The acute effects of walking exercise intensity on systemic cytokines and oxidative stress

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Abstract

Purpose Oxidative stress is associated with tissue cytokine secretion although the precise mechanism(s) underpinning this relationship during high intensity intermittent exercise remains unclear. This study investigates the acute response to a bout of high intensity intermittent walking (HIIW), compared to continuous moderate intensity walking (CMW), on various cytokines and biomarkers of oxidative stress.
Methods Seventeen (n = 17) apparently healthy male participants (aged 22.6 ± 4.6 years; V˙O2maxV˙O2max : 53.7 ± 7.1 ml kg−1 min−1) undertook a randomised crossover study consisting of two exercise trials: (1) HIIW requiring 3 × 5 min bursts at 80% V˙O2maxV˙O2max (each separated by 5 min of walking at 30% V˙O2maxV˙O2max ) and (2) CMW (60% V˙O2maxV˙O2max for 30 min). Each trial was separated by 7 days. Venous blood samples were obtained pre-exercise, post-exercise and at 2, 4, 24 and 48 h post-exercise for determination of systemic inflammation (IL-6 and TNF-α), lipid soluble antioxidants and oxidative stress (LOOH, H2O2 and the ascorbyl free radical). 
Results Both IL-6 and TNF-α increased immediately post exercise, regardless of intensity and remained elevated until at least 4 h (main effect for time; p < 0.05). While there was no change in either lipid peroxidation or free radical metabolism (Asc· and H2O2), α-tocopherol increased (pooled HIIW and CMW, p < 0.05), whereas lycopene decreased at 2 h post HIIW (p < 0.05).
Conclusion Bouts of both HIIW and CMW promote cytokine secretion post exercise, and this seems to be independent of oxidative stress. Further investigation is required to assess how such changes may underpin some of the transient health benefits of exercise.
LanguageEnglish
Pages2111-2120
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Volume118
Issue number10
Early online date14 Jul 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2018

Fingerprint

Walking
Oxidative Stress
Exercise
Cytokines
Free Radicals
Interleukin-6
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
alpha-Tocopherol
Insurance Benefits
Cross-Over Studies
Lipid Peroxidation
Healthy Volunteers
Antioxidants
Biomarkers
Inflammation
Lipids

Keywords

  • Walking
  • High intensity intermittent exercise
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Cytokine

Cite this

@article{7a8c1ef4e17f447fa5a512f70b05a197,
title = "The acute effects of walking exercise intensity on systemic cytokines and oxidative stress",
abstract = "Purpose Oxidative stress is associated with tissue cytokine secretion although the precise mechanism(s) underpinning this relationship during high intensity intermittent exercise remains unclear. This study investigates the acute response to a bout of high intensity intermittent walking (HIIW), compared to continuous moderate intensity walking (CMW), on various cytokines and biomarkers of oxidative stress.Methods Seventeen (n = 17) apparently healthy male participants (aged 22.6 ± 4.6 years; V˙O2maxV˙O2max : 53.7 ± 7.1 ml kg−1 min−1) undertook a randomised crossover study consisting of two exercise trials: (1) HIIW requiring 3 × 5 min bursts at 80{\%} V˙O2maxV˙O2max (each separated by 5 min of walking at 30{\%} V˙O2maxV˙O2max ) and (2) CMW (60{\%} V˙O2maxV˙O2max for 30 min). Each trial was separated by 7 days. Venous blood samples were obtained pre-exercise, post-exercise and at 2, 4, 24 and 48 h post-exercise for determination of systemic inflammation (IL-6 and TNF-α), lipid soluble antioxidants and oxidative stress (LOOH, H2O2 and the ascorbyl free radical). Results Both IL-6 and TNF-α increased immediately post exercise, regardless of intensity and remained elevated until at least 4 h (main effect for time; p < 0.05). While there was no change in either lipid peroxidation or free radical metabolism (Asc· and H2O2), α-tocopherol increased (pooled HIIW and CMW, p < 0.05), whereas lycopene decreased at 2 h post HIIW (p < 0.05).Conclusion Bouts of both HIIW and CMW promote cytokine secretion post exercise, and this seems to be independent of oxidative stress. Further investigation is required to assess how such changes may underpin some of the transient health benefits of exercise.",
keywords = "Walking, High intensity intermittent exercise, Oxidative Stress, Cytokine",
author = "Malcolm Brown and CM McClean and Gareth Davison and John Brown and Murphy, {Marie H}",
note = "Alessio HM, Hagerman AE, Fulkerson BK, Ambrose J, Rice RE, Wiley RL (2000) Generation of reactive oxygen species after exhaustive aerobic and isometric exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32:1576–1581 Altman DG (1980) Statistics and ethics in medical research: III How large a sample? Br Med J 281:1336–1338 B{\"o}hm F, Pernow J (2007) The importance of endothelin-1 for vascular dysfunction in cardiovascular disease. Cardiovasc Res 76:8–18 Boutcher SH (2011) High-intensity intermittent exercise and fat loss. J Obes. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/868305 Cawthorn WP, Sethi JK (2008) TNF-alpha and adipocyte biology. FEBS Lett 582:117–131 Chu WM (2013) Tumor necrosis factor. Cancer Lett 328:222–225 Davison GW, Ashton T, McEneny J, Young IS, Davies B, Bailey DM (2012) Critical difference applied to exercise-induced oxidative stress: the dilemma of distinguishing biological from statistical change. J Physiol Biochem 68:377–384 Dixon NC, Hurst TL, Talbot DC, Tyrrell RM, Thompson D (2009) Active middle-aged men have lower fasting inflammatory markers but the postprandial inflammatory response is minimal and unaffected by physical activity status. J Appl Physiol 107:63–68 Djordjevic DZ, Cubrilo DG, Puzovic VS, Vuletic MS, Zivkovic VI, Barudzic NS, Radovanovic DS, Djuric DM, Jakovljevic VL (2012) Changes in athletes redox state induced by habitual and unaccustomed exercise. Oxid Med Cell Longev. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/805850 Fischer CP (2006) Interleukin-6 in acute exercise and training: what is the biological relevance? Exerc Immunol Rev 12:6–33 Fogarty MC, Hughes CM, Burke G, Brown JC, Trinick TR, Duly E, Bailey DM, Davison GW (2011) Exercise-induced lipid peroxidation: implications for deoxyribonucleic acid damage and systemic free radical generation. Environ Mol Mutagen 52:35–42 Francois ME, Little JP (2015) Effectiveness and safety of high-intensity interval training in patients with type 2 diabetes. Res Pract 28:39–44 Gibala MJ, Little JP, Macdonald MJ, Hawley JA (2012) Physiological adaptations to low-volume, high-intensity interval training in health and disease. J Physiol 590:1077–1084 Gleeson M, Bishop NC, Stensel DJ, Lindley MR, Mastana SS, Nimmo MA (2011) The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: mechanisms and implications for the prevention and treatment of disease. Nat Rev Immunol 11:607–615 Haack M, Kraus T, Schuld A, Dalal M, Koethe D, Pollmacher T (2002) Diurnal variations of interleukin-6 plasma levels are confounded by blood drawing procedures. Psychoneuroendocr 27:921–931 Harris RA, Padilla J, Hanlon KP, Rink LD, Wallace JP (2008) The flow-mediated dilation response to acute exercise in overweight active and inactive men. Obes 16:578–584 He F, Li J, Liu Z, Chuang C-C, Yang W, Zuo L (2016) Redox mechanism of reactive oxygen species in exercise. Front Physiol. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2016.00486 Hood MS, Little JP, Tarnopolsky MA, Myslik F, Gibala MJ (2011) Low-volume interval training improves muscle oxidative capacity in sedentary adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43:1849–1856 Howley ET, Bassett DR, Welch HG (1995) Criteria for maximal oxygen uptake: review and commentary. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27:1292–1301 Kefaloyianni E, Gaitanaki C, Beis I (2006) ERK 1/2 and p38-MAPK signalling pathways, through MSK1, are involved in NF-κB transactivation during oxidative stress in skeletal myoblasts. Cell Signal 18:2238–2251 Kramer HF, Goodyear LJ (2007) Exercise, MAPK, and NF-κB signalling in skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 103:388–395 Leggate M, Nowell MA, Jones SA, Nimmo MA (2010) The response of interleukin-6 and soluble interleukin-6 receptor isoforms following intermittent high intensity and continuous moderate intensity cycling. Cell Stress Chaperones 15:827–833 Li TL, Gleeson M (2005) The effects of carbohydrate supplementation during the second of two prolonged cycling bouts on immunoendocrine responses. Eur J Appl Physiol 95:391–399 Little JP, Gillen JB, Percival ME, Safdar A, Tarnopolsky MA, Punthakee Z, Jung ME, Gibala MJ (2011a) Low-volume high-intensity interval training reduces hyperglycemia and increases muscle mitochondrial capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Appl Physiol 111:1554–1560 Little JP, Safdar A, Bishop D, Tarnopolsky MA, Gibala MJ (2011b) An acute bout of high-intensity interval training increases the nuclear abundance of PGC-1α and activates mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 300:1303–1310 Maeda S, Sugawara J, Yoshizawa M, Otsuki T, Shimojo N, Jesmin S, Ajisaka R, Miyauchi T, Tanaka H (2009) Involvement of endothelin-1 in habitual exercise-induced increase in arterial compliance. Acta Physiol 196:223–229 McClean C, Harris RA, Brown M, Brown JC, Davison GW (2015) Effects of exercise intensity on post-exercise endothelial function and oxidative stress. Oxid Med Cell Longev. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/723679 Mendham AE, Donges CE, Liberts EA, Duffield R (2011) Effects of mode and intensity on the acute exercise-induced IL-6 and CRP responses in a sedentary, overweight population. Eur J Appl Physiol 111:1035–1045 Michailidis Y, Jamurtas AZ, Nikolaidis MG, Fatouros IG, Koutedakis Y, Papassotiriou I, Kouretas D (2007) Sampling time is crucial for measurement of aerobic exercise-induced oxidative stress. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:1107–1113 Mihara M, Hashizume M, Yoshida H, Suzuki M, Shiina M (2012) IL-6/IL-6 receptor system and its role in physiological and pathological conditions. Clin Sci 122:143–159 Murphy MH, Nevill AM, Murtagh EM, Holder RL (2007) The effect of walking on fitness, fatness and resting blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomised, controlled trials. Prev Med 44:377–385 Nieman DC, Henson DA, Austin MD, Brown VA (2005) Immune response to a 30-minute walk. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:57–62 Ost M, Coleman V, Kasch J, Klaus S (2016) Regulation of myokine expression: role of exercise and cellular stress. Free Radic Biol Med 98:78–89 Ostrowski K, Rohde T, Asp S, Schjerling P, Pedersen BK (2001) Chemokines are elevated in plasma after strenuous exercise in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 84:244–245 Parker L, McGuckin TA, Leicht AS (2014) Influence of exercise intensity on systemic oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 34:377–383 Peake JM, Suzuki K, Coombes JS (2007) The influence of antioxidant supplementation on markers of inflammation and the relationship to oxidative stress after exercise. J Nutr Biochem 18:357–371 Peake JM, Della Gatta P, Suzuki K, Nieman DC (2015) Cytokine expression and secretion by skeletal muscle cells: regulatory mechanisms and exercise effects. Exerc Immunol Rev 21:8–25 Pennathur S, Maitra D, Byun J, Sliskovic I, Abdulhamid I, Saed GM, Diamond MP, Abu-Soud HM (2010) Potent antioxidative activity of lycopene: a potential role in scavenging hypochlorous acid. Free Radic Biol Med 49:205–213 Petersen AM, Pedersen BK (2005) The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. J Appl Physiol 98:1154–1162 Powers SK, Jackson MJ (2008) Exercise-induced oxidative stress: cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production. Physiol Rev 88:1243–1276 Powers SK, Talbert EE, Adhihetty PJ (2011) Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as intracellular signals in skeletal muscle. J Physiol 589:2129–2138 Quindry JC, Stone WL, King J, Broeder CE (2003) The effects of acute exercise on neutrophils and plasma oxidative stress. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:1139–1145 Radak Z, Zhao Z, Koltai E, Ohno H, Atalay M (2013) Oxygen consumption and usage during physical exercise: the balance between oxidative stress and ROS-dependent adaptive signalling. Antioxid Redox Signal 18:1208–1246 Sallam N, Laher I (2016) Exercise modulates oxidative stress and inflammation in aging and cardiovascular diseases. Oxid Med Cell Longev. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7239639 Scheele C, Nielsen S, Pedersen BK (2009) ROS and myokines promote muscle adaptation to exercise. Trends Endocr Metab 20:95–99 Scott JP, Sale C, Greeves JP, Casey A, Dutton J, Fraser WD (2011) Effect of exercise intensity on the cytokine response to an acute bout of running. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43:2297–2306 Sies H (2015) Oxidative stress: a concept in redox biology and medicine. Redox Biol 4:180–183 Stahl W, Sies H (2003) Antioxidant activity of carotenoids. Mol Asp Med 24:345–351 Steinberg JG, Ba A, Bregeon F, Delliaux S, Jammes Y (2007) Cytokine and oxidative responses to maximal cycling exercise in sedentary subjects. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:964–968 Suzuki K (2018) Cytokine response to exercise and its modulation. Antioxid. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7010017 Thompson D, Dixon N (2009) Measurement of postprandial interleukin-6 by using a catheter: what does it tell us? Am J Clin Nutr 90:1446–1447 Thurnham DI, Smith E, Flora PS (1988) Concurrent liquid-chromatographic assay of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin in plasma, with tocopherol acetate as internal standard. Clin Chem 34:377–381 Trayhurn P, Drevon CA, Eckel J (2011) Secreted proteins from adipose tissue and skeletal muscle—adipokines, myokines and adipose/muscle cross-talk. Arch Physiol Biochem 117:47–56 Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M, Telser J (2007) Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 39:44–84 Vassilakopoulos T, Karatza MH, Katsaounou P, Kollintza A, Zakynthinos S, Roussos C (2003) Antioxidants attenuate the plasma cytokine response to exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol 94:1025–1032 Veal EA, Day AM, Morgan BA (2007) Hydrogen peroxide sensing and signaling. Mol Cell 26:1–14 Welc SS, Clanton TL (2013) The regulation of interleukin-6 implicates skeletal muscle as an integrative stress sensor and endocrine organ. Exp Physiol 98:359–371",
year = "2018",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1007/s00421-018-3930-z",
language = "English",
volume = "118",
pages = "2111--2120",
journal = "European Journal of Applied Physiology",
issn = "1439-6319",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The acute effects of walking exercise intensity on systemic cytokines and oxidative stress

AU - Brown, Malcolm

AU - McClean, CM

AU - Davison, Gareth

AU - Brown, John

AU - Murphy, Marie H

N1 - Alessio HM, Hagerman AE, Fulkerson BK, Ambrose J, Rice RE, Wiley RL (2000) Generation of reactive oxygen species after exhaustive aerobic and isometric exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32:1576–1581 Altman DG (1980) Statistics and ethics in medical research: III How large a sample? Br Med J 281:1336–1338 Böhm F, Pernow J (2007) The importance of endothelin-1 for vascular dysfunction in cardiovascular disease. Cardiovasc Res 76:8–18 Boutcher SH (2011) High-intensity intermittent exercise and fat loss. J Obes. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/868305 Cawthorn WP, Sethi JK (2008) TNF-alpha and adipocyte biology. FEBS Lett 582:117–131 Chu WM (2013) Tumor necrosis factor. Cancer Lett 328:222–225 Davison GW, Ashton T, McEneny J, Young IS, Davies B, Bailey DM (2012) Critical difference applied to exercise-induced oxidative stress: the dilemma of distinguishing biological from statistical change. J Physiol Biochem 68:377–384 Dixon NC, Hurst TL, Talbot DC, Tyrrell RM, Thompson D (2009) Active middle-aged men have lower fasting inflammatory markers but the postprandial inflammatory response is minimal and unaffected by physical activity status. J Appl Physiol 107:63–68 Djordjevic DZ, Cubrilo DG, Puzovic VS, Vuletic MS, Zivkovic VI, Barudzic NS, Radovanovic DS, Djuric DM, Jakovljevic VL (2012) Changes in athletes redox state induced by habitual and unaccustomed exercise. Oxid Med Cell Longev. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/805850 Fischer CP (2006) Interleukin-6 in acute exercise and training: what is the biological relevance? Exerc Immunol Rev 12:6–33 Fogarty MC, Hughes CM, Burke G, Brown JC, Trinick TR, Duly E, Bailey DM, Davison GW (2011) Exercise-induced lipid peroxidation: implications for deoxyribonucleic acid damage and systemic free radical generation. Environ Mol Mutagen 52:35–42 Francois ME, Little JP (2015) Effectiveness and safety of high-intensity interval training in patients with type 2 diabetes. Res Pract 28:39–44 Gibala MJ, Little JP, Macdonald MJ, Hawley JA (2012) Physiological adaptations to low-volume, high-intensity interval training in health and disease. J Physiol 590:1077–1084 Gleeson M, Bishop NC, Stensel DJ, Lindley MR, Mastana SS, Nimmo MA (2011) The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: mechanisms and implications for the prevention and treatment of disease. Nat Rev Immunol 11:607–615 Haack M, Kraus T, Schuld A, Dalal M, Koethe D, Pollmacher T (2002) Diurnal variations of interleukin-6 plasma levels are confounded by blood drawing procedures. Psychoneuroendocr 27:921–931 Harris RA, Padilla J, Hanlon KP, Rink LD, Wallace JP (2008) The flow-mediated dilation response to acute exercise in overweight active and inactive men. Obes 16:578–584 He F, Li J, Liu Z, Chuang C-C, Yang W, Zuo L (2016) Redox mechanism of reactive oxygen species in exercise. Front Physiol. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2016.00486 Hood MS, Little JP, Tarnopolsky MA, Myslik F, Gibala MJ (2011) Low-volume interval training improves muscle oxidative capacity in sedentary adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43:1849–1856 Howley ET, Bassett DR, Welch HG (1995) Criteria for maximal oxygen uptake: review and commentary. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27:1292–1301 Kefaloyianni E, Gaitanaki C, Beis I (2006) ERK 1/2 and p38-MAPK signalling pathways, through MSK1, are involved in NF-κB transactivation during oxidative stress in skeletal myoblasts. Cell Signal 18:2238–2251 Kramer HF, Goodyear LJ (2007) Exercise, MAPK, and NF-κB signalling in skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 103:388–395 Leggate M, Nowell MA, Jones SA, Nimmo MA (2010) The response of interleukin-6 and soluble interleukin-6 receptor isoforms following intermittent high intensity and continuous moderate intensity cycling. Cell Stress Chaperones 15:827–833 Li TL, Gleeson M (2005) The effects of carbohydrate supplementation during the second of two prolonged cycling bouts on immunoendocrine responses. Eur J Appl Physiol 95:391–399 Little JP, Gillen JB, Percival ME, Safdar A, Tarnopolsky MA, Punthakee Z, Jung ME, Gibala MJ (2011a) Low-volume high-intensity interval training reduces hyperglycemia and increases muscle mitochondrial capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Appl Physiol 111:1554–1560 Little JP, Safdar A, Bishop D, Tarnopolsky MA, Gibala MJ (2011b) An acute bout of high-intensity interval training increases the nuclear abundance of PGC-1α and activates mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 300:1303–1310 Maeda S, Sugawara J, Yoshizawa M, Otsuki T, Shimojo N, Jesmin S, Ajisaka R, Miyauchi T, Tanaka H (2009) Involvement of endothelin-1 in habitual exercise-induced increase in arterial compliance. Acta Physiol 196:223–229 McClean C, Harris RA, Brown M, Brown JC, Davison GW (2015) Effects of exercise intensity on post-exercise endothelial function and oxidative stress. Oxid Med Cell Longev. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/723679 Mendham AE, Donges CE, Liberts EA, Duffield R (2011) Effects of mode and intensity on the acute exercise-induced IL-6 and CRP responses in a sedentary, overweight population. Eur J Appl Physiol 111:1035–1045 Michailidis Y, Jamurtas AZ, Nikolaidis MG, Fatouros IG, Koutedakis Y, Papassotiriou I, Kouretas D (2007) Sampling time is crucial for measurement of aerobic exercise-induced oxidative stress. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:1107–1113 Mihara M, Hashizume M, Yoshida H, Suzuki M, Shiina M (2012) IL-6/IL-6 receptor system and its role in physiological and pathological conditions. Clin Sci 122:143–159 Murphy MH, Nevill AM, Murtagh EM, Holder RL (2007) The effect of walking on fitness, fatness and resting blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomised, controlled trials. Prev Med 44:377–385 Nieman DC, Henson DA, Austin MD, Brown VA (2005) Immune response to a 30-minute walk. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:57–62 Ost M, Coleman V, Kasch J, Klaus S (2016) Regulation of myokine expression: role of exercise and cellular stress. Free Radic Biol Med 98:78–89 Ostrowski K, Rohde T, Asp S, Schjerling P, Pedersen BK (2001) Chemokines are elevated in plasma after strenuous exercise in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 84:244–245 Parker L, McGuckin TA, Leicht AS (2014) Influence of exercise intensity on systemic oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 34:377–383 Peake JM, Suzuki K, Coombes JS (2007) The influence of antioxidant supplementation on markers of inflammation and the relationship to oxidative stress after exercise. J Nutr Biochem 18:357–371 Peake JM, Della Gatta P, Suzuki K, Nieman DC (2015) Cytokine expression and secretion by skeletal muscle cells: regulatory mechanisms and exercise effects. Exerc Immunol Rev 21:8–25 Pennathur S, Maitra D, Byun J, Sliskovic I, Abdulhamid I, Saed GM, Diamond MP, Abu-Soud HM (2010) Potent antioxidative activity of lycopene: a potential role in scavenging hypochlorous acid. Free Radic Biol Med 49:205–213 Petersen AM, Pedersen BK (2005) The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. J Appl Physiol 98:1154–1162 Powers SK, Jackson MJ (2008) Exercise-induced oxidative stress: cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production. Physiol Rev 88:1243–1276 Powers SK, Talbert EE, Adhihetty PJ (2011) Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as intracellular signals in skeletal muscle. J Physiol 589:2129–2138 Quindry JC, Stone WL, King J, Broeder CE (2003) The effects of acute exercise on neutrophils and plasma oxidative stress. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:1139–1145 Radak Z, Zhao Z, Koltai E, Ohno H, Atalay M (2013) Oxygen consumption and usage during physical exercise: the balance between oxidative stress and ROS-dependent adaptive signalling. Antioxid Redox Signal 18:1208–1246 Sallam N, Laher I (2016) Exercise modulates oxidative stress and inflammation in aging and cardiovascular diseases. Oxid Med Cell Longev. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7239639 Scheele C, Nielsen S, Pedersen BK (2009) ROS and myokines promote muscle adaptation to exercise. Trends Endocr Metab 20:95–99 Scott JP, Sale C, Greeves JP, Casey A, Dutton J, Fraser WD (2011) Effect of exercise intensity on the cytokine response to an acute bout of running. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43:2297–2306 Sies H (2015) Oxidative stress: a concept in redox biology and medicine. Redox Biol 4:180–183 Stahl W, Sies H (2003) Antioxidant activity of carotenoids. Mol Asp Med 24:345–351 Steinberg JG, Ba A, Bregeon F, Delliaux S, Jammes Y (2007) Cytokine and oxidative responses to maximal cycling exercise in sedentary subjects. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:964–968 Suzuki K (2018) Cytokine response to exercise and its modulation. Antioxid. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7010017 Thompson D, Dixon N (2009) Measurement of postprandial interleukin-6 by using a catheter: what does it tell us? Am J Clin Nutr 90:1446–1447 Thurnham DI, Smith E, Flora PS (1988) Concurrent liquid-chromatographic assay of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin in plasma, with tocopherol acetate as internal standard. Clin Chem 34:377–381 Trayhurn P, Drevon CA, Eckel J (2011) Secreted proteins from adipose tissue and skeletal muscle—adipokines, myokines and adipose/muscle cross-talk. Arch Physiol Biochem 117:47–56 Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M, Telser J (2007) Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 39:44–84 Vassilakopoulos T, Karatza MH, Katsaounou P, Kollintza A, Zakynthinos S, Roussos C (2003) Antioxidants attenuate the plasma cytokine response to exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol 94:1025–1032 Veal EA, Day AM, Morgan BA (2007) Hydrogen peroxide sensing and signaling. Mol Cell 26:1–14 Welc SS, Clanton TL (2013) The regulation of interleukin-6 implicates skeletal muscle as an integrative stress sensor and endocrine organ. Exp Physiol 98:359–371

PY - 2018/10

Y1 - 2018/10

N2 - Purpose Oxidative stress is associated with tissue cytokine secretion although the precise mechanism(s) underpinning this relationship during high intensity intermittent exercise remains unclear. This study investigates the acute response to a bout of high intensity intermittent walking (HIIW), compared to continuous moderate intensity walking (CMW), on various cytokines and biomarkers of oxidative stress.Methods Seventeen (n = 17) apparently healthy male participants (aged 22.6 ± 4.6 years; V˙O2maxV˙O2max : 53.7 ± 7.1 ml kg−1 min−1) undertook a randomised crossover study consisting of two exercise trials: (1) HIIW requiring 3 × 5 min bursts at 80% V˙O2maxV˙O2max (each separated by 5 min of walking at 30% V˙O2maxV˙O2max ) and (2) CMW (60% V˙O2maxV˙O2max for 30 min). Each trial was separated by 7 days. Venous blood samples were obtained pre-exercise, post-exercise and at 2, 4, 24 and 48 h post-exercise for determination of systemic inflammation (IL-6 and TNF-α), lipid soluble antioxidants and oxidative stress (LOOH, H2O2 and the ascorbyl free radical). Results Both IL-6 and TNF-α increased immediately post exercise, regardless of intensity and remained elevated until at least 4 h (main effect for time; p < 0.05). While there was no change in either lipid peroxidation or free radical metabolism (Asc· and H2O2), α-tocopherol increased (pooled HIIW and CMW, p < 0.05), whereas lycopene decreased at 2 h post HIIW (p < 0.05).Conclusion Bouts of both HIIW and CMW promote cytokine secretion post exercise, and this seems to be independent of oxidative stress. Further investigation is required to assess how such changes may underpin some of the transient health benefits of exercise.

AB - Purpose Oxidative stress is associated with tissue cytokine secretion although the precise mechanism(s) underpinning this relationship during high intensity intermittent exercise remains unclear. This study investigates the acute response to a bout of high intensity intermittent walking (HIIW), compared to continuous moderate intensity walking (CMW), on various cytokines and biomarkers of oxidative stress.Methods Seventeen (n = 17) apparently healthy male participants (aged 22.6 ± 4.6 years; V˙O2maxV˙O2max : 53.7 ± 7.1 ml kg−1 min−1) undertook a randomised crossover study consisting of two exercise trials: (1) HIIW requiring 3 × 5 min bursts at 80% V˙O2maxV˙O2max (each separated by 5 min of walking at 30% V˙O2maxV˙O2max ) and (2) CMW (60% V˙O2maxV˙O2max for 30 min). Each trial was separated by 7 days. Venous blood samples were obtained pre-exercise, post-exercise and at 2, 4, 24 and 48 h post-exercise for determination of systemic inflammation (IL-6 and TNF-α), lipid soluble antioxidants and oxidative stress (LOOH, H2O2 and the ascorbyl free radical). Results Both IL-6 and TNF-α increased immediately post exercise, regardless of intensity and remained elevated until at least 4 h (main effect for time; p < 0.05). While there was no change in either lipid peroxidation or free radical metabolism (Asc· and H2O2), α-tocopherol increased (pooled HIIW and CMW, p < 0.05), whereas lycopene decreased at 2 h post HIIW (p < 0.05).Conclusion Bouts of both HIIW and CMW promote cytokine secretion post exercise, and this seems to be independent of oxidative stress. Further investigation is required to assess how such changes may underpin some of the transient health benefits of exercise.

KW - Walking

KW - High intensity intermittent exercise

KW - Oxidative Stress

KW - Cytokine

UR - https://pure.ulster.ac.uk/en/searchAll/index/?search=12499235&pageSize=25&showAdvanced=false&allConcepts=true&inferConcepts=true&searchBy=PartOfNameOrTitle

U2 - 10.1007/s00421-018-3930-z

DO - 10.1007/s00421-018-3930-z

M3 - Article

VL - 118

SP - 2111

EP - 2120

JO - European Journal of Applied Physiology

T2 - European Journal of Applied Physiology

JF - European Journal of Applied Physiology

SN - 1439-6319

IS - 10

ER -