An extract of the whole brain of the alligator (Alligator mississipiensis) contained very high concentrations of substance P-like immunoreactivity (405 pmol/g wet tissue) and neurokinin A-like immunoreactivity (514 pmol/g), as measured with antisera raised against the mammalian peptides. The primary structure of alligator substance P was established as: Arg-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gln-Gln-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met-NH... This sequence is the same as that of chicken substance P and shows one substitution (Arg for Lys3) as compared with mammalian substance P. The neurokinin A-like immunoreactivity was separated into two components. Neuropeptide y was the most abundant peptide and its primary structure was established as Asp-Ala-Gly-Tyr-Gly-Gln-Ile-Ser-His-Lys-Arg-His-Lys-Thr-Asp-Ser-Phe-Val-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2. This sequences shows one substitution (Tyr for His4) compared with mammalian neuropeptide y. The second component was identical to mammalian neurokinin A. A peptide with the chromatographic properties of mammalian neuropeptide K was not identified in the extract.