Suitability Of Alkali Activated GGBS/fly Ash Concrete For Chloride Environments

Dali Bondar, Sreejith V. Nanukuttan, Marios N. Soutsos, P. A. Muhammed Basheer, John L. Provis

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigates chloride ingress into alkali-activated slag/fly ash (AA-S/F) concretes with various ratios of slag to fly ash (80/20, 60/40, 40/60 and 20/80). Alkaline activators were a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate to obtain between 6-8% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration by weight of cementitious material. The SiO2/Na2O ratios (silica modulus, Ms) of mixtures were 0.45, 1.0 and 1.25. Tests applied included typical fresh and hardened properties, air content, slump, compressive strength, bulk resistivity and non-steady state chloride migration. The results show that while attractive engineering properties can be achieved, the chloride ingress in the AA-S/F concretes studied here with ≥ 20% fly ash is moderate to high and this may make them unsuitable for use in reinforced concrete in chloride environments.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternational Conference on Cementious Materials and Altenative Binders for Sustainable Concrete (ICCM) 2017: Proceedings
PublisherRILEM Publications
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 1 Oct 2017

Publication series

NameACI Symposium Special Publications
PublisherRILEM Publications


  • alkali activated slag/fly ash concretes
  • bulk resistivity
  • chloride migration coefficient
  • compressive strength
  • workability


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