample of registered nurses (n=703, 23.8%) drawn from across a wide range of clinical settings completed the Person-centred Practice Inventory – Staff. Main Outcome MeasuresThe main outcome is to establish a measure of staff perceptions of person-centred Practice.ResultsBroad consensus on definitions relating to 17 constructs drawn from a person-centred practice framework was achieved after 2 rounds; likewise with the generation of 108 items to measure the constructs; a final instrument comprising 59 items with proven psychometric properties was achieved. ConclusionsThe PCPI-S is psychometrically acceptable instrument validated by an international expert panel that maps specifically to a theoretical framework for person-centred practice and provides a generic measure of person-centredness.

KW - Person-centred

KW - Instrument design

KW - psychometrics

KW - Delphi technique

KW - factor analysis

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