The aims of this study were to: (i) obtain temperature measurements during in vitro polymerisation of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) disks of a range of thicknesses; and (ii) obtain tissue temperature measurements at various locations within a skull defect during a simulated PMMA cranioplasty procedure using a cadaver. In vitro, higher temperatures were recorded with increasing PMMA thickness. During the simulated cranioplasty, the maximum temperature was observed inside the PMMA sample, with nearby tissues being exposed to temperatures of greater than 50 degrees C over prolonged periods. There is conflicting information in the literature concerning the sensitivity of brain tissue and bone to elevated temperatures. Preoperatively fabricated PMMA cranioplasty prostheses are recommended.