Teaching controversial issues in Northern Ireland

Alan McCully, Lesley Emerson

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

    Abstract

    This chapter examines the evolution of practice regarding the teaching of controversial and sensitive issues in the secondary education sector in Northern Ireland. The latter presents an interesting context for such teaching. Northern Ireland is emerging from three decades of violent conflict. It is a deeply divided society where the great majority of Protestants and Catholics are educated in segregated schools yet, unlike many areas affected by conflict, its education system shares many of the sophisticated characteristics of modern western states. Untypically, educators there began addressing the relationship between education and conflict at an early stage in the 1970s when violence was endemic, envisaging that education should have an interventionist role in contributing to a more peaceful society. Consequently, over the next four decades curricular provision and pedagogy have evolved in response to evaluation and research, educational trends and changes in political circumstances. Observers have commented on a ‘culture of avoidance’ (Richardson & Gallagher 2011) prevalent in Northern Ireland which may help people to cope with difference but works against them participating in the difficult conversations necessary for the transformation from conflict. Hence, educational initiatives have frequently placed an emphasis on facilitating dialogue around controversial issues as a way of clarifying young people’s views and preparing them to contribute to a more cohesive society.The chapter traces the development of policy and practice around controversial issues in two phases. The break between these phases roughly corresponds to the signing of the Good Friday Agreement (GFA), 1998. Prior to that, work was centred on fostering better community relations through building mutual understanding between individuals and groups. The Cross-curricular theme of Education for Mutual Understanding was to be infused into all subjects but, in reality, it sat at the periphery of the curriculum and its more contentious aspects were often side-stepped. After the GFA, in a climate which is becoming more conducive to cross-community dialogue, the educational focus has shifted to addressing structural inequalities in society, largely through the introduction of a Local and Global Citizenship programme founded on Human Rights principles. The chief characteristics of each phase are drawn out. In the conclusion, the generic learning from the Northern Irish experience is distilled and principles of practice are presented.
    LanguageEnglish
    Title of host publicationCross-cultural Case-studies in Controversial Issues: Pathways and Challenges in Democratic Citizenship Education
    EditorsThomas T. Misco, Jan de Groof
    Place of PublicationTilberg
    Pages1-274
    Publication statusPublished - 2014

    Fingerprint

    Teaching
    dialogue
    education
    educational research
    secondary education
    education system
    community
    citizenship
    human rights
    conversation
    climate
    educator
    violence
    curriculum
    Society
    trend
    evaluation
    school
    learning
    experience

    Keywords

    • History Teaching National Identity Globalisation
    • Critical Citizenship Multiple Identities

    Cite this

    McCully, A., & Emerson, L. (2014). Teaching controversial issues in Northern Ireland. In T. T. Misco, & J. de Groof (Eds.), Cross-cultural Case-studies in Controversial Issues: Pathways and Challenges in Democratic Citizenship Education (pp. 1-274). Tilberg.
    McCully, Alan ; Emerson, Lesley. / Teaching controversial issues in Northern Ireland. Cross-cultural Case-studies in Controversial Issues: Pathways and Challenges in Democratic Citizenship Education. editor / Thomas T. Misco ; Jan de Groof. Tilberg, 2014. pp. 1-274
    @inbook{eceeb26f5bcb44f7a724a58c1c87b473,
    title = "Teaching controversial issues in Northern Ireland",
    abstract = "This chapter examines the evolution of practice regarding the teaching of controversial and sensitive issues in the secondary education sector in Northern Ireland. The latter presents an interesting context for such teaching. Northern Ireland is emerging from three decades of violent conflict. It is a deeply divided society where the great majority of Protestants and Catholics are educated in segregated schools yet, unlike many areas affected by conflict, its education system shares many of the sophisticated characteristics of modern western states. Untypically, educators there began addressing the relationship between education and conflict at an early stage in the 1970s when violence was endemic, envisaging that education should have an interventionist role in contributing to a more peaceful society. Consequently, over the next four decades curricular provision and pedagogy have evolved in response to evaluation and research, educational trends and changes in political circumstances. Observers have commented on a ‘culture of avoidance’ (Richardson & Gallagher 2011) prevalent in Northern Ireland which may help people to cope with difference but works against them participating in the difficult conversations necessary for the transformation from conflict. Hence, educational initiatives have frequently placed an emphasis on facilitating dialogue around controversial issues as a way of clarifying young people’s views and preparing them to contribute to a more cohesive society.The chapter traces the development of policy and practice around controversial issues in two phases. The break between these phases roughly corresponds to the signing of the Good Friday Agreement (GFA), 1998. Prior to that, work was centred on fostering better community relations through building mutual understanding between individuals and groups. The Cross-curricular theme of Education for Mutual Understanding was to be infused into all subjects but, in reality, it sat at the periphery of the curriculum and its more contentious aspects were often side-stepped. After the GFA, in a climate which is becoming more conducive to cross-community dialogue, the educational focus has shifted to addressing structural inequalities in society, largely through the introduction of a Local and Global Citizenship programme founded on Human Rights principles. The chief characteristics of each phase are drawn out. In the conclusion, the generic learning from the Northern Irish experience is distilled and principles of practice are presented.",
    keywords = "History Teaching National Identity Globalisation, Critical Citizenship Multiple Identities",
    author = "Alan McCully and Lesley Emerson",
    note = "Reference text: Tawil, S., & Harley, A. (2004). Education, conflict and social cohesion. Geneva: International Bureau of Education, Department of International Development (DFID). Dixon, P., & O’Kane, E. (2011). Northern Ireland since 1969. London: Pearson Emerson, L. (2012). Conflict, transition and education for “political generosity”: Learning from the experience of ex-combatants in Northern Ireland. Journal of Peace Education, 9(3), 277–295. Report of the Consultative group on the Past, http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/victims/docs/consultative_group/cgp_230109_report_sum.pdf. Accessed 23Jan. 2014 Walker, B. (2012) A Political History of the Two Irelands: From Partition to Peace New York: Palgrave McMillan. Frazer, H. & Fitzduff,M. (1994) Improving Community Relations Belfast: Community Relations Council. McEvoy, L., McEvoy, K., & McConnachie, K. (2006). Reconciliation as a dirty word: Conflict, community relations and education in Northern Ireland. Journal of International Affairs, 60(1), 81–106. Gallagher Tony (2011) The Community Relations Context, Norman Richardson and Tony Gallagher (eds.) Education for Diversity and Mutual Understanding, Oxford: Peter Lang, 73 Smith M.E. (2005) Reckoning with the past: Teaching History in Northern Ireland, Oxford, Lexington Books, 171-176; Gallagher A. (2004) Education in Divided Societies, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan, 125; Gallagher Tony (2011) The Community Relations Context, Norman Richardson and Tony Gallagher (eds.) Education for Diversity and Mutual Understanding, Oxford: Peter Lang,73-76 Allport G.W. (1954) The Nature of Prejudice, Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley Tajfel H. (1982) Social identity and Intergroup Relations, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Hewstone M. (2003) Intergroup Contact: Panacea for Prejudice?, The Psychologist, Vol. 16, No. 7, pp. 352-355; Niens U., Cairns E. and Hewstone M. (2003) Contact and Conflict in Northern Ireland, O. Hargie and D. Dickson (eds.) Researching the Troubles: Social Science perspectives on the Northern Ireland Conflict, Edinburgh, Mainstream Publishing, pp. 123-139 Northern Ireland Council for Integrated Education (NICIE) ( 2001) Annual Report 2000-2001, Going for Growth, Belfast, NICIE Hansson U. , O’Connor Bones U. & McCord J. (2013) Integrated Education: A Review of the Evidence, 1999–2012, Coleraine, UNESCO Centre, University of Ulster http://www.unescocentre.ulster.ac.uk/pdfs/pdfs_unesco_centre_publications/2013_02_21_int_ed-a_review_of_the_evidence_1999_to_2012-review_of_policy_and_research_evidence-full_report_jan_2013.pdf Accessed 7 August 2013. McEvoy, L., & Lundy, L. (2007). “In the small places”: Human rights culture, education and conflict-affected societies. In G. Anthony, K. McEvoy, & J. Morison (Eds.), Judges, transition and human rights culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press. McEvoy, L. (2007). Beneath the rhetoric: Policy approximation and citizenship education in Northern Ireland. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 2(2), 135–158. Ball S.G. and Bowe R. (1992) Subject Departments and the ‘implementation of National Curriculum Policy’: an overview of the issues, Journal of Curriculum Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 97-115 Richardson N. (2011) Formation: The roots of Education for Diversity and Mutual Understanding, Norman Richardson and Tony Gallagher (eds.) Education for Diversity and Mutual Understanding, Oxford: Peter Lang, 96 Hewstone M. (2003) Intergroup Contact: Panacea for Prejudice?, The Psychologist, Vol. 16, No. 7, 353. Crone R. and Malone J. (1979) Continuities in Education: the Northern Ireland Schools’ Curriculum Project, Windsor, NFER Publishing Company. Robinson A. (1983) The Schools Cultural Studies Project: a contribution to peace in Northern Ireland, Coleraine, New University of Ulster. Smith M.E. (2005) Reckoning with the past: Teaching History in Northern Ireland, Oxford, Lexington Books, 137 BBC, Man Alive 1980. Gallagher A. (2004) Education in Divided Societies, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan, 128-129 Arlow M. (2004) Citizenship Education in a Divided Society: the case of Northern Ireland In: ; Morrow D., Eyben E. and Wilson D. (2003) From the Margin to the Middle: Taking Equity, Diversity and Interdependence Seriously, O. Hargie and D. Dickson (eds.) Researching the Troubles: Social Science perspectives on the Northern Ireland Conflict, Edinburgh, Mainstream Publishing, 165-166 Jenkins D., O’Connor S., Kemmis S., Anderson J. and Breslin A. (1980) Chocolate Cream Soldiers, Coleraine, New University of Ulster, 254. Skilbeck M. (1973a) The School and Cultural Development, The Northern Teacher, Vol.1, No.1. Reprinted in M. Golby et al. (1975) (eds), Curriculum Design, London, Croom Helm / Open University Press, pp. 27-35. Skilbeck M. (1973) Proposal for a School-based / University-linked Project in Cultural Studies and Ideological Education in Northern Ireland Schools, Submitted to the Rowntree Trust, Unpublished. McCully A. (2005) Teaching controversial Issues in a Divided Society: Learning from Northern Ireland, Propero, Vol.11, no.4, pp. 38-46. Schools’ Council / Humanities Curriculum Project (1970) The Humanities Curriculum project: an Introduction, London, Heinemann Educational.Books, 8 Stenhouse L. (1983) Authority, Education and Emancipation, London, Heinemann Educational Books Raths, Louis, M. Harmin, and S.B. Simon (1966) Values and Teaching (Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill) Robinson A. (1983) The Schools Cultural Studies Project: a contribution to peace in Northern Ireland, Hilda Taba (1962) Curriculum Development: Theory and practice, New York: Harcourt Brace and World. Norman Richardson and Tony Gallagher (eds.) Education for Diversity and Mutual Understanding, Oxford: Peter Lang Smith A., and Robinson A. (1996) Education for Mutual Understanding: The Initial Statutory Years, Coleraine, Centre for the Study of Conflict, University of Ulster. McCully A., Smyth P. and O’Doherty M. (1999) Exploring Controversial Issues in Northern Ireland, Irish Educational Studies, Vol. 18, Spring, pp.49-61. McCully A. (2005) Teaching controversial Issues in a Divided Society: Learning from Northern Ireland, Propero, Vol.11, no.4, 52 McCully A. (2006) Practitioner perceptions of their role in facilitating the handling of controversial issues in contested societies: a Northern Irish experience, Educational Review, Vol. 58, No.1, pp. 51-65. Hess, D. (2002). Teaching controversial public issues discussions: Learning from skilled teachers. Theory and Research in Social Education, 30(1), 10–41. McEvoy, L. (2007). Beneath the rhetoric: Policy approximation and citizenship education in Northern Ireland. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 2(2), 135–158. Dixon, P., & O’Kane, E. (2011). Northern Ireland since 1969. London: Pearson. Bell, C. (2003). Peace agreements and human rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Emerson, L. and Lundy, L. (2013) ‘Education Rights in a Society Emerging from Conflict’ in B.B. Swadener, L.Lundy, J. Habashi and N., Blanchet-Cohen (eds), Children’s Rights and Education: International Perspectives New York: Peter Lang pp.19-38. McEvoy, L., & Lundy, L. (2007). “In the small places”: Human rights culture, education and conflict-affected societies. In G. Anthony, K. McEvoy, & J. Morison (Eds.), Judges, transition and human rights culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press Gallagher, C. (2006) ‘Curriculum matters: The process of education reform and the creation of a more pluralist curriculum under devolution’ In C. Donnelly, P. McKeown & B. Osborne (eds) Devolution and Pluralism in Education in Northern Ireland, pp. 120–6. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Arlow, M. (2011). Diversity, mutual understanding and citizenship. In N. Richardson & T. Gallagher (Eds.), Education for diversity and mutual understanding (pp. 311–330). Oxford, UK: Peter Lang. Heffernan, L. (2000) Citizenship Education in Northern Ireland, Resource Directory Coleraine: University of Ulster Ignatieff, M. (2001). Human rights as politics and idolatry. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Freeman, M. (2000). The future of children’s rights. Children and Society, 14(4), 277–293. ARK. (2012). Kids’ Life and Times Survey 2012. Retrieved from http://www.ark.ac.uk/klt University of Ulster. (2010). Evaluation of local and global citizenship: Final report. Coleraine, Northern Ireland: University of Ulster. Niens, U., O’Connor, U. & Smith, A. (2013) Citizenship education in divided societies: Teachers’ perspectives in Northern Ireland. Citizenship Studies,17(1), pp.128-141 University of Ulster. (2010) Evaluation of local and global citizenship: Final report. Coleraine, Northern Ireland: University of Ulster. Chikoko, V., Gilmour, J., Harber, C., & Serf, J. (2011) Teaching controversial issues and teacher education in England and South Africa. Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 37(1), 5–19. Howe, R.B., & Covell, K. (2005). Empowering children: Children’s rights education as a pathway to citizenship. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 165 Reilly, J., Neins, U. & McLaughlin, R. (2005) Education for a bill of a rights for Northern Ireland. In A. Osler (ed.) Teachers, Human Rights and Diversity, pp.53–72. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham. Donnelly, J. (2003) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice New York: Cornell University Press Moore, A. (2003) Citizenship education in the UK: For liberation or control? Paper presented at Knowledge & Discourse: Speculating on Disciplinary Futures 2nd Annual Conference, Hong Kong, June 2002. Leonard, M. (2007). Trapped in space? Children’s accounts of risky environments. Children and Society, 21, 432–445; Jarman, N., & O’Halloran, C. (2001). Recreational rioting: Young people, interface areas and violence. Child Care in Practice, 7, 2–16. OFMdFM. (2009). Good relations indicators—2009 update. Retrieved from http://www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/good_relations_indicators_-_2009_update.pdf; OFMdFM. (2010b). Good relation indicators—2010 update. Retrieved from http://www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/gr-pubs Magill, C., Smith, A., & Hamber, B. (2009). The role of education in reconciliation: The perspectives of young people in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Northern Ireland. Coleraine, Northern Ireland: UNESCO Centre, University of Ulster. Prison to Peace Partnership. (2011). From prison to peace: Learning from the experience of political ex-prisoners. Belfast, Northern Ireland: Prison to Peace Partnership. Emerson, L. (2012). Conflict, transition and education for “political generosity”: Learning from the experience of ex-combatants in Northern Ireland. Journal of Peace Education, 9(3), 277–295. Lundy, L., Emerson, L., Lloyd, K., Byrne, B. and Yohanis, J. (2013) Education Reform in Northern Ireland: a Human Rights Review. Belfast: Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission",
    year = "2014",
    language = "English",
    isbn = "9789058508249",
    pages = "1--274",
    editor = "{T. Misco}, Thomas and {de Groof}, Jan",
    booktitle = "Cross-cultural Case-studies in Controversial Issues: Pathways and Challenges in Democratic Citizenship Education",

    }

    McCully, A & Emerson, L 2014, Teaching controversial issues in Northern Ireland. in T T. Misco & J de Groof (eds), Cross-cultural Case-studies in Controversial Issues: Pathways and Challenges in Democratic Citizenship Education. Tilberg, pp. 1-274.

    Teaching controversial issues in Northern Ireland. / McCully, Alan; Emerson, Lesley.

    Cross-cultural Case-studies in Controversial Issues: Pathways and Challenges in Democratic Citizenship Education. ed. / Thomas T. Misco; Jan de Groof. Tilberg, 2014. p. 1-274.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

    TY - CHAP

    T1 - Teaching controversial issues in Northern Ireland

    AU - McCully, Alan

    AU - Emerson, Lesley

    N1 - Reference text: Tawil, S., & Harley, A. (2004). Education, conflict and social cohesion. Geneva: International Bureau of Education, Department of International Development (DFID). Dixon, P., & O’Kane, E. (2011). Northern Ireland since 1969. London: Pearson Emerson, L. (2012). Conflict, transition and education for “political generosity”: Learning from the experience of ex-combatants in Northern Ireland. Journal of Peace Education, 9(3), 277–295. Report of the Consultative group on the Past, http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/victims/docs/consultative_group/cgp_230109_report_sum.pdf. Accessed 23Jan. 2014 Walker, B. (2012) A Political History of the Two Irelands: From Partition to Peace New York: Palgrave McMillan. Frazer, H. & Fitzduff,M. (1994) Improving Community Relations Belfast: Community Relations Council. McEvoy, L., McEvoy, K., & McConnachie, K. (2006). Reconciliation as a dirty word: Conflict, community relations and education in Northern Ireland. Journal of International Affairs, 60(1), 81–106. Gallagher Tony (2011) The Community Relations Context, Norman Richardson and Tony Gallagher (eds.) Education for Diversity and Mutual Understanding, Oxford: Peter Lang, 73 Smith M.E. (2005) Reckoning with the past: Teaching History in Northern Ireland, Oxford, Lexington Books, 171-176; Gallagher A. (2004) Education in Divided Societies, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan, 125; Gallagher Tony (2011) The Community Relations Context, Norman Richardson and Tony Gallagher (eds.) Education for Diversity and Mutual Understanding, Oxford: Peter Lang,73-76 Allport G.W. (1954) The Nature of Prejudice, Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley Tajfel H. (1982) Social identity and Intergroup Relations, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Hewstone M. (2003) Intergroup Contact: Panacea for Prejudice?, The Psychologist, Vol. 16, No. 7, pp. 352-355; Niens U., Cairns E. and Hewstone M. (2003) Contact and Conflict in Northern Ireland, O. Hargie and D. Dickson (eds.) Researching the Troubles: Social Science perspectives on the Northern Ireland Conflict, Edinburgh, Mainstream Publishing, pp. 123-139 Northern Ireland Council for Integrated Education (NICIE) ( 2001) Annual Report 2000-2001, Going for Growth, Belfast, NICIE Hansson U. , O’Connor Bones U. & McCord J. (2013) Integrated Education: A Review of the Evidence, 1999–2012, Coleraine, UNESCO Centre, University of Ulster http://www.unescocentre.ulster.ac.uk/pdfs/pdfs_unesco_centre_publications/2013_02_21_int_ed-a_review_of_the_evidence_1999_to_2012-review_of_policy_and_research_evidence-full_report_jan_2013.pdf Accessed 7 August 2013. McEvoy, L., & Lundy, L. (2007). “In the small places”: Human rights culture, education and conflict-affected societies. In G. Anthony, K. McEvoy, & J. Morison (Eds.), Judges, transition and human rights culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press. McEvoy, L. (2007). Beneath the rhetoric: Policy approximation and citizenship education in Northern Ireland. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 2(2), 135–158. Ball S.G. and Bowe R. (1992) Subject Departments and the ‘implementation of National Curriculum Policy’: an overview of the issues, Journal of Curriculum Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 97-115 Richardson N. (2011) Formation: The roots of Education for Diversity and Mutual Understanding, Norman Richardson and Tony Gallagher (eds.) Education for Diversity and Mutual Understanding, Oxford: Peter Lang, 96 Hewstone M. (2003) Intergroup Contact: Panacea for Prejudice?, The Psychologist, Vol. 16, No. 7, 353. Crone R. and Malone J. (1979) Continuities in Education: the Northern Ireland Schools’ Curriculum Project, Windsor, NFER Publishing Company. Robinson A. (1983) The Schools Cultural Studies Project: a contribution to peace in Northern Ireland, Coleraine, New University of Ulster. Smith M.E. (2005) Reckoning with the past: Teaching History in Northern Ireland, Oxford, Lexington Books, 137 BBC, Man Alive 1980. Gallagher A. (2004) Education in Divided Societies, Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan, 128-129 Arlow M. (2004) Citizenship Education in a Divided Society: the case of Northern Ireland In: ; Morrow D., Eyben E. and Wilson D. (2003) From the Margin to the Middle: Taking Equity, Diversity and Interdependence Seriously, O. Hargie and D. Dickson (eds.) Researching the Troubles: Social Science perspectives on the Northern Ireland Conflict, Edinburgh, Mainstream Publishing, 165-166 Jenkins D., O’Connor S., Kemmis S., Anderson J. and Breslin A. (1980) Chocolate Cream Soldiers, Coleraine, New University of Ulster, 254. Skilbeck M. (1973a) The School and Cultural Development, The Northern Teacher, Vol.1, No.1. Reprinted in M. Golby et al. (1975) (eds), Curriculum Design, London, Croom Helm / Open University Press, pp. 27-35. Skilbeck M. (1973) Proposal for a School-based / University-linked Project in Cultural Studies and Ideological Education in Northern Ireland Schools, Submitted to the Rowntree Trust, Unpublished. McCully A. (2005) Teaching controversial Issues in a Divided Society: Learning from Northern Ireland, Propero, Vol.11, no.4, pp. 38-46. Schools’ Council / Humanities Curriculum Project (1970) The Humanities Curriculum project: an Introduction, London, Heinemann Educational.Books, 8 Stenhouse L. (1983) Authority, Education and Emancipation, London, Heinemann Educational Books Raths, Louis, M. Harmin, and S.B. Simon (1966) Values and Teaching (Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill) Robinson A. (1983) The Schools Cultural Studies Project: a contribution to peace in Northern Ireland, Hilda Taba (1962) Curriculum Development: Theory and practice, New York: Harcourt Brace and World. Norman Richardson and Tony Gallagher (eds.) Education for Diversity and Mutual Understanding, Oxford: Peter Lang Smith A., and Robinson A. (1996) Education for Mutual Understanding: The Initial Statutory Years, Coleraine, Centre for the Study of Conflict, University of Ulster. McCully A., Smyth P. and O’Doherty M. (1999) Exploring Controversial Issues in Northern Ireland, Irish Educational Studies, Vol. 18, Spring, pp.49-61. McCully A. (2005) Teaching controversial Issues in a Divided Society: Learning from Northern Ireland, Propero, Vol.11, no.4, 52 McCully A. (2006) Practitioner perceptions of their role in facilitating the handling of controversial issues in contested societies: a Northern Irish experience, Educational Review, Vol. 58, No.1, pp. 51-65. Hess, D. (2002). Teaching controversial public issues discussions: Learning from skilled teachers. Theory and Research in Social Education, 30(1), 10–41. McEvoy, L. (2007). Beneath the rhetoric: Policy approximation and citizenship education in Northern Ireland. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 2(2), 135–158. Dixon, P., & O’Kane, E. (2011). Northern Ireland since 1969. London: Pearson. Bell, C. (2003). Peace agreements and human rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Emerson, L. and Lundy, L. (2013) ‘Education Rights in a Society Emerging from Conflict’ in B.B. Swadener, L.Lundy, J. Habashi and N., Blanchet-Cohen (eds), Children’s Rights and Education: International Perspectives New York: Peter Lang pp.19-38. McEvoy, L., & Lundy, L. (2007). “In the small places”: Human rights culture, education and conflict-affected societies. In G. Anthony, K. McEvoy, & J. Morison (Eds.), Judges, transition and human rights culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press Gallagher, C. (2006) ‘Curriculum matters: The process of education reform and the creation of a more pluralist curriculum under devolution’ In C. Donnelly, P. McKeown & B. Osborne (eds) Devolution and Pluralism in Education in Northern Ireland, pp. 120–6. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Arlow, M. (2011). Diversity, mutual understanding and citizenship. In N. Richardson & T. Gallagher (Eds.), Education for diversity and mutual understanding (pp. 311–330). Oxford, UK: Peter Lang. Heffernan, L. (2000) Citizenship Education in Northern Ireland, Resource Directory Coleraine: University of Ulster Ignatieff, M. (2001). Human rights as politics and idolatry. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Freeman, M. (2000). The future of children’s rights. Children and Society, 14(4), 277–293. ARK. (2012). Kids’ Life and Times Survey 2012. Retrieved from http://www.ark.ac.uk/klt University of Ulster. (2010). Evaluation of local and global citizenship: Final report. Coleraine, Northern Ireland: University of Ulster. Niens, U., O’Connor, U. & Smith, A. (2013) Citizenship education in divided societies: Teachers’ perspectives in Northern Ireland. Citizenship Studies,17(1), pp.128-141 University of Ulster. (2010) Evaluation of local and global citizenship: Final report. Coleraine, Northern Ireland: University of Ulster. Chikoko, V., Gilmour, J., Harber, C., & Serf, J. (2011) Teaching controversial issues and teacher education in England and South Africa. Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 37(1), 5–19. Howe, R.B., & Covell, K. (2005). Empowering children: Children’s rights education as a pathway to citizenship. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 165 Reilly, J., Neins, U. & McLaughlin, R. (2005) Education for a bill of a rights for Northern Ireland. In A. Osler (ed.) Teachers, Human Rights and Diversity, pp.53–72. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham. Donnelly, J. (2003) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice New York: Cornell University Press Moore, A. (2003) Citizenship education in the UK: For liberation or control? Paper presented at Knowledge & Discourse: Speculating on Disciplinary Futures 2nd Annual Conference, Hong Kong, June 2002. Leonard, M. (2007). Trapped in space? Children’s accounts of risky environments. Children and Society, 21, 432–445; Jarman, N., & O’Halloran, C. (2001). Recreational rioting: Young people, interface areas and violence. Child Care in Practice, 7, 2–16. OFMdFM. (2009). Good relations indicators—2009 update. Retrieved from http://www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/good_relations_indicators_-_2009_update.pdf; OFMdFM. (2010b). Good relation indicators—2010 update. Retrieved from http://www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk/gr-pubs Magill, C., Smith, A., & Hamber, B. (2009). The role of education in reconciliation: The perspectives of young people in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Northern Ireland. Coleraine, Northern Ireland: UNESCO Centre, University of Ulster. Prison to Peace Partnership. (2011). From prison to peace: Learning from the experience of political ex-prisoners. Belfast, Northern Ireland: Prison to Peace Partnership. Emerson, L. (2012). Conflict, transition and education for “political generosity”: Learning from the experience of ex-combatants in Northern Ireland. Journal of Peace Education, 9(3), 277–295. Lundy, L., Emerson, L., Lloyd, K., Byrne, B. and Yohanis, J. (2013) Education Reform in Northern Ireland: a Human Rights Review. Belfast: Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission

    PY - 2014

    Y1 - 2014

    N2 - This chapter examines the evolution of practice regarding the teaching of controversial and sensitive issues in the secondary education sector in Northern Ireland. The latter presents an interesting context for such teaching. Northern Ireland is emerging from three decades of violent conflict. It is a deeply divided society where the great majority of Protestants and Catholics are educated in segregated schools yet, unlike many areas affected by conflict, its education system shares many of the sophisticated characteristics of modern western states. Untypically, educators there began addressing the relationship between education and conflict at an early stage in the 1970s when violence was endemic, envisaging that education should have an interventionist role in contributing to a more peaceful society. Consequently, over the next four decades curricular provision and pedagogy have evolved in response to evaluation and research, educational trends and changes in political circumstances. Observers have commented on a ‘culture of avoidance’ (Richardson & Gallagher 2011) prevalent in Northern Ireland which may help people to cope with difference but works against them participating in the difficult conversations necessary for the transformation from conflict. Hence, educational initiatives have frequently placed an emphasis on facilitating dialogue around controversial issues as a way of clarifying young people’s views and preparing them to contribute to a more cohesive society.The chapter traces the development of policy and practice around controversial issues in two phases. The break between these phases roughly corresponds to the signing of the Good Friday Agreement (GFA), 1998. Prior to that, work was centred on fostering better community relations through building mutual understanding between individuals and groups. The Cross-curricular theme of Education for Mutual Understanding was to be infused into all subjects but, in reality, it sat at the periphery of the curriculum and its more contentious aspects were often side-stepped. After the GFA, in a climate which is becoming more conducive to cross-community dialogue, the educational focus has shifted to addressing structural inequalities in society, largely through the introduction of a Local and Global Citizenship programme founded on Human Rights principles. The chief characteristics of each phase are drawn out. In the conclusion, the generic learning from the Northern Irish experience is distilled and principles of practice are presented.

    AB - This chapter examines the evolution of practice regarding the teaching of controversial and sensitive issues in the secondary education sector in Northern Ireland. The latter presents an interesting context for such teaching. Northern Ireland is emerging from three decades of violent conflict. It is a deeply divided society where the great majority of Protestants and Catholics are educated in segregated schools yet, unlike many areas affected by conflict, its education system shares many of the sophisticated characteristics of modern western states. Untypically, educators there began addressing the relationship between education and conflict at an early stage in the 1970s when violence was endemic, envisaging that education should have an interventionist role in contributing to a more peaceful society. Consequently, over the next four decades curricular provision and pedagogy have evolved in response to evaluation and research, educational trends and changes in political circumstances. Observers have commented on a ‘culture of avoidance’ (Richardson & Gallagher 2011) prevalent in Northern Ireland which may help people to cope with difference but works against them participating in the difficult conversations necessary for the transformation from conflict. Hence, educational initiatives have frequently placed an emphasis on facilitating dialogue around controversial issues as a way of clarifying young people’s views and preparing them to contribute to a more cohesive society.The chapter traces the development of policy and practice around controversial issues in two phases. The break between these phases roughly corresponds to the signing of the Good Friday Agreement (GFA), 1998. Prior to that, work was centred on fostering better community relations through building mutual understanding between individuals and groups. The Cross-curricular theme of Education for Mutual Understanding was to be infused into all subjects but, in reality, it sat at the periphery of the curriculum and its more contentious aspects were often side-stepped. After the GFA, in a climate which is becoming more conducive to cross-community dialogue, the educational focus has shifted to addressing structural inequalities in society, largely through the introduction of a Local and Global Citizenship programme founded on Human Rights principles. The chief characteristics of each phase are drawn out. In the conclusion, the generic learning from the Northern Irish experience is distilled and principles of practice are presented.

    KW - History Teaching National Identity Globalisation

    KW - Critical Citizenship Multiple Identities

    M3 - Chapter

    SN - 9789058508249

    SP - 1

    EP - 274

    BT - Cross-cultural Case-studies in Controversial Issues: Pathways and Challenges in Democratic Citizenship Education

    A2 - T. Misco, Thomas

    A2 - de Groof, Jan

    CY - Tilberg

    ER -

    McCully A, Emerson L. Teaching controversial issues in Northern Ireland. In T. Misco T, de Groof J, editors, Cross-cultural Case-studies in Controversial Issues: Pathways and Challenges in Democratic Citizenship Education. Tilberg. 2014. p. 1-274