Synthesis, and crystal and electronic structure of sodium metal phosphate for use as a hybrid capacitor in non-aqueous electrolyte

Manickam Minakshi Sundaram, Teeraphat Watcharatharapong, Sudip Chakraborty, Rajeev Ahuja, Shanmughasundaram Duraisamy, Penki Tirupathi Rao, Nookala Munichandraiah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Energy storage devices based on sodium have been considered as an alternative to traditional lithium based systems because of the natural abundance, cost effectiveness and low environmental impact of sodium. Their synthesis, and crystal and electronic properties have been discussed, because of the importance of electronic conductivity in supercapacitors for high rate applications. The density of states of a mixed sodium transition metal phosphate (maricite, NaMn1/3Co1/3Ni1/3PO4) has been determined with the ab initio generalized gradient approximation (GGA)+Hubbard term (U) method. The computed results for the mixed maricite are compared with the band gap of the parent NaFePO4 and the electrochemical experimental results are in good agreement. A mixed sodium transition metal phosphate served as an active electrode material for a hybrid supercapacitor. The hybrid device (maricite versus carbon) in a non-aqueous electrolyte shows redox peaks in the cyclic voltammograms and asymmetric profiles in the charge-discharge curves while exhibiting a specific capacitance of 40 F g-1 and these processes are found to be quasi-reversible. After long term cycling, the device exhibits excellent capacity retention (95%) and coulombic efficiency (92%). The presence of carbon and the nanocomposite morphology, identified through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies, ensures the high rate capability while offering possibilities to develop new cathode materials for sodium hybrid devices.

LanguageEnglish
Pages20108-20120
Number of pages13
JournalDalton Transactions
Volume44
Issue number46
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Oct 2015

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Electrolytes
Electronic structure
Capacitors
Crystal structure
Metals
Sodium
Phosphates
Transition metals
Carbon
Cost effectiveness
Lithium
Electronic properties
Energy storage
Environmental impact
Nanocomposites
Energy gap
Cathodes
Capacitance
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Transmission electron microscopy

Cite this

Sundaram, M. M., Watcharatharapong, T., Chakraborty, S., Ahuja, R., Duraisamy, S., Rao, P. T., & Munichandraiah, N. (2015). Synthesis, and crystal and electronic structure of sodium metal phosphate for use as a hybrid capacitor in non-aqueous electrolyte. Dalton Transactions, 44(46), 20108-20120. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5dt03394b
Sundaram, Manickam Minakshi ; Watcharatharapong, Teeraphat ; Chakraborty, Sudip ; Ahuja, Rajeev ; Duraisamy, Shanmughasundaram ; Rao, Penki Tirupathi ; Munichandraiah, Nookala. / Synthesis, and crystal and electronic structure of sodium metal phosphate for use as a hybrid capacitor in non-aqueous electrolyte. In: Dalton Transactions. 2015 ; Vol. 44, No. 46. pp. 20108-20120.
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Sundaram, MM, Watcharatharapong, T, Chakraborty, S, Ahuja, R, Duraisamy, S, Rao, PT & Munichandraiah, N 2015, 'Synthesis, and crystal and electronic structure of sodium metal phosphate for use as a hybrid capacitor in non-aqueous electrolyte', Dalton Transactions, vol. 44, no. 46, pp. 20108-20120. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5dt03394b

Synthesis, and crystal and electronic structure of sodium metal phosphate for use as a hybrid capacitor in non-aqueous electrolyte. / Sundaram, Manickam Minakshi; Watcharatharapong, Teeraphat; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ahuja, Rajeev; Duraisamy, Shanmughasundaram; Rao, Penki Tirupathi; Munichandraiah, Nookala.

In: Dalton Transactions, Vol. 44, No. 46, 22.10.2015, p. 20108-20120.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Synthesis, and crystal and electronic structure of sodium metal phosphate for use as a hybrid capacitor in non-aqueous electrolyte

AU - Sundaram, Manickam Minakshi

AU - Watcharatharapong, Teeraphat

AU - Chakraborty, Sudip

AU - Ahuja, Rajeev

AU - Duraisamy, Shanmughasundaram

AU - Rao, Penki Tirupathi

AU - Munichandraiah, Nookala

PY - 2015/10/22

Y1 - 2015/10/22

N2 - Energy storage devices based on sodium have been considered as an alternative to traditional lithium based systems because of the natural abundance, cost effectiveness and low environmental impact of sodium. Their synthesis, and crystal and electronic properties have been discussed, because of the importance of electronic conductivity in supercapacitors for high rate applications. The density of states of a mixed sodium transition metal phosphate (maricite, NaMn1/3Co1/3Ni1/3PO4) has been determined with the ab initio generalized gradient approximation (GGA)+Hubbard term (U) method. The computed results for the mixed maricite are compared with the band gap of the parent NaFePO4 and the electrochemical experimental results are in good agreement. A mixed sodium transition metal phosphate served as an active electrode material for a hybrid supercapacitor. The hybrid device (maricite versus carbon) in a non-aqueous electrolyte shows redox peaks in the cyclic voltammograms and asymmetric profiles in the charge-discharge curves while exhibiting a specific capacitance of 40 F g-1 and these processes are found to be quasi-reversible. After long term cycling, the device exhibits excellent capacity retention (95%) and coulombic efficiency (92%). The presence of carbon and the nanocomposite morphology, identified through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies, ensures the high rate capability while offering possibilities to develop new cathode materials for sodium hybrid devices.

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