The development and initial validation of self‐report measures of ICD‐11 depressive episode and generalized anxiety disorder: The International Depression Questionnaire (IDQ) and the International Anxiety Questionnaire (IAQ)

Mark Shevlin, Philip Hyland, Sarah Butter, Orla McBride, Todd K. Hartman, Thanos Karatzias, Richard P. Bentall

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Abstract

Background: The new International Classification of Diseases came into effect in 2022 (ICD‐11; World Health Organization, 2022) and included updated descriptions and diagnostic rules for “Depressive Episode” and “Generalized Anxiety Disorder.” No self‐report measures align with these disorders so this study reports the development and initial validation of the “International Depression Questionnaire” (IDQ) and “International Anxiety Questionnaire” (IAQ).

Methods: Items were developed that aligned to the ICD‐11 descriptions and their performance was assessed using data from a community sample (N = 2058) that was representative of the United Kingdom adult population.

Results: Item response theory models indicated that the two scales were unidimensional, and the items performed well in terms of difficulty and discrimination. Estimates of internal reliability were high. Based on ICD‐11 derived diagnostic algorithms, 7.4% met requirements for ICD‐11 Depressive Episode and 7.1% for Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

Conclusions: The IDQ and the IAQ are short, easy to use, self‐report measures aligned to the new and updated ICD‐11 diagnostic descriptions. This study provides initial evidence that the scales produce scores that are reliable and valid.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Clinical Psychology
Early online date10 Oct 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished online - 10 Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding information
Economic and Social Research Council

Funding Information:
The initial stages of this project were supported by start‐up funds from the University of Sheffield (Department of Psychology, the Sheffield Methods Institute and the Higher Education Innovation Fund via an Impact Acceleration grant administered by the university) and by the Faculty of Life and Health Sciences at Ulster University. The research was subsequently supported by UK Research and Innovation/Economic and Social Research Council funding (grant ref. ES/V004379/1) and awarded to R. P. B, T. K. H, M. S, O. McB.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Psychology published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.

Keywords

  • anxiety
  • depression

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