To maintain normal cellular and physiological function, sufficient oxygen is required. Recently, evidence has suggested that hypoxia, either pathological or environmental, may influence bone health. It appears that bone cells are distinctly responsive to hypoxic stimuli; for better or worse, this is still yet to be elucidated. Hypoxia has been shown to offer potentially therapeutic effects for bone by inducing an osteogenic–angiogenic response, although, others have noted excessive osteoclastic bone resorption instead. Much evidence suggests that the hypoxic‐inducible pathway is integral in mediating the changes in bone metabolism. Furthermore, many factors associated with hypoxia including changes in energy metabolism, acid–base balance and the increased generation of reactive oxygen species, are known to influence bone metabolism. This review aims to examine some of the putative mechanisms responsible for hypoxic‐induced alterations of bone metabolism, with regard to osteoclasts and osteoblasts, both positive and negative.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology published by Wiley Periodicals LLC
- bone metabolism