The Association Between Mindfulness and Mental Health Outcomes in Athletes: Testing the Mediating Role of Autonomy Satisfaction as a Core Psychological Need

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Abstract

Mindfulness may improve well-being through increasing one’s ability to self-regulate stressors, which are common and multifaceted among the student-athlete population. However, the mechanisms for influencing such effects lacks a theoretical basis. Therefore, we sought to: (i) determine the relationship between mindfulness, well-being and stress in student-athletes, and: (ii) to assess the mediating role of autonomy satisfaction, an innate psychological need required for optimal well-being according to Self-Determination Theory. This was a cross-sectional study of 240 student-athletes (aged 20.5; SD=3.29; 53.7% males). Mindfulness and autonomy were regressed onto well-being (Model 1) and stress (Model 2) in multivariate regression models assessing direct and indirect mediating mechanisms. More than a third of athletes scored low on well-being, and only 3% high, and a significant proportion of variance was explained in both models (Model 1: R2= .40; Model 2: R2= .37). Mindfulness directly predicted autonomy satisfaction (β=.42, p <.001), well-being (β=.26, p <.001), and stress (β=-.21, p <.001). Autonomy satisfaction also directly predicted well-being (β=.47; p <.001) and stress (β=-.48; p <.001), whilst partially mediating the association between mindfulness and well-being (indirect β=.19) and stress (indirect β=-.20). To conclude, mindfulness may improve well-being and reduce stress through increasing athletes’ capacity to self-regulate, satisfying the psychological need for autonomy. Future research may consider designing a controlled trial of mindfulness interventions for student-athletes, underpinned and tested using SDT.
LanguageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Volumein press
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 4 Dec 2019

Fingerprint

Mindfulness
Athletes
Mental Health
Psychology
Students
Personal Autonomy
Aptitude
Cross-Sectional Studies

Keywords

  • meditation
  • self-determination theory
  • psychology
  • health
  • sport

Cite this

@article{a1b30c67f7e04cb78b52c3d5ddd63bfa,
title = "The Association Between Mindfulness and Mental Health Outcomes in Athletes: Testing the Mediating Role of Autonomy Satisfaction as a Core Psychological Need",
abstract = "Mindfulness may improve well-being through increasing one’s ability to self-regulate stressors, which are common and multifaceted among the student-athlete population. However, the mechanisms for influencing such effects lacks a theoretical basis. Therefore, we sought to: (i) determine the relationship between mindfulness, well-being and stress in student-athletes, and: (ii) to assess the mediating role of autonomy satisfaction, an innate psychological need required for optimal well-being according to Self-Determination Theory. This was a cross-sectional study of 240 student-athletes (aged 20.5; SD=3.29; 53.7{\%} males). Mindfulness and autonomy were regressed onto well-being (Model 1) and stress (Model 2) in multivariate regression models assessing direct and indirect mediating mechanisms. More than a third of athletes scored low on well-being, and only 3{\%} high, and a significant proportion of variance was explained in both models (Model 1: R2= .40; Model 2: R2= .37). Mindfulness directly predicted autonomy satisfaction (β=.42, p <.001), well-being (β=.26, p <.001), and stress (β=-.21, p <.001). Autonomy satisfaction also directly predicted well-being (β=.47; p <.001) and stress (β=-.48; p <.001), whilst partially mediating the association between mindfulness and well-being (indirect β=.19) and stress (indirect β=-.20). To conclude, mindfulness may improve well-being and reduce stress through increasing athletes’ capacity to self-regulate, satisfying the psychological need for autonomy. Future research may consider designing a controlled trial of mindfulness interventions for student-athletes, underpinned and tested using SDT.",
keywords = "meditation, self-determination theory, psychology, health, sport",
author = "Stephen Shannon and Donncha Hanna and Gerard Leavey and Tandy Haughey and Drew Neill and Gavin Breslin",
year = "2019",
month = "12",
day = "4",
language = "English",
volume = "in press",
journal = "International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology",
issn = "1612-197X",

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T1 - The Association Between Mindfulness and Mental Health Outcomes in Athletes: Testing the Mediating Role of Autonomy Satisfaction as a Core Psychological Need

AU - Shannon, Stephen

AU - Hanna, Donncha

AU - Leavey, Gerard

AU - Haughey, Tandy

AU - Neill, Drew

AU - Breslin, Gavin

PY - 2019/12/4

Y1 - 2019/12/4

N2 - Mindfulness may improve well-being through increasing one’s ability to self-regulate stressors, which are common and multifaceted among the student-athlete population. However, the mechanisms for influencing such effects lacks a theoretical basis. Therefore, we sought to: (i) determine the relationship between mindfulness, well-being and stress in student-athletes, and: (ii) to assess the mediating role of autonomy satisfaction, an innate psychological need required for optimal well-being according to Self-Determination Theory. This was a cross-sectional study of 240 student-athletes (aged 20.5; SD=3.29; 53.7% males). Mindfulness and autonomy were regressed onto well-being (Model 1) and stress (Model 2) in multivariate regression models assessing direct and indirect mediating mechanisms. More than a third of athletes scored low on well-being, and only 3% high, and a significant proportion of variance was explained in both models (Model 1: R2= .40; Model 2: R2= .37). Mindfulness directly predicted autonomy satisfaction (β=.42, p <.001), well-being (β=.26, p <.001), and stress (β=-.21, p <.001). Autonomy satisfaction also directly predicted well-being (β=.47; p <.001) and stress (β=-.48; p <.001), whilst partially mediating the association between mindfulness and well-being (indirect β=.19) and stress (indirect β=-.20). To conclude, mindfulness may improve well-being and reduce stress through increasing athletes’ capacity to self-regulate, satisfying the psychological need for autonomy. Future research may consider designing a controlled trial of mindfulness interventions for student-athletes, underpinned and tested using SDT.

AB - Mindfulness may improve well-being through increasing one’s ability to self-regulate stressors, which are common and multifaceted among the student-athlete population. However, the mechanisms for influencing such effects lacks a theoretical basis. Therefore, we sought to: (i) determine the relationship between mindfulness, well-being and stress in student-athletes, and: (ii) to assess the mediating role of autonomy satisfaction, an innate psychological need required for optimal well-being according to Self-Determination Theory. This was a cross-sectional study of 240 student-athletes (aged 20.5; SD=3.29; 53.7% males). Mindfulness and autonomy were regressed onto well-being (Model 1) and stress (Model 2) in multivariate regression models assessing direct and indirect mediating mechanisms. More than a third of athletes scored low on well-being, and only 3% high, and a significant proportion of variance was explained in both models (Model 1: R2= .40; Model 2: R2= .37). Mindfulness directly predicted autonomy satisfaction (β=.42, p <.001), well-being (β=.26, p <.001), and stress (β=-.21, p <.001). Autonomy satisfaction also directly predicted well-being (β=.47; p <.001) and stress (β=-.48; p <.001), whilst partially mediating the association between mindfulness and well-being (indirect β=.19) and stress (indirect β=-.20). To conclude, mindfulness may improve well-being and reduce stress through increasing athletes’ capacity to self-regulate, satisfying the psychological need for autonomy. Future research may consider designing a controlled trial of mindfulness interventions for student-athletes, underpinned and tested using SDT.

KW - meditation

KW - self-determination theory

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KW - health

KW - sport

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JO - International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology

T2 - International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology

JF - International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology

SN - 1612-197X

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