Temperature on structural steelworks insulated by inorganic intumescent coating

J. Yoon Choi, Seng-Kwan Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Predicting the fire resistance of structures has been significantly advanced by full scale fire testsin conjunction with improved understanding of compartmental fire. Despite the progress, application of insulation is still required to parts of structural steelwork to achieve over 60 minutes of fire rating. It is now recognised that uncertainties on insulation properties hinder adaptation of performance based designs for different types of structures. Intumescent coating has recently appeared to be one of most popular insulation types for steel structures, but its design method remains to be confirmed by empirical data, as technical difficulties on the determination of the material properties at elevated temperatures exist. These need to take into account of further physiochemical transitions such as moving boundary and endothermic reaction. The impetus for this research is to investigate the applicability of the conventional differential equation solutionwhich examines the temperature rise on coated steel members by an inorganic intumescent coating, provided that the temperature–dependent thermal/mechanical insulation properties are experimentally defined in lab scale tests.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-14
JournalSteel and Composite Structures
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 15 Jul 2013

Bibliographical note

Reference text: Allen, B. (2001), “Intumescent coating solutions in fire scenarios”, The 2nd International Conferences on Composites in Fire, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, September.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) (2004), ASTM E1269-04, Standard Test Method for Determining Specific Heat Capacity by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, West Conshohocken, PA. Anderson, C.E., Dziuk, J., Mallow, W.A. and Buckmaster, J. (1985), “Intumescent reaction mechanism”, J.
Fire Sci., 3(3), 161-194. Association for Specialist Fire Protection (ASFP) (2010), Fire protection for structural steel in buildings, (4th Edition), UK.
Bailey, C.G. (2003), New Fire Design Method for Steel Frames with Composite Floor Slabs, FB5, BRE. Bourbigot, S., Duquesne, S. and Leroy, J. (1999), “Modelling of heat transfer of a polypropylene-based intumescent system during combustion”, J. Fire Sci., 17(1), 42-56.
British Standards Institution (BSI) (2003), PD7974 Application of fire safety engineering principles to the design of buildings: Part 3: Structural response and fire spread beyond the enclosure of origin, London.
British Standards Institution (BSI) (1987a), BS476 Fire Tests on Building Materials and Structures: Part 20: Method for Determination of the Fire Resistance of Elements of Construction (General Principles), London.
British Standards Institution (BSI) (1987b), BS476 Fire Tests on Building Materials and Structures: Part 21: Fire tests on building materials and structures - Methods for determination of the fire resistance of load bearing elements of construction, London.
British Standards Institution (BSI) (2005a), Eurocode 4: Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures – Pt. 1.2: General Rules‐Structural Fire Design, BS EN 1994‐1‐2:2005, London.
British Standards Institution (BSI) (2005b), Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures – Part 1‐2: General Rules‐Structural Fire Design, BS EN 1993‐1‐2:2005, London.
Dowling, J.J., Newman, L.C. and Simms, W.I. (2010) Structural Fire Design: Off-site Applied Thin Film Intumescent Coatings, (2nd Edition), Steel Construction Institute, UK, pp. 160.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (2001), ISO 11357-4: 2001 Plastics-Differential
scanning calorimeter (DSC) Part 4: Determination of specific heat capacity, Geneva.
Michot, A., Smith, D.S., Degot, S. and Gault, C. (2008), “Thermal conductivity and specific heat of
kaolinite-Evolution with thermal treatment”, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 28(14), 2639-2644.
Mitsuhashi, T. and Watanabe, A. (2000), “Anomalies in heat capacity measurements of RuO2 TiO2 system”, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 60(2), 683-689.
Omrane, A., Wang, Y.C., Goransson, U., Holmstedt, G. and Alden, M. (2007), “Intumescent coating surface temperature measurement in a cone calorimeter using laser-induced phosphorescence”, Fire Safety J., 42(1), 68-74.
Rezaei, H.R., Gupta, R.P., Bryant, G.W., Hart, J.T., Liu, G.S., Bailey, C.W., Wall, T.F., Miyamae, S.,
Makino, K. and Endo, Y. (2000) “Thermal conductivity of coal ash and slags and models used”, Fuel, 79(13), 1697-1710.
Staggs, J.E.J. (2008), “A theoretical appraisal of the effectiveness of idealised ablative coatings for steel protection”, Fire Safety J., 43(8), 618-629.
SteelConstruction.info (2012a), Cost of structural steelwork (online), [Accessed 1st Nov 2012],
SteelConstruction.info (2012b), Steel Insight – Cost planning through design process (online), [Accessed 1st Nov 2012], http://www.steelconstruction, info/File: Steel_Insight-3.pdf
Wall, T.F., Mai-Viet, T., Becker, H.B. and Gupta, R.P. (1979), “Fireside deposits and their effect on heat transfer in p.f. boilers: The emissivity and thermal conductivity of deposits and their components”,Proceedings Pulverized Coal firing - The Effects of Mineral Matter, University of Newcastle, L8.1-16.
Weijgert, H. (2012), Assessment of intumescent coatings using the differential equation analysis (online) [Accessed 1st Nov 2012], http://fire-research.group.shef.ac.uk/steelinfire/downloads/HvdW06.pdf
Wickstrom, U. (1985a), Application of the Standard Fire Curve for Expressing Natural Fires for Design Purposes, Fire Safety: Science and Engineering, ASTM STP 882, 145-159.
Wickstrom, U. (1985b), “Temperature analysis of heavily insulated steel structures exposed to fire”, Fire Safety J., 9(3), 281-285.
Wickstrom, U. (2005), “Comments on calculation of temperature in fire-exposed bare steel structures in prEN 1993-1-2: Eurocode 3 – design of steel structures – Part 1-2: General rules – structural fire design”, Fire Safety J., 40(2), 191-192.
Zhang, Y., Wang, Y.C., Bailey, C.G. and Taylor, A.P. (2012), “Global modelling of fire protection
performance of intumescent coating under different cone calorimeter heating conditions”, Fire Safety J., 50, 51-62.
Zotov, N. (2002), “Heat capacity of sodium silicate glasses: Comparison of experiments with computer simulations”, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 14(45), 11655-11669.


  • intumescent coating
  • temperature assessment
  • thermal property
  • steel structure


Dive into the research topics of 'Temperature on structural steelworks insulated by inorganic intumescent coating'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this