Teaching for democracy in the absence of transitional justice:The case of Northern Ireland

Elizabeth Anderson Worden, Alan Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In Northern Ireland, the 1998 Good Friday Agreement ended thirty years of civil conflict—known as ‘the Troubles’—by achieving nominal peace between the opposing factions. It did so, however, through a political power-sharing formula that had no provisions for state-sponsored transitional justice mechanisms. We ask to what extent education can promote the goals of transitional justice in the absence of a formal process. Drawing from qualitative data and using a new citizenship education programme in Northern Ireland as our case study, we argue that organizational constraints within the education system limit the potential of the programme. We also identify missed opportunities, such as the de-emphasis on the importance of teaching political literacy. Our findings have implications for other societies undergoing transition from violent conflict by highlighting the potential opportunities for citizenship education to aid in transitional justice efforts.
LanguageEnglish
Pages379-395
JournalComparative Education
Volume53
Issue number3
Early online date14 Jun 2017
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 14 Jun 2017

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justice
democracy
citizenship
Teaching
education
faction
political power
education system
peace
literacy
society

Keywords

  • citizenship education transitional justice Northern Ireland

Cite this

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title = "Teaching for democracy in the absence of transitional justice:The case of Northern Ireland",
abstract = "In Northern Ireland, the 1998 Good Friday Agreement ended thirty years of civil conflict—known as ‘the Troubles’—by achieving nominal peace between the opposing factions. It did so, however, through a political power-sharing formula that had no provisions for state-sponsored transitional justice mechanisms. We ask to what extent education can promote the goals of transitional justice in the absence of a formal process. Drawing from qualitative data and using a new citizenship education programme in Northern Ireland as our case study, we argue that organizational constraints within the education system limit the potential of the programme. We also identify missed opportunities, such as the de-emphasis on the importance of teaching political literacy. Our findings have implications for other societies undergoing transition from violent conflict by highlighting the potential opportunities for citizenship education to aid in transitional justice efforts.",
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author = "Worden, {Elizabeth Anderson} and Alan Smith",
note = "(REF-compliant in UIR; screenshot uploaded to 'Other files') Reference text: Anderson, Elizabeth A. 2007. “‘They are the Priests’: The Role of the Moldovan Historian and its Implications for Civic Education.” Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education 37 (3): 277-290. Arlow, M. 1999. “Citizenship education in a contested society”, Development Education Journal 6 (1): 14–15. Banks, James A. 2007. Diversity and Citizenship Education: Global Perspectives. Indianapolis: Jossey Bass. Barton, K. C., and A.W. Mccully. 2005. “History, Identity, and the School Curriculum in Northern Ireland: An Empirical Study of Secondary Students’ ideas and Perspectives.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 37 (1): 85–116. Bellino, M. J. 2015a. {"}So that We do not Fall Again: History Education and Citizenship in ‘Postwar’ Guatemala.{"} Comparative Education Review 60 (1): 58-79. Bellino, M.J., 2015b. The risks we are willing to take: Youth civic development in “postwar” Guatemala. Harvard Educational Review, 85(4): 537-561. Cole, E.A. 2007. Teaching the Violent Past. History Education and Reconciliation. Plymouth: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. Consultative Group on the Past. 2009. Report of the Consultative Group of the Past. House of Commons, Northern Ireland Affairs Committee. Available from: https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200910/cmselect/cmniaf/171/171.pdf (Accessed 20 Feb 2017). Davies, L. 2004. Education and Conflict: Complexity and Chaos. New York: Routledge. Davies, L. 2005. “Teaching about Conflict through Citizenship Education.” International Journal of Citizenship and Teacher Education 1(2): 17-34. Emerson, Leslie. 2012. “Conflict, Transition and Education for ‘Political Generosity’: Learning from the Experience of Ex-Combatants in Northern Ireland. Journal of Peace Education, 9 (3), 277-295. Fay, M. T., M. Morrisey, and M. Smyth. 1999. Northern Ireland’s Troubles: The Human Costs. London: Pluto Press. Fearon, J. D. and D. Laitin. 2004. Neotrusteeship and the problem of weak states. International security 28, no. 4 (2004): 5-43. Gallagher, T., 2017. Addressing Conflict and Tolerance through the Curriculum. In (Re) Constructing Memory: Education, Identity, and Conflict edited by M. Bellino and J. Williams, 191-207. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. Gardner, J. 2016. {"}Education in Northern Ireland since the Good Friday Agreement: Kabuki Theatre meets Danse Macabre.{"} Oxford Review of Education 42 (3): 346-361. Guerrero, A. 2011. Rebuilding Trust in Government via Service Delivery: The Case of Medellin, Colombia. Washington, DC: World Bank. Gutmann, A.1999. Democratic Education. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Hahn, C. 1998. Becoming Political: Comparative Perspectives on Citizenship Education. Buffalo: Suny Press. Janmaat, J. G., and N. Piattoeva. 2007. “Citizenship Education in Ukraine and Russia: Reconciling Nation‐Building and Active Citizenship.” Comparative Education 43 (4): 527–52. Jeffers, G., and U. O'Connor, U. 2008. Education for Citizenship and Diversity in Irish Contexts. Dublin: Institute of Public Administration. King, E. 2014. From Classrooms to Conflict in Rwanda. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kymlicka, W. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Levinson, Bradley A. and Doyle Stevick, eds. 2007. Reimagining Civic Education: How Diverse Societies form Democratic Citizens. New York: Rowman & Littlefield. Lijphart, Arend. 2004. {"}Constitutional Design for Divided Societies.{"} Journal of Democracy 15 (2): 96–109. Magill, C., A. Smith and B. Hamber. 2009. The Role of Education in Reconciliation. Report for EU Peace and Reconciliation Fund. McCandless, E. 2012. “Peace Dividends and Beyond: Contributions of Administrative and Social Services to Peacebuilding.” New York: PBSO. McCracken, N. 2015. “Document reveals 12 year backlog in legacy inquests” The Detail. Available at: http://www.thedetail.tv/articles/department-of-justice-claim-it-will-take-up-to-12-years-to-deal-with-legacy-inquests (Accessed 24 April 2017). McCully, A. 2012. “History teaching, conflict and the legacy of the past.” Education, Citizenship and Social Justice 7: 145–159. McCully, Alan and Linda Clarke. 2016. “A Place for Fundamental (British) Values in Teacher Education in Northern Ireland?” Journal of Education for Teaching 42 (3): 354-368. Moodley, K.A. and H. Adam. 2007. “Citizenship Education and OPlicial Literacy in South Africa” in Diversity and Citizenship Education: Global Perspectives edited by J. Banks, 159-83. Indianapolis: Jossey-Bass. Murphy, K. 2016. “Educational Reform through a Transitional Justice Lens: The ambivalent Transitions of Bosnia and Northern Ireland” in Transitional Justice ad Education: Learning Peace edited by C. Ramirz-Barat and R. Duthie, 65-98. New York: Social Science Research Council press. Murphy, K. and T. Gallagher. 2009. {"}Reconstruction after Violence: How Teachers and Schools can Deal with the Legacy of the Past.{"} Perspectives in Education 27 (2): 158-168. Ndaruhutse S. et al, 2011. “State-Building , Peace-Building and Service Delivery in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States” Conflict (May):1–62. Newman, E., R. Paris, and O.P. Richmond eds. 2009. New Perspectives on Liberal Peacebuilding. Tokyo, New York, Paris: United Nations University Press. Niens, U., and M. Chastenay. 2008. {"}Educating for Peace? Citizenship Education in Quebec and Northern Ireland.{"} Comparative Education Review 52 (4): 519-540. Niens, U, U. O'Connor, and A. Smith. 2013. “Citizenship Education in Divided Societies: Teachers' Perspectives in Northern Ireland.” Citizenship Studies 17 (1): 128-141. Northern Ireland Office. 1998. “The Agreement, Belfast: NIO.” Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-belfast-agreement (Accessed 20 Feb 2017). Northern Ireland Office. 2006. “St. Andrew’s Agreement, Belfast”: NIO. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/136651/st_andrews_agreement-2.pdf (Accessed 20 Feb 2017). Novelli, M. and A. Smith. 2011. The Role of Education in Peacebuilding. A synthesis report of findings from Lebanon, Nepal and Sierra Leone. New York: UNICEF. O’Connor, U. 2008. “Evaluation of the Pilot Introduction of Education for Local and Global Citizenship into the Revised Northern Ireland Curriculum.” Coleraine: University of Ulster. Available from: http://unesco.ulster.ac.uk/PDFs/summaryreport.pdf (Accessed 6 August 2010). O’Connor, U. 2012. “Schools Together: Enhancing the Citizenship Curriculum through a Non-formal Education Programme.” Journal of Peace Education 9 (1): 331-48. Osler, Audrey and Hugh Starkey. 2005. Changing Citizenship: Democracy and Inclusion in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill International. Paulson, J. 2010. “Truth Commissions and National Curriculum: The Case of the Record{\'a}ndonos resource in Peru”. In Children and Transitional Justice. Truth-Telling, Accountability and Reconciliation, edited by S. Parmar, M.J. Roseman, S. Siegrist, & T. Sowa, 327-364. . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Paulson, J. 2011. Education and Reconciliation: Exploring Conflict and Post-Conflict Situations. London: Continuum Books. Ram{\'i}rez-Barat, C., and R. Duthie. 2015. Education and Transitional Justice: Opportunities and Challenges for Peacebuilding. New York: ICTJ. Smith, A. 2003. “Citizenship Education in Northern Ireland: Beyond National Identity?” Cambridge Journal of Education 33 (1):15-31. Smith, A. and M. Print. 2003. “Special Edition on Citizenship Education: Editorial.” Cambridge Journal of Education 33(1): 3-14. Smith, A., E. McCandless, J. Paulson,. and W. Wheaton. 2011. The Role of Education in Peacebuilding - Literature Review. New York: UNICEF. Van Ommering, E. 2015. “Formal History Education in Lebanon: Crossroads of Past Conflicts and Prospects for Peace.” International Journal of Educational Development 41: 200-207. Waldron F. and A. McCully. 2016. “Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland: Eroded Certainties and New Possibilities.” In Teaching History and the Changing Nation State: Transnational and Intranational Perspectives, edited by Robert Guyver, 53-73. London: Bloomsbury Academic. Worden, E. 2014. National Idenity and Educational Reform: Contested Classrooms. New York: Routledge. Zimmerman, Jonathan. 2002. Whose America? Culture Wars in the Public Schools. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.",
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Teaching for democracy in the absence of transitional justice:The case of Northern Ireland. / Worden, Elizabeth Anderson; Smith, Alan.

In: Comparative Education, Vol. 53, No. 3, 14.06.2017, p. 379-395.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Teaching for democracy in the absence of transitional justice:The case of Northern Ireland

AU - Worden, Elizabeth Anderson

AU - Smith, Alan

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Harvard Educational Review, 85(4): 537-561. Cole, E.A. 2007. Teaching the Violent Past. History Education and Reconciliation. Plymouth: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. Consultative Group on the Past. 2009. Report of the Consultative Group of the Past. House of Commons, Northern Ireland Affairs Committee. Available from: https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200910/cmselect/cmniaf/171/171.pdf (Accessed 20 Feb 2017). Davies, L. 2004. Education and Conflict: Complexity and Chaos. New York: Routledge. Davies, L. 2005. “Teaching about Conflict through Citizenship Education.” International Journal of Citizenship and Teacher Education 1(2): 17-34. Emerson, Leslie. 2012. “Conflict, Transition and Education for ‘Political Generosity’: Learning from the Experience of Ex-Combatants in Northern Ireland. Journal of Peace Education, 9 (3), 277-295. Fay, M. T., M. Morrisey, and M. Smyth. 1999. Northern Ireland’s Troubles: The Human Costs. London: Pluto Press. Fearon, J. D. and D. Laitin. 2004. Neotrusteeship and the problem of weak states. International security 28, no. 4 (2004): 5-43. Gallagher, T., 2017. Addressing Conflict and Tolerance through the Curriculum. In (Re) Constructing Memory: Education, Identity, and Conflict edited by M. Bellino and J. Williams, 191-207. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. Gardner, J. 2016. "Education in Northern Ireland since the Good Friday Agreement: Kabuki Theatre meets Danse Macabre." Oxford Review of Education 42 (3): 346-361. Guerrero, A. 2011. Rebuilding Trust in Government via Service Delivery: The Case of Medellin, Colombia. Washington, DC: World Bank. Gutmann, A.1999. Democratic Education. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Hahn, C. 1998. Becoming Political: Comparative Perspectives on Citizenship Education. Buffalo: Suny Press. Janmaat, J. G., and N. Piattoeva. 2007. “Citizenship Education in Ukraine and Russia: Reconciling Nation‐Building and Active Citizenship.” Comparative Education 43 (4): 527–52. Jeffers, G., and U. O'Connor, U. 2008. Education for Citizenship and Diversity in Irish Contexts. Dublin: Institute of Public Administration. King, E. 2014. From Classrooms to Conflict in Rwanda. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kymlicka, W. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Levinson, Bradley A. and Doyle Stevick, eds. 2007. Reimagining Civic Education: How Diverse Societies form Democratic Citizens. New York: Rowman & Littlefield. Lijphart, Arend. 2004. "Constitutional Design for Divided Societies." Journal of Democracy 15 (2): 96–109. Magill, C., A. Smith and B. Hamber. 2009. The Role of Education in Reconciliation. Report for EU Peace and Reconciliation Fund. McCandless, E. 2012. “Peace Dividends and Beyond: Contributions of Administrative and Social Services to Peacebuilding.” New York: PBSO. McCracken, N. 2015. “Document reveals 12 year backlog in legacy inquests” The Detail. Available at: http://www.thedetail.tv/articles/department-of-justice-claim-it-will-take-up-to-12-years-to-deal-with-legacy-inquests (Accessed 24 April 2017). McCully, A. 2012. “History teaching, conflict and the legacy of the past.” Education, Citizenship and Social Justice 7: 145–159. McCully, Alan and Linda Clarke. 2016. “A Place for Fundamental (British) Values in Teacher Education in Northern Ireland?” Journal of Education for Teaching 42 (3): 354-368. Moodley, K.A. and H. Adam. 2007. “Citizenship Education and OPlicial Literacy in South Africa” in Diversity and Citizenship Education: Global Perspectives edited by J. Banks, 159-83. Indianapolis: Jossey-Bass. Murphy, K. 2016. “Educational Reform through a Transitional Justice Lens: The ambivalent Transitions of Bosnia and Northern Ireland” in Transitional Justice ad Education: Learning Peace edited by C. Ramirz-Barat and R. Duthie, 65-98. New York: Social Science Research Council press. Murphy, K. and T. Gallagher. 2009. "Reconstruction after Violence: How Teachers and Schools can Deal with the Legacy of the Past." Perspectives in Education 27 (2): 158-168. Ndaruhutse S. et al, 2011. “State-Building , Peace-Building and Service Delivery in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States” Conflict (May):1–62. Newman, E., R. Paris, and O.P. Richmond eds. 2009. New Perspectives on Liberal Peacebuilding. Tokyo, New York, Paris: United Nations University Press. Niens, U., and M. Chastenay. 2008. "Educating for Peace? Citizenship Education in Quebec and Northern Ireland." Comparative Education Review 52 (4): 519-540. Niens, U, U. O'Connor, and A. Smith. 2013. “Citizenship Education in Divided Societies: Teachers' Perspectives in Northern Ireland.” Citizenship Studies 17 (1): 128-141. Northern Ireland Office. 1998. “The Agreement, Belfast: NIO.” Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-belfast-agreement (Accessed 20 Feb 2017). Northern Ireland Office. 2006. “St. Andrew’s Agreement, Belfast”: NIO. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/136651/st_andrews_agreement-2.pdf (Accessed 20 Feb 2017). Novelli, M. and A. Smith. 2011. The Role of Education in Peacebuilding. A synthesis report of findings from Lebanon, Nepal and Sierra Leone. New York: UNICEF. O’Connor, U. 2008. “Evaluation of the Pilot Introduction of Education for Local and Global Citizenship into the Revised Northern Ireland Curriculum.” Coleraine: University of Ulster. Available from: http://unesco.ulster.ac.uk/PDFs/summaryreport.pdf (Accessed 6 August 2010). O’Connor, U. 2012. “Schools Together: Enhancing the Citizenship Curriculum through a Non-formal Education Programme.” Journal of Peace Education 9 (1): 331-48. Osler, Audrey and Hugh Starkey. 2005. Changing Citizenship: Democracy and Inclusion in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill International. Paulson, J. 2010. “Truth Commissions and National Curriculum: The Case of the Recordándonos resource in Peru”. In Children and Transitional Justice. Truth-Telling, Accountability and Reconciliation, edited by S. Parmar, M.J. Roseman, S. Siegrist, & T. Sowa, 327-364. . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Paulson, J. 2011. Education and Reconciliation: Exploring Conflict and Post-Conflict Situations. London: Continuum Books. Ramírez-Barat, C., and R. Duthie. 2015. Education and Transitional Justice: Opportunities and Challenges for Peacebuilding. New York: ICTJ. Smith, A. 2003. “Citizenship Education in Northern Ireland: Beyond National Identity?” Cambridge Journal of Education 33 (1):15-31. Smith, A. and M. Print. 2003. “Special Edition on Citizenship Education: Editorial.” Cambridge Journal of Education 33(1): 3-14. Smith, A., E. McCandless, J. Paulson,. and W. Wheaton. 2011. The Role of Education in Peacebuilding - Literature Review. New York: UNICEF. Van Ommering, E. 2015. “Formal History Education in Lebanon: Crossroads of Past Conflicts and Prospects for Peace.” International Journal of Educational Development 41: 200-207. Waldron F. and A. McCully. 2016. “Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland: Eroded Certainties and New Possibilities.” In Teaching History and the Changing Nation State: Transnational and Intranational Perspectives, edited by Robert Guyver, 53-73. London: Bloomsbury Academic. Worden, E. 2014. National Idenity and Educational Reform: Contested Classrooms. New York: Routledge. Zimmerman, Jonathan. 2002. Whose America? Culture Wars in the Public Schools. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

PY - 2017/6/14

Y1 - 2017/6/14

N2 - In Northern Ireland, the 1998 Good Friday Agreement ended thirty years of civil conflict—known as ‘the Troubles’—by achieving nominal peace between the opposing factions. It did so, however, through a political power-sharing formula that had no provisions for state-sponsored transitional justice mechanisms. We ask to what extent education can promote the goals of transitional justice in the absence of a formal process. Drawing from qualitative data and using a new citizenship education programme in Northern Ireland as our case study, we argue that organizational constraints within the education system limit the potential of the programme. We also identify missed opportunities, such as the de-emphasis on the importance of teaching political literacy. Our findings have implications for other societies undergoing transition from violent conflict by highlighting the potential opportunities for citizenship education to aid in transitional justice efforts.

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DO - 10.1080/03050068.2017.1334426

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ER -