It is generally accepted that networking is one means through which owner–managers of small firms market their goods and services. However, though there has been considerable attention directed toward the concept of small business networking, previous studies have failed to present a comprehensive investigation of the contents of network links, an analysis of the benefits contained within these links, and an expatiation of how these benefits contribute to the small firm, specifically its marketing activities. To that end, this paper reports on an in‐depth qualitative study to present an analysis of the contribution that networking makes to small firm marketing.
|Number of pages||24|
|Journal||Journal of Small Business Management|
|Publication status||Published (in print/issue) - 31 Jan 2014|
Bibliographical noteReference text: Alajoutsijarvi, K., P. Eriksson, and H. Tikkanen (2001). “Dominant Metaphors in the IMP Network Discourse: 'The Network as a Marriage' and 'The Network as a Business System',” International Business Review 10 (1), 91-107.
Aldrich, H., and C. Zimmer (1986), “Entrepreneurship Through Social Networks,” in Art and Science of Entrepreneurship. Ed. D. Sexton and R. W. Smilor. New York: Ballinger Publishing Company, 3-23.
Aldrich, H., P.R. Reese, and P. Dubini, (1989). “Women On The Verge Of A Breakthrough: Networking Among Entrepreneurs In The United States And Italy,” Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 1, 339-356.
Anderson, J.C. and J.A. Narus (1998). “Business Marketing: Understand What Customers Value,” Harvard Business Review 76 (6), 53-61.
Ang, J.S. (1992). “On the Theory of Finance for Privately Held Firms,” The Journal of Small Business Finance 1 (3), 185-203.
Barnir, A. and K.A. Smith (2002). “Interfirm alliances in the small business: the role of social networks,” Journal of Small Business Management, 40 (3), 219-232.
Beaver, G. and C. Prince (2004). “Management, strategy and policy in the UK small business sector: a critical review,” Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 11 (1), 34-49.
Beckett, A., P. Hewer, P., and B. Howcroft (1998). “A Theoretical Model of Consumer Behaviour in the Financial Services Industry,” Loughborough University Banking Centre, No. 127/98.
Berg, N. and D. Holtbrügge (2010). “Global Teams: A network analysis,” Team Performance Management, 16 (3/4), 187-211.
Biggerio, L. (2001). “Self-organizing process in building entrepreneurial networks: a theoretical and empirical investigation,” Human Systems Management, 20, 209-222.
Birley, S. (1985). “The Role of Networks in the Entrepreneurial Process,” Journal of Business Venturing 1 (2), 107-117.
Birley, S., S. Cromie, and A. Myers (1991). “Entrepreneurial Networks: Their Emergence in Ireland and Overseas,” International Small Business Journal 9 (4), 56-74.
Blackburn, R.A., J. Curran, J., and R. Jarvis (1990). “Small Firms and Local Networks: Some Theoretical and Conceptual Explanations,” paper presented at XIII Small Firms Policy and Research Conference, Harrogate, Leeds Business School.
Brown, R.E., J.E. Butler, G.S. Hansen, and P. Phan (1990). “The Role of Interorganisational Relationships in Entrepreneurial Success,” in Research at the Marketing/Entrepreneurship Interface, Chicago: Office for Entrepreneurial Studies, The University of Illinois at Chicago, 104-121.
Bruderl, J., and P. Preisendorfer (1998). “Network Support and the Success of Newly Founded Businesses,” Small Business Economics, 10 (3), 213-225.
Burt, R.S. (1992). Structural Holes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Carson, D.J. (1985). “The Challenge Of Teaching Marketing To Small Businesses,” European Journal Of Marketing 19 (5), 42-53.
Carson, D. (1990). “Some Exploratory Models for Assessing Small Firms’ Marketing Performance (A Qualitative Approach),” European Journal of Marketing 24 (11), 1-51.
Carson, D. and S. Cromie (1989). “Marketing Planning In Small Enterprises: A Model And Some Empirical Evidence,” Journal Of Marketing Management, 5 (1), 33-49.
Carson, D., S. Cromie, McGowan, P., and J. Hill (1995). Marketing and Entrepreneurship in SMEs, London: Prentice Hall.
Carson, D., A. Gilmore, D. Cummins, A. O'Donnell, and K. Grant (1998). “Price setting in SMEs: Some Empirical Findings,” Journal of Product and Brand Management featuring Pricing Strategy and Practice, 7 (1), 74-86.
Carson, D., A. Gilmore, C, Perry, and K. Gronhaug (2001). Qualitative Marketing Research, London: Sage.
Chell, E. and S. Baines (2000). “Networking, entrepreneurship and microbusiness behaviour,” Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 12, 195-215
Cromie, S. (1994). “Entrepreneurship: The Role of the Individual in Small
Business Development,” IBAR 15, 62-75.
Curran, J., R. Jarvis, R. Blackburn, and S. Black (1991). “Small Firms and Networks; Constructs, Methodological Strategies and Some Preliminary Findings”, paper presented at the 14th National Small Firms Policy and Research Conference, Blackpool.
Curran, J., R. Jarvis, R.A. Blackburn, and S. Black (1993). “Networks And Small Firms : Constructs, Methodological Strategies And Some Findings,” International Small Business Journal 11 (2), 13-25.
Curran, J., and R.A. Blackburn (1994). Small Firms and Local Economic Networks: The Death of the Local Economy. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.
Czepiel, J.A. (1990). “Service Encounters and Service Relationships: Implications for Research,” Journal of Business Research, 20, 13-21.
Dicksen, P.R. (1996). “The Static and Dynamic Mechanics of Competitive Theory,” Journal of Marketing 60 (October), 102-106.
Dragnic, D. (2009). “Marketing Activities of Small Businesses in Croatia: The case of Splitsko-Dalmatinska county,” Management, 14 (1), 39-58.
Eisenhardt, K.M. (1989). “Building Theories from Case Study Research,” Academy of Management Review 14 (4), 532-550.
Eisner, E. (1985), The art of educational evaluation: A personal view. London: Falmer Press.
Fahy, J. and A. Smithee (1999). “Strategic Marketing and the Resource Based View of the Firm,” Academy of Marketing Science Review 1999, 1-20
Fitchew, S., D. Stokes, and R. Blackburn (1997). “Marketing In Small Firms: All Mouth And No Action,” paper presented at the 20th National Small Firms Policy & Research Conference, Belfast, The Institute Of Small Business Affairs, 1069-1090.
Frantz, F.H. (1978). Successful Small Business Management. New Jersey, Prentice Hall.
Gilmore, A. and D. Carson (1999). “Entrepreneurial Marketing By Networking,” New England Journal of Entrepreneurship 12 (2), 31-38.
Hansen, E.L. (1995). “Entrepreneurial Networks and New Organisation Growth,” Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 19 (4), 7-20.
Hill, J. (2001). “A Multidimensional Study of the Key Determinants of Effective SME Marketing Activity: Part 2,” International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 7 (6), 211-235.
Hill, J.and P. McGowan (1996). “Marketing development through networking: A competency based approach for small firm entrepreneurs, ” International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 5 (1), 148-157.
Hill, J., and L. T. Wright (2001). “A Qualitative Research Agenda for Small to Medium Sized Enterprises,” Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 19 (6), 432-443.
Hoang, H., and B. Antoncic (2003). “Network-based research in entrepreneurship: A critical review,” Journal of Business Venturing, 18, 165-187
Hogarth-Scott, S., K. Watson, and N. Wilson (1996). “Do Small Businesses Have To Practise Marketing To Survive And Grow,” Marketing Intelligence And Planning 14 (1), 6-18.
Jack, S.L., S. Drakopoulou Dodd, and A.R. Anderson (2004). “Social structures and entrepreneurial networks: the strength of strong ties,” International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 5 (2), 107-120
Johannisson, B. (1986). “Network Strategies: Management Technology for Entrepreneurship and Change,” International Small Business Journal 5 (1), 19-30.
Johannisson, B. (1990). “Economies Of Overview - Guiding The External Growth Of Small Firms,” International Small Business Journal, 9 (1), 32-44.
Johannisson, B., O. Alexanderson, K. Nowicki, and K. Senneseth, (1994). “Beyond anarchy and organisation: entrepreneurs in contextual networks,” Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 6, 329-356.
Johanson, J., and L.G. Mattson (1987). “Interorganisational Relations in Industrial Systems: A Network Approach Compared with the Transaction Approach,” International Studies of Management and Organisation 17 (1), 34-48.
Joyce, P., A. Woods, and S. Black (1995). “Networks and Partnerships: Managing Change and Competition,” Small Business and Enterprise Development 2, 11-18.
Kingsley, G. and E.W. Malecki (2004). “Networking for competitiveness,” Small Business Economics, 23 (1), 71-84.
Lechner, C., and M. Dowling (2003). “Firm networks: external relationships as sources for the growth and competitiveness of entrepreneurial firms”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 15, 1-26
Lincoln, Y.S. and E.G. Guba (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications.
Marshall, C., and G.B. Rossman (1989). Designing Qualitative Research. Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications.
Mitchell, J.C. (1973). “Networks, Norms and Institutions,”in Network Analysis Studies in Human Interaction. In Ed. J. Boissevain and J. C. Mitchell, The Hague: Mouton and Company, 15-35.
Mitchell, J.C. (1983). “Case and situational analysis,”. Sociological Review, 33 (2), 187-211.
McGowan, P., and S. Rocks, (1995). “Entrepreneurial Marketing Networking and Small Firm Innovation: Some Empirical Findings,” in Research at the Marketing/Entrepreneurship Interface, Chicago: Office for Entrepreneurial Studies, The University of Illinois at Chicago, 43-54.
Merriam, S.B. (1988). Case Study Research in Education: A Qualitative Approach. Thousand Oaks, California: Jossey-Bass Publications.
O'Donnell, A., and D. Cummins (1999). “The Use of Qualitative Methods to Research Networking in SMEs,” Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 2 (2), 82-91.
O'Donnell, A., A. Gilmore, D. Cummins, and D. Carson (2001). “The Network Construct in Entrepreneurship Research: A Review and Critique,” Management Decision, 39 (9), 749-760.
O’Donnell, A. (2004). “The Nature of Networking in Small Firms”, Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 7 (3), pp.206-217.
O’Donnell, A. (2011 forthcoming). “Small firm marketing: Synthesisng and supporting received wisdom”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development
Ogden, J.A. and P.L. Carter (2008). “The Supply Base Reduction Process: An empirical investigation,” International Journal of Logistics Management, 19 (1), 5-28.
Olkkonen, R., H. Tikkanen, and K. Alajoutsijarvi (2000). “The Role of Communication in Business Relationships and Networks,” Management Decision, 38 (6), 403-409.
Ostgaard, T.A., and S. Birley, (1994). “Personal Networks and Firm Competitive Strategy - A Strategic Or Coincidental Match?,” Journal Of Business Venturing, 9, 281-305.
Pages, E.R., and S. Garmise (2003). “The Power of Entrepreneurial Networking,” Economic Development Journal, Summer, 20-30.
Penrose, E. (1959). The Theory of Growth of the Firm. Oxford: Blackwell.
Pettigrew, A.D., Ed. (1988). The Management of Strategic Change. Oxford: Basil Blackwood.
Powell, W.W., and P. Brantley (1992). “Competitive Cooperation in Biotechnology: Learning Through Networks,” in Networks and Organisations. Ed. N. Nohria and R. Eccles. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 366-394.
Rangone, A. (1999). “A Resource-Based Approach to Strategy Analysis in Small-Medium Sized Enterprises,” Small Business Economics, 12 (3), 233-248.
Reynolds, P.L. (2002). “The Need for a New Paradigm in Small Business Marketing? What was wrong with the old one?” Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 4 (3), 191-205.
Robson, C. (1993). Real World Research: A Resource for Social Scientists and Practitioners and Researchers. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
Romano, C. (1989). “Research Strategies for Small Business: A Case Study,” International Small Business Journal, 7 (4), 35-43.
Rutherfoord, R., R.A. Blackburn and L.J. Spence (2000). “Environmental management and the small firm: An international comparison” International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 6 (6), 310-325.
Sharma, A., and J.N. Sheth (1997). “Supplier Relationships: Emerging Issues and Challenges,” Industrial Marketing Management, 26 (2), 91-100.
Shaw, E. (2000). “Networks and Their Relevance to the Entrepreneurial/Marketing Interface: A Review of the Evidence,” Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 1 (1), 22-38.
Shaw, E. (2006). “Small Firm Networking: An Insight into Contents and Motivating Factors,” International Small Business Journal, 24 (1), 5-29.
Simpson, M., J. Padmore, N. Taylor, and J. Frecknall-Hughes (2006). “Marketing in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises,” International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 12 (6), 361-387.
Srivastava, R.K., L. Fahey, and H.K. Christensen (2001). “The Resource-Based View and Marketing: The role of market-based assets in gaining competitive advantage,” Journal of Management, 27 (6), 777-802.
Stokes, D. (1998). “One 'P' Not Four: Entrepreneurs' Perceptions of Marketing,” Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing and UIC/MEIG-AMA Symposia on the Marketing and Entrepreneurship Interface. Ed. B. Hulbert, J. Day and E. Shaw. Northampton: Nene University College Northampton, 535-552.
Stokes, D. (2000). “Entrepreneurial Marketing: A Conceptualisation From Qualitative Research,” Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal 3 (1), 47-54.
Sum, C.C., Y.S. Lee, J.M. Hays and A.V. Hill (2002). “Modeling the Effects of a Service Guarantee on Perceived Service Quality using Alternating Conditional Expectations (ACE).” Decision Sciences, 33 (3), 347-383.
Szarka, J. (1990). “Networking and Small Firms,” International Small Business Journal, 8 (2), 10-22.
Tichy, N.N., N.L. Tushmann, and C. Forbrun (1979). “Social Network Analysis for Organisations,” Academy of Management Review, 4 (4), 507-519.
Tjosvold, D., and D. Weicker (1993). “Cooperative and Competitive Networking by Entrepreneurs: A Critical Incident Study,” Journal of Small Business Management, 31 (1), 11-21.
Uzzi, B. (1996). “The sources and consequences of embeddedness for the economic performance of organisations: The network effect,” American Sociological Review, 61 (4), 674-698.
Uzzi, B. (1997). “Social structure and competition in interfirm networks: the paradox of embeddedness,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 35-67.
Uzzi, B. (1999). “Embeddedness in the making of financial capital: how social elations and networks benefit firms seeking financing,” American Sociological Review, 64 (4), 481- 505.
Watkins, T., and R. Blackburn (1986). “The Role Of Marketing In The Small Firm: Evidence From A Regional Survey,” Marketing Intelligence And Planning, 4 (4), 26-38.
Watson, T. (1994), In search of management. London: Routledge.
Wernerfelt, B. (1984). “A Resource-Based View of the Firm,” Strategic Management Journal 5 (2), 171-180.
Weick, K.E. (1969), The Social Psychology of Organising. Reading, MA.: Addison-Wesley.
Weick, K.E. (1991). “The Nontraditional Quality of Organisational Learning,” Organisational Science, 2, 116-124.
Witt, P. (2004). “Entrepreneurs’ networks and the success of start-ups,” Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 16, 391-412.
Yin, R.K. (1994). Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.
- *SMALL business
- *MARKETING strategy
- *BUSINESS networks
- *MARKETING research