Multi-electrode sensor arrays are made of soft and wet materials not easily examined by most microscopic techniques. in this paper, we have demonstrated that low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) are adequate for studying the hydration, swelling, and possible delamination of multi-electrode sensor arrays. We found that the LVSEM environment had no detectable effect on the morphology of Na+, K+, and Ca++ sensors, and EDX analysis indicated that all three membranes have similar compositions. However, once hydrated, the sensors exhibited different behaviors. The K+ and Ca++ sensors swelled more than the Na+ sensor did. This swelling is due principally to water sorption in the membrane. We believe that the larger thickness of the K+ and Ca++ membrane is partly responsible for the observed swelling effect. A simple Griffith analysis of the interface rupture confirms the experimental evidence that these thicker membranes also are more prone to delamination failure. (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
|Journal||Journal of Biomedical Materials Research|
|Publication status||Published (in print/issue) - Jun 2000|
- multi-electrode sensor array
- low-vacuum SEM
- peel stresses