The 4RS Framework: Analyzing Education's Contribution to Sustainable Peacebuilding with Social Justice in Conflict-affected Contexts

Mario Novelli, Mieke Lopes Cardozo, Alan Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This paper lays out a theoretical and analytical framework for researching and reflecting on the peacebuilding role of education in conflict-affected contexts. The 4Rs framework recognizes that working toward “positive peace” (Galtung 1976, 1990) requires working toward peace with social justice and reconciliation, challenging dominant “security-first” and “liberal peace” models, and gaining a better understanding of how education might support these processes in building sustainable and peaceful postconflict societies. The 4Rs framework combines dimensions of recognition, redistribution, representation, and reconciliation to explore what sustainable peacebuilding might look like through a social justice lens. The paper addresses the cultural translation of these concepts, highlighting the need for locally embedded interpretations. Rather than a fixed theoretical model, the 4Rs approach is designed as a heuristic device that promotes a dialogue among key stakeholders on the dilemmas and challenges in the field of education in emergencies. We highlight the application of a 4Rs framework through a recent case study of Myanmar, which demonstrates both the interrelated connections and the tensions between the different “Rs.” Finally, we reflect on the challenges and limitations of the approach, and the tasks ahead.
LanguageEnglish
Pages14-43
JournalJournal on Education in Emergencies
Volume3
Issue number1
Early online date30 Jul 2017
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 30 Jul 2017

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social justice
peace
reconciliation
education
Myanmar
redistribution
heuristics
dialogue
stakeholder
interpretation
society

Keywords

  • education conflict peacebuilding

Cite this

@article{cdfe14b09eed4fcc9b26e18b0dd4ebeb,
title = "The 4RS Framework: Analyzing Education's Contribution to Sustainable Peacebuilding with Social Justice in Conflict-affected Contexts",
abstract = "This paper lays out a theoretical and analytical framework for researching and reflecting on the peacebuilding role of education in conflict-affected contexts. The 4Rs framework recognizes that working toward “positive peace” (Galtung 1976, 1990) requires working toward peace with social justice and reconciliation, challenging dominant “security-first” and “liberal peace” models, and gaining a better understanding of how education might support these processes in building sustainable and peaceful postconflict societies. The 4Rs framework combines dimensions of recognition, redistribution, representation, and reconciliation to explore what sustainable peacebuilding might look like through a social justice lens. The paper addresses the cultural translation of these concepts, highlighting the need for locally embedded interpretations. Rather than a fixed theoretical model, the 4Rs approach is designed as a heuristic device that promotes a dialogue among key stakeholders on the dilemmas and challenges in the field of education in emergencies. We highlight the application of a 4Rs framework through a recent case study of Myanmar, which demonstrates both the interrelated connections and the tensions between the different “Rs.” Finally, we reflect on the challenges and limitations of the approach, and the tasks ahead.",
keywords = "education conflict peacebuilding",
author = "Mario Novelli and {Lopes Cardozo}, Mieke and Alan Smith",
note = "UIR Compliant - evidence uploaded to other files Reference text: Allport, Gordon. 1954. The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Barnett, Michael, Hunjoon Kim, Madalene O’Donnell, and Laura Sitea. 2007. “Peacebuilding: What Is in a Name?” Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations 13 (1): 35-58. Bush, Kenneth D., and Diana Saltarelli, eds. 2000. The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict: Towards a Peacebuilding Education for Children. Florence, Italy: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. Casta{\~n}eda, Carla. 2009. “How Liberal Peacebuilding May be Failing Sierra Leone.” Review of African Political Economy 36 (120): 235-51. Connell, Raewyn. 2012. “Just Education.” Journal of Education Policy 27 (5): 681-83. Dale, Roger. 2005. “Globalisation, Knowledge Economy and Comparative Education.” Comparative Education 41 (2): 117-49. Dale, Roger, and Susan L. Robertson. 2009. “Beyond Methodological ‘Isms’ in Comparative Education in an Era of Globalisation.” In Handbook on Comparative Education, edited by Andreas M. Kazamias and Robert Cowen. Dordrecht: Springer, 1113-28. Datzberger, Simone, Alan McCully, and Alan Smith. 2015. Education and Peacebuilding in Uganda. New York: UNICEF. Denney, Lisa. 2011. “Reducing Poverty with Teargas and Batons: The Security-Development Nexus in Sierra Leone.” African Affairs 110 (439): 275-94. Duffield, Mark. 1998. “Post Modern Conflict: Warlords, Post‐Adjustment States and Private Protection.” Civil Wars 1 (1): 65-102. Duncan, Ross, and Mieke T. A. Lopes Cardozo. 2017. “Reclaiming Reconciliation through Community Education for the Muslims and Tamils of Post-War Jaffna, Sri Lanka.” Research in Comparative and International Education 12(1): 76-94. Fraser, Nancy. 1995. “From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of Justice in a ‘Post-Socialist’ Age.” New Left Review 1 (212): 68-93. Fraser, Nancy. 2005. “Reframing Justice in a Globalized World.” New Left Review 36: 79-88. Galtung, Johan. 1976. “Three Realistic Approaches to Peace: Peacekeeping, Peacemaking and Peacebuilding.” Impact of Science on Society 26 (1-2): 103-15. Galtung, Johan. 1990. “Cultural Violence.” Journal of Peace Research 27 (3): 291-305. Hamber, Brandon. 2007. “Forgiveness and Reconciliation: Paradise Lost or Pragmatism?” Peace and Conflict 13 (1): 115-25. Hamber, Brandon. 2009. Transforming Societies after Political Violence: Truth, Reconciliation, and Mental Health. New York: Springer. Hamber, Brandon, and Gr{\'a}inne Kelly. 2004. “A Working Definition of Reconciliation.” http://www.brandonhamber. com/pubs_papers.htm. July 2017 39 Heathershaw, John. 2008. “Unpacking the Liberal Peace: The Dividing and Merging of Peacebuilding Discourses.” Millennium: Journal of International Studies 3: 597-621. Higgins, Sean, Elizabeth Maber, Mieke T. A. Lopes Cardozo, and Ritesh Shah. 2016. Education and Peacebuilding in Myanmar. Research Consortium Education and Peacebuilding, University of Amsterdam; summary of report is available online, https://educationanddevelopment.wordpress.com/rp/outputs-research-consortium/. Jessop, Bob. 2005. “Critical Realism and the Strategic-Relational Approach.” New Formations 56: 40-53. Keddie, Amanda. 2012. “Schooling and Social Justice through the Lenses of Nancy Fraser.” Critical Studies in Education 53 (3): 263-79. Lederach, John Paul. 1995. Preparing for Peace: Conflict Transformation across Cultures. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. Lederach, John Paul. 1997. Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. Washington, DC: U.S. Institute of Peace Press. Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A., Sean Higgins, and Marielle L. J. Le Mat. 2016. “Youth Agency and Peacebuilding: An Analysis of the Role of Formal and Non-Formal Education Synthesis Report on Findings from Myanmar, Pakistan, South Africa and Uganda.” Research Consortium Education and Peacebuilding, University of Amsterdam. https://educationanddevelopment. files.wordpress.com/2016/06/youth-agency-synthesis-report-final16.pdf. Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A., and Celine M. Q. Hoeks. 2014. “Losing Ground: A Critical Analysis of Teachers’ Agency for Peacebuilding Education in Sri Lanka.” Journal of Peace Education 12 (1): 56-73. Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A., and Ritesh Shah. 2016. “A Conceptual Framework to Analyse the Multiscalar Politics of Education for Sustainable Peacebuilding.” Comparative Education 52 (4):1-22. McCandless, Erin. 2011. Peace Dividends and Beyond: Contributions of Administrative and Social Services to Peacebuilding. New York: United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office. Novelli, Mario. 2010. “The New Geopolitics of Educational Aid: from Cold Wars to Holy Wars?” International Journal of Educational Development 30: 453-59. Novelli, Mario. 2011a. “The Role of Education in Peacebuilding: Methodological Framework for Three Country Case Studies.” New York: UNICEF. Novelli, Mario. 2011b. “The Role of Education in Peacebuilding: Sierra Leone Case Study.” New York: UNICEF. Novelli, Mario. 2012. The Merging of Security and Development in the Education Sector: Discourses, Programmes and Effects (Discussion paper for the Open Society Foundation, Education Support Programme). London: OSI. Novelli, Mario, Gabrielle Daoust, Jan Selby, Oscar Valiente, Rosario Scandura, Luka Biong Deng Kuol, and Emma Salter. 2016. “Education Sector Governance, Inequality, Conflict and Peacebuilding in South Sudan, (Research Report UNICEF Eastern and Southern Regional Office). New York: UNICEF. Novelli, Mario, Sean Higgins, Mehmet Ugur, and Oscar Valiente. 2014. Rigorous Literature Review of the Political Economy of Education Systems in Conflict Affected States. London: DFID. Novelli, Mario, and Mieke T. A. Lopes Cardozo. 2008. “Conflict, Education and the Global South: New Critical Directions.” International Journal of Educational Development 28 (4): 473-88. Novelli, Mario, and Mieke T. A. Lopes Cardozo. 2012. “Globalizing Educational Interventions in Zones of Conflict: The Role of Dutch Aid to Education and Conflict.” In Global Education Policy and International Development: New Agendas, Issues and Policies, edited by Antoni Verger, Mario Novelli, and H. Kosar Altinyelken. London: Continuum, 223-44. Novelli, Mario, and Alan Smith. 2011. “The Role of Education in Peacebuilding: A Synthesis Report of Findings from Lebanon, Nepal and Sierra Leone.” UNICEF: New York. Paris, Roland. 2004. At War’s End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. July 2017 41 Paris, Roland. 2010. “Saving Liberal Peacebuilding.” Review of International Studies 36 (2): 337-65. Pugh, Michael, Neil Cooper, and Mandy Turner. 2011. Whose Peace? Critical Perspectives on the Political Economy of Peacebuilding. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Research Consortium on Education and Peacebuilding. 2014. “Introducing the Research: Research Briefing 1.” https://educationanddevelopment.wordpress.com/rp/research-consortium-education-and-peacebuilding/. Richmond, Oliver, Annika Bj{\"o}rkdahl, and Stefanie Kappler. 2011. “The Emerging EU Peacebuilding Framework: Confirming or Transcending Liberal Peacebuilding?” Cambridge Review of International Affairs 24 (3): 449-69. Richmond, Oliver, and Annika Mitchell. 2012. Hybrid Forms of Peace: From Everyday Agency to Post-Liberalism. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Robertson, Susan L., and Roger Dale. 2013. “The Social Justice Implications of Privatisation in Education Governance Frameworks: A Relational Account.” Oxford Review of Education 39 (4): 426-45. Robertson, Susan L., and Roger Dale. 2014. “Toward a ‘Critical Cultural Political Economy’ Account of the Globalising of Education.” Paper presented at the 55th Comparative and International Education Society Conference, Toronto, March 9-14. Santos, Boaventura de Sousa. 1998. “Oppositional Postmodernism and Globalizations.” Law and Social Inquiry 23 (1): 121-39. Santos, Boaventura de Sousa. 2007. Cognitive Justice in a Global World: Prudent Knowledges for a Decent Life. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, Lexington Books. Selby, Jan. 2013. “The Myth of Liberal Peace-Building.” Conflict, Security & Development 13 (1): 57-86. Shah, Ritesh, and Mieke T. A. Lopes Cardozo. 2015. “The Politics of Education in Emergencies and Conflict.” In Education and International Development: An Introduction, edited by T. McCowan and E. Unterhalter. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 181-200. Shah, Ritesh, and Mieke T. A. Lopes Cardozo. 2014. “Building Peace and Social Justice through Education in Aceh, Indonesia?” International Journal for Educational Development 38: 2-12. Smith, Alan. 2005. “Education in the 21st Century: Conflict, Reconstruction and Reconciliation.” Compare, Journal of the British Association for International and Comparative Education 36 (4): 373-91. Smith, Alan. 2010. The Influence of Education on Conflict and Peace Building. (Paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2011, The Hidden Crisis: Armed Conflict and Education”). Paris: UNESCO. Smith, Alan. 2014. “Contemporary Challenges for Education in Conflict Affected Countries.” Journal of International and Comparative Education (3) 1: 113-25. Smith, Alan, Simone Datzberger, and Alan McCully. 2016. “The Integration of Education and Peacebuilding: Synthesis Report on Myanmar, Pakistan, South Africa and India.” New York: UNICEF. Smith, Alan, Caroline Marks, Mario Novelli, Oscar Valiente, and Rosario Scandurra. 2016. The Links between Equity, Governance, Education and Peacebuilding in Kenya. Nairobi: UNICEF. Smith, Alan, Erin McCandless, Julia Paulson, and Wendy Wheaton. 2011. Education and Peacebuilding in Post-Conflict Contexts: A Literature Review. New York: UNICEF. Smith, Alan, and Tony Vaux. 2003. Education, Conflict and International Development. London: DfID. Sum, Ngai-Ling, and Bob Jessop. 2013. Towards a Cultural Political Economy: Putting Culture in Its Place in Political Economy. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. Tikly, Leon, and Angeline M. Barrett. 2011. “Social Justice, Capabilities and the Quality of Education in Low Income Countries.” International Journal of Educational Development 31 (1): 3-14. Vaux, Tony. 2011. UNICEF Research Project on the Role of Education in Peacebuilding in Crisis and Post-Conflict Contexts: Nepal Case Study. New York: UNICEF. Winthrop, Rebecca, and Elena Matsui. 2013. A New Agenda for Education in Fragile States (Working paper No. 10). Washington, DC: Center for Universal Education at the Brookings Institution. Young, Iris Marion. 2006. “Responsibility and Global Justice: A Social Connection Model.” Social Philosophy & Policy Foundation 23 (1): 102-30. Zakharia, Zeena. 2011. UNICEF Research Project on the Role of Education in Peacebuilding in Crisis and Post-Conflict Contexts: Lebanon Case Study. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund. Zwarteveen, Margreet Z., and Rutgerd Boelens. 2014. “Defining, Researching and Struggling for Water Justice: Some Conceptual Building Blocks for Research and Action. Water International 39 (2): 143-58.",
year = "2017",
month = "7",
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journal = "Journal on Education in Emergencies",
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The 4RS Framework: Analyzing Education's Contribution to Sustainable Peacebuilding with Social Justice in Conflict-affected Contexts. / Novelli, Mario; Lopes Cardozo, Mieke; Smith, Alan.

In: Journal on Education in Emergencies, Vol. 3, No. 1, 30.07.2017, p. 14-43.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - The 4RS Framework: Analyzing Education's Contribution to Sustainable Peacebuilding with Social Justice in Conflict-affected Contexts

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N1 - UIR Compliant - evidence uploaded to other files Reference text: Allport, Gordon. 1954. The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Barnett, Michael, Hunjoon Kim, Madalene O’Donnell, and Laura Sitea. 2007. “Peacebuilding: What Is in a Name?” Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations 13 (1): 35-58. Bush, Kenneth D., and Diana Saltarelli, eds. 2000. The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict: Towards a Peacebuilding Education for Children. Florence, Italy: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. Castañeda, Carla. 2009. “How Liberal Peacebuilding May be Failing Sierra Leone.” Review of African Political Economy 36 (120): 235-51. Connell, Raewyn. 2012. “Just Education.” Journal of Education Policy 27 (5): 681-83. Dale, Roger. 2005. “Globalisation, Knowledge Economy and Comparative Education.” Comparative Education 41 (2): 117-49. Dale, Roger, and Susan L. Robertson. 2009. “Beyond Methodological ‘Isms’ in Comparative Education in an Era of Globalisation.” In Handbook on Comparative Education, edited by Andreas M. Kazamias and Robert Cowen. Dordrecht: Springer, 1113-28. Datzberger, Simone, Alan McCully, and Alan Smith. 2015. Education and Peacebuilding in Uganda. New York: UNICEF. Denney, Lisa. 2011. “Reducing Poverty with Teargas and Batons: The Security-Development Nexus in Sierra Leone.” African Affairs 110 (439): 275-94. Duffield, Mark. 1998. “Post Modern Conflict: Warlords, Post‐Adjustment States and Private Protection.” Civil Wars 1 (1): 65-102. Duncan, Ross, and Mieke T. A. Lopes Cardozo. 2017. “Reclaiming Reconciliation through Community Education for the Muslims and Tamils of Post-War Jaffna, Sri Lanka.” Research in Comparative and International Education 12(1): 76-94. Fraser, Nancy. 1995. “From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of Justice in a ‘Post-Socialist’ Age.” New Left Review 1 (212): 68-93. Fraser, Nancy. 2005. “Reframing Justice in a Globalized World.” New Left Review 36: 79-88. Galtung, Johan. 1976. “Three Realistic Approaches to Peace: Peacekeeping, Peacemaking and Peacebuilding.” Impact of Science on Society 26 (1-2): 103-15. Galtung, Johan. 1990. “Cultural Violence.” Journal of Peace Research 27 (3): 291-305. Hamber, Brandon. 2007. “Forgiveness and Reconciliation: Paradise Lost or Pragmatism?” Peace and Conflict 13 (1): 115-25. Hamber, Brandon. 2009. Transforming Societies after Political Violence: Truth, Reconciliation, and Mental Health. New York: Springer. Hamber, Brandon, and Gráinne Kelly. 2004. “A Working Definition of Reconciliation.” http://www.brandonhamber. com/pubs_papers.htm. July 2017 39 Heathershaw, John. 2008. “Unpacking the Liberal Peace: The Dividing and Merging of Peacebuilding Discourses.” Millennium: Journal of International Studies 3: 597-621. Higgins, Sean, Elizabeth Maber, Mieke T. A. Lopes Cardozo, and Ritesh Shah. 2016. Education and Peacebuilding in Myanmar. Research Consortium Education and Peacebuilding, University of Amsterdam; summary of report is available online, https://educationanddevelopment.wordpress.com/rp/outputs-research-consortium/. Jessop, Bob. 2005. “Critical Realism and the Strategic-Relational Approach.” New Formations 56: 40-53. Keddie, Amanda. 2012. “Schooling and Social Justice through the Lenses of Nancy Fraser.” Critical Studies in Education 53 (3): 263-79. Lederach, John Paul. 1995. Preparing for Peace: Conflict Transformation across Cultures. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. Lederach, John Paul. 1997. Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. Washington, DC: U.S. Institute of Peace Press. Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A., Sean Higgins, and Marielle L. J. Le Mat. 2016. “Youth Agency and Peacebuilding: An Analysis of the Role of Formal and Non-Formal Education Synthesis Report on Findings from Myanmar, Pakistan, South Africa and Uganda.” Research Consortium Education and Peacebuilding, University of Amsterdam. https://educationanddevelopment. files.wordpress.com/2016/06/youth-agency-synthesis-report-final16.pdf. Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A., and Celine M. Q. Hoeks. 2014. “Losing Ground: A Critical Analysis of Teachers’ Agency for Peacebuilding Education in Sri Lanka.” Journal of Peace Education 12 (1): 56-73. Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A., and Ritesh Shah. 2016. “A Conceptual Framework to Analyse the Multiscalar Politics of Education for Sustainable Peacebuilding.” Comparative Education 52 (4):1-22. McCandless, Erin. 2011. Peace Dividends and Beyond: Contributions of Administrative and Social Services to Peacebuilding. New York: United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office. Novelli, Mario. 2010. “The New Geopolitics of Educational Aid: from Cold Wars to Holy Wars?” International Journal of Educational Development 30: 453-59. Novelli, Mario. 2011a. “The Role of Education in Peacebuilding: Methodological Framework for Three Country Case Studies.” New York: UNICEF. Novelli, Mario. 2011b. “The Role of Education in Peacebuilding: Sierra Leone Case Study.” New York: UNICEF. Novelli, Mario. 2012. The Merging of Security and Development in the Education Sector: Discourses, Programmes and Effects (Discussion paper for the Open Society Foundation, Education Support Programme). London: OSI. Novelli, Mario, Gabrielle Daoust, Jan Selby, Oscar Valiente, Rosario Scandura, Luka Biong Deng Kuol, and Emma Salter. 2016. “Education Sector Governance, Inequality, Conflict and Peacebuilding in South Sudan, (Research Report UNICEF Eastern and Southern Regional Office). New York: UNICEF. Novelli, Mario, Sean Higgins, Mehmet Ugur, and Oscar Valiente. 2014. Rigorous Literature Review of the Political Economy of Education Systems in Conflict Affected States. London: DFID. Novelli, Mario, and Mieke T. A. Lopes Cardozo. 2008. “Conflict, Education and the Global South: New Critical Directions.” International Journal of Educational Development 28 (4): 473-88. Novelli, Mario, and Mieke T. A. Lopes Cardozo. 2012. “Globalizing Educational Interventions in Zones of Conflict: The Role of Dutch Aid to Education and Conflict.” In Global Education Policy and International Development: New Agendas, Issues and Policies, edited by Antoni Verger, Mario Novelli, and H. Kosar Altinyelken. London: Continuum, 223-44. Novelli, Mario, and Alan Smith. 2011. “The Role of Education in Peacebuilding: A Synthesis Report of Findings from Lebanon, Nepal and Sierra Leone.” UNICEF: New York. Paris, Roland. 2004. At War’s End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. July 2017 41 Paris, Roland. 2010. “Saving Liberal Peacebuilding.” Review of International Studies 36 (2): 337-65. Pugh, Michael, Neil Cooper, and Mandy Turner. 2011. Whose Peace? Critical Perspectives on the Political Economy of Peacebuilding. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Research Consortium on Education and Peacebuilding. 2014. “Introducing the Research: Research Briefing 1.” https://educationanddevelopment.wordpress.com/rp/research-consortium-education-and-peacebuilding/. Richmond, Oliver, Annika Björkdahl, and Stefanie Kappler. 2011. “The Emerging EU Peacebuilding Framework: Confirming or Transcending Liberal Peacebuilding?” Cambridge Review of International Affairs 24 (3): 449-69. Richmond, Oliver, and Annika Mitchell. 2012. Hybrid Forms of Peace: From Everyday Agency to Post-Liberalism. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Robertson, Susan L., and Roger Dale. 2013. “The Social Justice Implications of Privatisation in Education Governance Frameworks: A Relational Account.” Oxford Review of Education 39 (4): 426-45. Robertson, Susan L., and Roger Dale. 2014. “Toward a ‘Critical Cultural Political Economy’ Account of the Globalising of Education.” Paper presented at the 55th Comparative and International Education Society Conference, Toronto, March 9-14. Santos, Boaventura de Sousa. 1998. “Oppositional Postmodernism and Globalizations.” Law and Social Inquiry 23 (1): 121-39. Santos, Boaventura de Sousa. 2007. Cognitive Justice in a Global World: Prudent Knowledges for a Decent Life. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, Lexington Books. Selby, Jan. 2013. “The Myth of Liberal Peace-Building.” Conflict, Security & Development 13 (1): 57-86. Shah, Ritesh, and Mieke T. A. Lopes Cardozo. 2015. “The Politics of Education in Emergencies and Conflict.” In Education and International Development: An Introduction, edited by T. McCowan and E. Unterhalter. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 181-200. Shah, Ritesh, and Mieke T. A. Lopes Cardozo. 2014. “Building Peace and Social Justice through Education in Aceh, Indonesia?” International Journal for Educational Development 38: 2-12. Smith, Alan. 2005. “Education in the 21st Century: Conflict, Reconstruction and Reconciliation.” Compare, Journal of the British Association for International and Comparative Education 36 (4): 373-91. Smith, Alan. 2010. The Influence of Education on Conflict and Peace Building. (Paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2011, The Hidden Crisis: Armed Conflict and Education”). Paris: UNESCO. Smith, Alan. 2014. “Contemporary Challenges for Education in Conflict Affected Countries.” Journal of International and Comparative Education (3) 1: 113-25. Smith, Alan, Simone Datzberger, and Alan McCully. 2016. “The Integration of Education and Peacebuilding: Synthesis Report on Myanmar, Pakistan, South Africa and India.” New York: UNICEF. Smith, Alan, Caroline Marks, Mario Novelli, Oscar Valiente, and Rosario Scandurra. 2016. The Links between Equity, Governance, Education and Peacebuilding in Kenya. Nairobi: UNICEF. Smith, Alan, Erin McCandless, Julia Paulson, and Wendy Wheaton. 2011. Education and Peacebuilding in Post-Conflict Contexts: A Literature Review. New York: UNICEF. Smith, Alan, and Tony Vaux. 2003. Education, Conflict and International Development. London: DfID. Sum, Ngai-Ling, and Bob Jessop. 2013. Towards a Cultural Political Economy: Putting Culture in Its Place in Political Economy. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. Tikly, Leon, and Angeline M. Barrett. 2011. “Social Justice, Capabilities and the Quality of Education in Low Income Countries.” International Journal of Educational Development 31 (1): 3-14. Vaux, Tony. 2011. UNICEF Research Project on the Role of Education in Peacebuilding in Crisis and Post-Conflict Contexts: Nepal Case Study. New York: UNICEF. Winthrop, Rebecca, and Elena Matsui. 2013. A New Agenda for Education in Fragile States (Working paper No. 10). Washington, DC: Center for Universal Education at the Brookings Institution. Young, Iris Marion. 2006. “Responsibility and Global Justice: A Social Connection Model.” Social Philosophy & Policy Foundation 23 (1): 102-30. Zakharia, Zeena. 2011. UNICEF Research Project on the Role of Education in Peacebuilding in Crisis and Post-Conflict Contexts: Lebanon Case Study. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund. Zwarteveen, Margreet Z., and Rutgerd Boelens. 2014. “Defining, Researching and Struggling for Water Justice: Some Conceptual Building Blocks for Research and Action. Water International 39 (2): 143-58.

PY - 2017/7/30

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N2 - This paper lays out a theoretical and analytical framework for researching and reflecting on the peacebuilding role of education in conflict-affected contexts. The 4Rs framework recognizes that working toward “positive peace” (Galtung 1976, 1990) requires working toward peace with social justice and reconciliation, challenging dominant “security-first” and “liberal peace” models, and gaining a better understanding of how education might support these processes in building sustainable and peaceful postconflict societies. The 4Rs framework combines dimensions of recognition, redistribution, representation, and reconciliation to explore what sustainable peacebuilding might look like through a social justice lens. The paper addresses the cultural translation of these concepts, highlighting the need for locally embedded interpretations. Rather than a fixed theoretical model, the 4Rs approach is designed as a heuristic device that promotes a dialogue among key stakeholders on the dilemmas and challenges in the field of education in emergencies. We highlight the application of a 4Rs framework through a recent case study of Myanmar, which demonstrates both the interrelated connections and the tensions between the different “Rs.” Finally, we reflect on the challenges and limitations of the approach, and the tasks ahead.

AB - This paper lays out a theoretical and analytical framework for researching and reflecting on the peacebuilding role of education in conflict-affected contexts. The 4Rs framework recognizes that working toward “positive peace” (Galtung 1976, 1990) requires working toward peace with social justice and reconciliation, challenging dominant “security-first” and “liberal peace” models, and gaining a better understanding of how education might support these processes in building sustainable and peaceful postconflict societies. The 4Rs framework combines dimensions of recognition, redistribution, representation, and reconciliation to explore what sustainable peacebuilding might look like through a social justice lens. The paper addresses the cultural translation of these concepts, highlighting the need for locally embedded interpretations. Rather than a fixed theoretical model, the 4Rs approach is designed as a heuristic device that promotes a dialogue among key stakeholders on the dilemmas and challenges in the field of education in emergencies. We highlight the application of a 4Rs framework through a recent case study of Myanmar, which demonstrates both the interrelated connections and the tensions between the different “Rs.” Finally, we reflect on the challenges and limitations of the approach, and the tasks ahead.

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