Synthesis of a Gemcitabine-Modified Phospholipid and its Subsequent Incorporation into a Single Microbubble Formulation Loaded with Paclitaxel for the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer using Ultrasound-Targeted Microbubble Destruction

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Abstract

Gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel (Abraxane®) is a standard of care chemotherapy combination used in the treatment of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. While the combination has shown a survival benefit when compared to gemcitabine monotherapy, it is associated with significant off-target toxicity. Ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) has emerged as an effective strategy for the site-specific deposition of drug-payloads. However, loading a single microbubble formulation with two drug payloads can be challenging and often involves several manipulations post-microbubble preparation that can be cumbersome and generally results in low / inconsistent drug loadings. In this manuscript, we report the one-pot synthesis of a gemcitabine functionalised phospholipid and use it to successfully generate stable microbubble formulations loaded with gemcitabine (Lipid-Gem MB) or a combination of gemcitabine and paclitaxel (Lipid-Gem-PTX MB). Efficacy of the Lipid-Gem MB and Lipid-Gem-PTX MB formulations, following ultrasound (US) stimulation, was evaluated in a three-dimensional (3D) PANC-1 spheroid model of pancreatic cancer and a mouse model bearing ectopic BxPC-3 tumours. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in the cell viability in spheroids for both formulations reducing from 90 ± 10% to 62 ± 5% for Lipid-Gem MB and 84 ± 10% to 30 ± 6% Lipid-Gem-PTX MB following US irradiation. When compared with a clinically relevant dose of free gemcitabine and paclitaxel (i.e. non-particle bound) in a BxPC-3 murine pancreatic tumour model, both formulations also improved tumour growth delay with tumours 40 ± 20% and 40 ± 30% smaller than the respective free drug formulation when treated with Lipid-Gem MB and Lipid-Gem-PTX MB respectively, at the conclusion of the experiment. These results highlight the potential of UTMD mediated Gem / PTX as a treatment for pancreatic cancer and the facile preparation of Lipid-Gem-PTX MBs using a gemcitabine functionalised lipid should expedite clinical translation of this technology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)374-382
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Volume165
Early online date24 May 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
KAL thanks the Department of the Economy in Northern Ireland for a PhD studentship. JFC thanks Norbrook Laboratories Ltd for an endowed chair. The raw/processed data required to reproduce these findings cannot be shared at this time due to technical limitations. However, any specific file(s) can be made available on request.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.

Keywords

  • Microbubble
  • gemcitabine
  • paclitaxel
  • pancreatic cancer
  • transphosphatidylation
  • ultrasound
  • Gemcitabine
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Paclitaxel
  • Transphosphatidylation
  • Ultrasound
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Drug Carriers/chemistry
  • Microbubbles
  • Female
  • Drug Liberation/radiation effects
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage
  • Ultrasonic Waves
  • Phospholipids/chemistry
  • Deoxycytidine/administration & dosage
  • Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
  • Animals
  • Albumins/administration & dosage
  • Paclitaxel/administration & dosage
  • Nanoparticles/chemistry
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Drug Compounding/methods
  • Mice

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