The Bumps and BaBies Longitudinal Study (BaBBLeS): a multi-site cohort study of first-time mothers to evaluate the effectiveness of the Baby Buddy app

Toity Deave, Samuel Ginja, Trudy Goodenough, Elizabeth Bailey, Lukasz Piwek, Jane Coad, Crispin Day, Samantha Nightingale, Sally Kendall, Raghu Lingam

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Background: Health mobile applications (apps) have become very popular, including apps specifically
designed to support women during the ante- and post-natal periods. However, there is currently limited
evidence for the effectiveness of such apps at improving pregnancy and parenting outcomes. This study aims
to assess the effectiveness of a pregnancy and parenting app, Baby Buddy, in improving maternal self-efficacy
at 3 months post-birth.
Methods: Participants were 16 years old or over, first-time mothers, 12–16 weeks gestation, recruited by
midwives from five English study sites. The Tool to Measure Parenting Self-Efficacy (TOPSE) (primary
outcome) was used to compare mothers at 3 months post-birth who had downloaded the Baby Buddy app
with those who had not downloaded the app, controlling for confounding factors.
Results: Four hundred and eighty-eight participants provided valid data at baseline (12–16 weeks
gestation), 296 participants provided valid data at 3 months post-birth, 114 (38.5%) of whom reported that
they had used the Baby Buddy app. Baby Buddy app users were more likely to use pregnancy or parenting
apps (80.7% vs. 69.6%, P=0.035), more likely to have been introduced to the app by a healthcare professional
(P=0.005) and have a lower median score for perceived social support (81 vs. 83, P=0.034) than non-app
users. The Baby Buddy app did not elicit a statistically significant change in TOPSE scores from baseline to
3 months post-birth [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59 to 2.13, P=0.730].
Finding out about the Baby Buddy app from a healthcare professional appeared to grant no additional
benefit to app users compared to all other participants in terms of self-efficacy at 3 months post-birth (adjusted
OR 1.16, 95% CI: 0.60 to 2.23, P=0.666). There were no statistically significant differences in the TOPSE
scores for the in-app data, in terms of passive use of the app between high and low app users (adjusted OR
0.82, 95% CI: 0.21 to 3.12, P=0.766), nor in terms of active use (adjusted OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.12 to 1.86,
Conclusions: This study is one of few, to date, that has investigated the effectiveness of a pregnancy and
early parenthood app. No evidence for the effectiveness of the Baby Buddy app was found. New technologies can enhance traditional healthcare services and empower users to take more control over their healthcare
but app effectiveness needs to be assessed. Further work is needed to consider: (I) how we can best use this
new technology to deliver better health outcomes for health service users and, (II) methodological issues of
evaluating digital health interventions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-13
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 25 Sept 2019


  • Evaluation
  • first-time parents
  • Baby Buddy
  • self-efficacy
  • maternal well-being


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