Statistical analysis of the effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operating parameters on the surface processing of poly(methylmethacrylate) film

C Liu, NMD Brown, BJ Meenan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

33 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, operating in air at atmospheric pressure, has been used to induce changes in the surface properties of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) films. The relative effects that key DBD operating parameters, specifically: discharge power, electrode gap and duration of exposure have on producing chemical and microstructural changes in the polymer surface region have been investigated. The approach taken involves the application of an orthogonal array experimental design and statistical analysis methodology. The various data sets obtained from these analyses have been used to develop an equation in which induced changes in the surface properties of the DBD modified PMMA films are expressed in terms of the effectiveness of the various processing parameters in producing them.In general, the results obtained clearly indicate that DBD plasma processing is an effective method for the controlled surface modification of PMMA. Relatively short exposures to the atmospheric pressure discharge produces a significant amount of oxygen incorporation at the surface as indicted by a pronounced reduction in water contact angle. Analysis of the role of each of the operating parameters concerned shows that they do indeed have selective effectiveness for inducing resultant surface modification. Duration of exposure to the DBD plasma, expressed here as the number of treatment cycles at a given speed of specimen transit through the electrode gap, was found to play a major role in decreasing the surface wettability of PMMA. Conversely, the magnitude of the discharge power was not a significant parameter in this regard. In contrast, the value of the applied power played the dominant role in achieving the observed enrichment of the surface oxygen abundance, as measured by XPS, with the duration of exposure to the discharge playing a secondary role in this case.The nature and scale of the induced surface changes that originate from the various processing conditions employed have been further considered to determine if an interrelationship exists between them. Non-parametric data analysis indicates that no significant correlation exists between the observed changes in measured polymer wettability and the attendant surface oxygen enrichment. This result suggests that the increase in surface wettability caused by DBD processing, as manifested in a reduced contact angle, is not merely attributable to changes in the surface chemistry. As such, it is postulated that changes in the surface microstructure may also contribute to this change in surface wettability.
LanguageEnglish
Pages273-286
JournalSurface Science
Volume575
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2005

Fingerprint

Methylmethacrylate
statistical analysis
Statistical methods
Processing
Wetting
wettability
plasma jets
Oxygen
Atmospheric pressure
Contact angle
Surface properties
Surface treatment
Polymers
surface properties
Plasmas
Plasma applications
atmospheric pressure
Electrodes
oxygen
Surface chemistry

Keywords

  • Surface modification
  • Dielectric barrier discharge
  • Atmospheric plasma processing
  • Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA)
  • Statistical analysis

Cite this

@article{1339575d7ad14b3888de14d0a0011a6f,
title = "Statistical analysis of the effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operating parameters on the surface processing of poly(methylmethacrylate) film",
abstract = "A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, operating in air at atmospheric pressure, has been used to induce changes in the surface properties of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) films. The relative effects that key DBD operating parameters, specifically: discharge power, electrode gap and duration of exposure have on producing chemical and microstructural changes in the polymer surface region have been investigated. The approach taken involves the application of an orthogonal array experimental design and statistical analysis methodology. The various data sets obtained from these analyses have been used to develop an equation in which induced changes in the surface properties of the DBD modified PMMA films are expressed in terms of the effectiveness of the various processing parameters in producing them.In general, the results obtained clearly indicate that DBD plasma processing is an effective method for the controlled surface modification of PMMA. Relatively short exposures to the atmospheric pressure discharge produces a significant amount of oxygen incorporation at the surface as indicted by a pronounced reduction in water contact angle. Analysis of the role of each of the operating parameters concerned shows that they do indeed have selective effectiveness for inducing resultant surface modification. Duration of exposure to the DBD plasma, expressed here as the number of treatment cycles at a given speed of specimen transit through the electrode gap, was found to play a major role in decreasing the surface wettability of PMMA. Conversely, the magnitude of the discharge power was not a significant parameter in this regard. In contrast, the value of the applied power played the dominant role in achieving the observed enrichment of the surface oxygen abundance, as measured by XPS, with the duration of exposure to the discharge playing a secondary role in this case.The nature and scale of the induced surface changes that originate from the various processing conditions employed have been further considered to determine if an interrelationship exists between them. Non-parametric data analysis indicates that no significant correlation exists between the observed changes in measured polymer wettability and the attendant surface oxygen enrichment. This result suggests that the increase in surface wettability caused by DBD processing, as manifested in a reduced contact angle, is not merely attributable to changes in the surface chemistry. As such, it is postulated that changes in the surface microstructure may also contribute to this change in surface wettability.",
keywords = "Surface modification, Dielectric barrier discharge, Atmospheric plasma processing, Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), Statistical analysis",
author = "C Liu and NMD Brown and BJ Meenan",
note = "Reference text: [1] J. Meichsner, M. Nitschke, R. Rochotzki and M. Zeuner, Surface and Coatings Technology 74–75 (1995), p. 227. Article | PDF (402 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (33) [2] S.A. Visser, R. Hergenrother and S.L. Cooper, Polymer In: B.D. Ratner, Editors, Biomaterials Science, Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA (1996). [3] J.M. Grace and L.J. Gerenser, Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology 24 (2003), p. 305. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (72) [4] J. Meichsner, M. Zeuner, B. Krames, M. Nitschke, R. Rochotzki and K. Barucki, Surface and Coatings Technology 98 (1998), p. 1565. Abstract | PDF (452 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (20) [5] M. Zeuner, H. Neumann and J. Meichsner, Vacuum 48 (1997), p. 443. Article | PDF (602 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (10) [6] P.K. Chu, J.Y. Chen, L.P. Wang and N. Huang, Materials Science and Engineering R36 (2002), p. 143. Article | PDF (2604 K) [7] C.Z. Liu, Modification of biopolymer surfaces by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma processing, in: 2nd Conference of UK Society for Biomaterials, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, 2003. [8] C.Z. Liu, R.D. Arnell, A.R. Gibbons, S.M. Green, L.Q. Ren and J. Tong, Surface Engineering 16 (2000), p. 215. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (12) [9] C.Z. Liu, N.Y. Cui, N.M.D. Brown and B.J. Meenan, Surface & Coatings Technology 185 (2004), p. 310. Article | PDF (399 K) | Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (0) [10] H. Biederman, M. Zeuner, J. Zalman, P. Bilkova, D. Slavinska, V. Stelmasuk and A. Boldyreva, Thin Solid Films 392 (2001), p. 208. Article | PDF (483 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (36) [11] N.M.D. Brown, W.S. McClean, C.B. Kane, An exploratory study of the plasma modification of linen textiles using ambient pressure plasmas, in: 3rd International Conference on New Production and Production Technologies for a New Textiles Industry, Sofitel Gent, Belgium, 1999, p. 72. [12] S. Ishikawa, K. Yukimura, K. Matsunaga and T. Maruyama, Surface and Coatings Technology 130 (2000), p. 52. Article | PDF (159 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (19) [13] H. Xu, Z. Hu, S.H. Wu and Y. Chen, Materials Chemistry and Physics 9710 (2002), p. 1. [14] S.K. Oiseth, A. Krozer, B. Kasemo and J. Lausmaa, Applied Surface Science 202 (2002), p. 92. Article | PDF (342 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (35) [15] C.Z. Liu, J.Q. Wu, L.Q. Ren, J. Tong, J. Li, N.Y. Cui, N.M.D. Brown and B.J. Meenan, Materials Chemistry and Physics 85 (2004), p. 340. Article | PDF (346 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (12) [16] U. Konig, M. Nitschke, M. Pilz, F. Simon, C. Arnhold and C. Werner, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 25 (2002), p. 313. Article | PDF (579 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (14) [17] T. Chandy, G.S. Das, R.F. Wilson and G.H.R. Rao, Biomaterials 21 (2000), p. 699. Article | PDF (1972 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (64) [18] C.R. Deible, P. Petrosko, P.C. Johnson, E.J. Beckman, A.J. Russell and W.R. Wagner, Biomaterials 20 (1999), p. 101. Article | PDF (586 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (23) [19] U. Konig, M. Nitschke, A. Menning, G. Eberth, M. Pilz, C. Arnhold, F. Simon, G. Adam and C. Werner, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 24 (2002), p. 63. Article | PDF (369 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (27) [20] X.P. Zou, E.T. Kang and K.G. Neoh, Surface and Coatings Technology 149 (2002), p. 119. Article | PDF (446 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (32) [21] S.D. Lee, G.H. Hsiue, P.C.T. Chang and C.Y. Kao, Biomaterials 17 (1996), p. 1599. Article | PDF (980 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (75) [22] M.K. Kim, I.S. Park, H.D. Park, W.R. Wee, J.H. Lee, K.D. Park, S.H. Kim and Y.H. Kim, Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery 27 (2001), p. 766. Article | PDF (700 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (19) [23] P. Wang, K.L. Tan, E.T. Kang and K.G. Neoh, Journal of Membrane Science 195 (2002), p. 103. Article | PDF (509 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (1) [24] M.C. Coen, R. Lehmann, P. Groening and L. Schlapbach, Applied Surface Science 9729 (2003), p. 1. [25] H. Biederman, Vacuum 59 (2000), p. 594. Article | PDF (209 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (29) [26] N.Y. Cui and N.M.D. Brown, Applied Surface Science 189 (2002), p. 31. Article | PDF (202 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (90) [27] D.P. Liu, S. Yu, Y. Liu, C. Ren, J. Zhang and T. Ma, Thin Solid Films 414 (2002), p. 163. Article | PDF (549 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (14) [28] R. Seebock, H. Esrom, M. Charbonnier, A. Romand and U. Kogeschatz, Surface & Coatings Technology 142 (2001), p. 455. Article | PDF (1121 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (31) [29] G. Borcia, N.M.D. Brown, D. Dixon and R. McIlhagger, Surface & Coatings Technology 179 (2004), p. 70. Article | PDF (230 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (7) [30] G. Borcia, N.M.D. Brown, C.A. Anderson, Experiment report, SSL UUJ, 2003. [31] C.Z. Liu, L.Q. Ren, R.D. Arnell and J. Tong, Wear 225–229 (1999), p. 199. Article | PDF (584 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (26) [32] C.Z. Liu, L.Q. Ren, J. Tong, T.J. Joyce, S.M. Green and R.D. Arnell, Wear 249 (2001), p. 31. Article | PDF (178 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (26) [33] A.S. Hedayat, N.J.A. Sloane and J. Stufken, Orthogonal Arrays: Theory and Applications, Springer-Verlag, New York (1999). [34] L.Q. Ren, Experiment Design and Analysis, Science and Technology Publishing Ltd of Jinlin Province, Changchun, P.R. China (2001). [35] A. Bogaerts, E. Neyts, R. Gijbels and J. van der Mullen, Spectrochimica Acta Part B 57 (2002), p. 609. Article | PDF (1207 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (121) [36] T. Nozaki, T. Unno, Y. Miyazaki, K. Okazaki, A clear distinction of plasma structure between APG and DBD, in: 15th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry, Orleans, France, 2001, p. 77. [37] L. Mangolini, P. Zhang and U. Kortshagen, Experimental and numerical study of dielectric barrier discharges, 2002. [38] T. Dwars, H. Fuhrmann, J. Ehlbeck, M. Maa[ss] and G. Oehme, Surface and Coatings Technology 174–175 (2003), p. 597. Article | PDF (561 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (2) [39] R.J. Carman and R.P. Mildren, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 33 (2000), p. L99. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (14) [40] T. Zhang, D.T. Gawne and Y. Bao, Surface and Coatings Technology 96 (1997), p. 337. Abstract | PDF (684 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (14) [41] M.O.H. Cioffi, H.J.C. Voorwald and R.P. Mota, Materials Characterization 50 (2003), p. 209. Article | PDF (663 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (20) [42] S.-J. Park, K.-S. Cho and C.-G. Choi, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 258 (2003), p. 424. Article | PDF (80 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (11) [43] P. Groning, O.M. Kuttel, M. Collaud-Coen, G. Dietler and L. Schlapbach, Applied Surface Science 89 (1995), p. 83. Article | PDF (845 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (41) [44] A. Grill, Cold Plasma in Materials Fabrication, IEEE Press, New York (1994). [45] N. Inagaki, K. Narushima, S.Y. Lim, Y.W. Park and Y. Ikeda, Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics 40 (2002), p. 2871. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (15) [46] H. Kaczmarek, J. Kowalonek, A. Szalla and A. Sionkowska, Surface Science 507–510 (2002), p. 883. Article | PDF (114 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (31) [47] G.S. Oehrlein, Surface Science 386 (1997), p. 222. Article | PDF (785 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (39) [48] R. Yosomiya, K. Morimoto, A. Nakajima, Y. Ikada and T. Suzuki, Adhesion and Bonding in Composites, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York (1990).",
year = "2005",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1016/j.susc.2004.11.026",
language = "English",
volume = "575",
pages = "273--286",
number = "3",

}

Statistical analysis of the effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operating parameters on the surface processing of poly(methylmethacrylate) film. / Liu, C; Brown, NMD; Meenan, BJ.

Vol. 575, No. 3, 02.2005, p. 273-286.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Statistical analysis of the effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operating parameters on the surface processing of poly(methylmethacrylate) film

AU - Liu, C

AU - Brown, NMD

AU - Meenan, BJ

N1 - Reference text: [1] J. Meichsner, M. Nitschke, R. Rochotzki and M. Zeuner, Surface and Coatings Technology 74–75 (1995), p. 227. Article | PDF (402 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (33) [2] S.A. Visser, R. Hergenrother and S.L. Cooper, Polymer In: B.D. Ratner, Editors, Biomaterials Science, Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA (1996). [3] J.M. Grace and L.J. Gerenser, Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology 24 (2003), p. 305. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (72) [4] J. Meichsner, M. Zeuner, B. Krames, M. Nitschke, R. Rochotzki and K. Barucki, Surface and Coatings Technology 98 (1998), p. 1565. Abstract | PDF (452 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (20) [5] M. Zeuner, H. Neumann and J. Meichsner, Vacuum 48 (1997), p. 443. Article | PDF (602 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (10) [6] P.K. Chu, J.Y. Chen, L.P. Wang and N. Huang, Materials Science and Engineering R36 (2002), p. 143. Article | PDF (2604 K) [7] C.Z. Liu, Modification of biopolymer surfaces by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma processing, in: 2nd Conference of UK Society for Biomaterials, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, 2003. [8] C.Z. Liu, R.D. Arnell, A.R. Gibbons, S.M. Green, L.Q. Ren and J. Tong, Surface Engineering 16 (2000), p. 215. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (12) [9] C.Z. Liu, N.Y. Cui, N.M.D. Brown and B.J. Meenan, Surface & Coatings Technology 185 (2004), p. 310. Article | PDF (399 K) | Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (0) [10] H. Biederman, M. Zeuner, J. Zalman, P. Bilkova, D. Slavinska, V. Stelmasuk and A. Boldyreva, Thin Solid Films 392 (2001), p. 208. Article | PDF (483 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (36) [11] N.M.D. Brown, W.S. McClean, C.B. Kane, An exploratory study of the plasma modification of linen textiles using ambient pressure plasmas, in: 3rd International Conference on New Production and Production Technologies for a New Textiles Industry, Sofitel Gent, Belgium, 1999, p. 72. [12] S. Ishikawa, K. Yukimura, K. Matsunaga and T. Maruyama, Surface and Coatings Technology 130 (2000), p. 52. Article | PDF (159 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (19) [13] H. Xu, Z. Hu, S.H. Wu and Y. Chen, Materials Chemistry and Physics 9710 (2002), p. 1. [14] S.K. Oiseth, A. Krozer, B. Kasemo and J. Lausmaa, Applied Surface Science 202 (2002), p. 92. Article | PDF (342 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (35) [15] C.Z. Liu, J.Q. Wu, L.Q. Ren, J. Tong, J. Li, N.Y. Cui, N.M.D. Brown and B.J. Meenan, Materials Chemistry and Physics 85 (2004), p. 340. Article | PDF (346 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (12) [16] U. Konig, M. Nitschke, M. Pilz, F. Simon, C. Arnhold and C. Werner, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 25 (2002), p. 313. Article | PDF (579 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (14) [17] T. Chandy, G.S. Das, R.F. Wilson and G.H.R. Rao, Biomaterials 21 (2000), p. 699. Article | PDF (1972 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (64) [18] C.R. Deible, P. Petrosko, P.C. Johnson, E.J. Beckman, A.J. Russell and W.R. Wagner, Biomaterials 20 (1999), p. 101. Article | PDF (586 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (23) [19] U. Konig, M. Nitschke, A. Menning, G. Eberth, M. Pilz, C. Arnhold, F. Simon, G. Adam and C. Werner, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 24 (2002), p. 63. Article | PDF (369 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (27) [20] X.P. Zou, E.T. Kang and K.G. Neoh, Surface and Coatings Technology 149 (2002), p. 119. Article | PDF (446 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (32) [21] S.D. Lee, G.H. Hsiue, P.C.T. Chang and C.Y. Kao, Biomaterials 17 (1996), p. 1599. Article | PDF (980 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (75) [22] M.K. Kim, I.S. Park, H.D. Park, W.R. Wee, J.H. Lee, K.D. Park, S.H. Kim and Y.H. Kim, Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery 27 (2001), p. 766. Article | PDF (700 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (19) [23] P. Wang, K.L. Tan, E.T. Kang and K.G. Neoh, Journal of Membrane Science 195 (2002), p. 103. Article | PDF (509 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (1) [24] M.C. Coen, R. Lehmann, P. Groening and L. Schlapbach, Applied Surface Science 9729 (2003), p. 1. [25] H. Biederman, Vacuum 59 (2000), p. 594. Article | PDF (209 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (29) [26] N.Y. Cui and N.M.D. Brown, Applied Surface Science 189 (2002), p. 31. Article | PDF (202 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (90) [27] D.P. Liu, S. Yu, Y. Liu, C. Ren, J. Zhang and T. Ma, Thin Solid Films 414 (2002), p. 163. Article | PDF (549 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (14) [28] R. Seebock, H. Esrom, M. Charbonnier, A. Romand and U. Kogeschatz, Surface & Coatings Technology 142 (2001), p. 455. Article | PDF (1121 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (31) [29] G. Borcia, N.M.D. Brown, D. Dixon and R. McIlhagger, Surface & Coatings Technology 179 (2004), p. 70. Article | PDF (230 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (7) [30] G. Borcia, N.M.D. Brown, C.A. Anderson, Experiment report, SSL UUJ, 2003. [31] C.Z. Liu, L.Q. Ren, R.D. Arnell and J. Tong, Wear 225–229 (1999), p. 199. Article | PDF (584 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (26) [32] C.Z. Liu, L.Q. Ren, J. Tong, T.J. Joyce, S.M. Green and R.D. Arnell, Wear 249 (2001), p. 31. Article | PDF (178 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (26) [33] A.S. Hedayat, N.J.A. Sloane and J. Stufken, Orthogonal Arrays: Theory and Applications, Springer-Verlag, New York (1999). [34] L.Q. Ren, Experiment Design and Analysis, Science and Technology Publishing Ltd of Jinlin Province, Changchun, P.R. China (2001). [35] A. Bogaerts, E. Neyts, R. Gijbels and J. van der Mullen, Spectrochimica Acta Part B 57 (2002), p. 609. Article | PDF (1207 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (121) [36] T. Nozaki, T. Unno, Y. Miyazaki, K. Okazaki, A clear distinction of plasma structure between APG and DBD, in: 15th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry, Orleans, France, 2001, p. 77. [37] L. Mangolini, P. Zhang and U. Kortshagen, Experimental and numerical study of dielectric barrier discharges, 2002. [38] T. Dwars, H. Fuhrmann, J. Ehlbeck, M. Maa[ss] and G. Oehme, Surface and Coatings Technology 174–175 (2003), p. 597. Article | PDF (561 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (2) [39] R.J. Carman and R.P. Mildren, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 33 (2000), p. L99. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (14) [40] T. Zhang, D.T. Gawne and Y. Bao, Surface and Coatings Technology 96 (1997), p. 337. Abstract | PDF (684 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (14) [41] M.O.H. Cioffi, H.J.C. Voorwald and R.P. Mota, Materials Characterization 50 (2003), p. 209. Article | PDF (663 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (20) [42] S.-J. Park, K.-S. Cho and C.-G. Choi, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 258 (2003), p. 424. Article | PDF (80 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (11) [43] P. Groning, O.M. Kuttel, M. Collaud-Coen, G. Dietler and L. Schlapbach, Applied Surface Science 89 (1995), p. 83. Article | PDF (845 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (41) [44] A. Grill, Cold Plasma in Materials Fabrication, IEEE Press, New York (1994). [45] N. Inagaki, K. Narushima, S.Y. Lim, Y.W. Park and Y. Ikeda, Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics 40 (2002), p. 2871. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (15) [46] H. Kaczmarek, J. Kowalonek, A. Szalla and A. Sionkowska, Surface Science 507–510 (2002), p. 883. Article | PDF (114 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (31) [47] G.S. Oehrlein, Surface Science 386 (1997), p. 222. Article | PDF (785 K) | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (39) [48] R. Yosomiya, K. Morimoto, A. Nakajima, Y. Ikada and T. Suzuki, Adhesion and Bonding in Composites, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York (1990).

PY - 2005/2

Y1 - 2005/2

N2 - A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, operating in air at atmospheric pressure, has been used to induce changes in the surface properties of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) films. The relative effects that key DBD operating parameters, specifically: discharge power, electrode gap and duration of exposure have on producing chemical and microstructural changes in the polymer surface region have been investigated. The approach taken involves the application of an orthogonal array experimental design and statistical analysis methodology. The various data sets obtained from these analyses have been used to develop an equation in which induced changes in the surface properties of the DBD modified PMMA films are expressed in terms of the effectiveness of the various processing parameters in producing them.In general, the results obtained clearly indicate that DBD plasma processing is an effective method for the controlled surface modification of PMMA. Relatively short exposures to the atmospheric pressure discharge produces a significant amount of oxygen incorporation at the surface as indicted by a pronounced reduction in water contact angle. Analysis of the role of each of the operating parameters concerned shows that they do indeed have selective effectiveness for inducing resultant surface modification. Duration of exposure to the DBD plasma, expressed here as the number of treatment cycles at a given speed of specimen transit through the electrode gap, was found to play a major role in decreasing the surface wettability of PMMA. Conversely, the magnitude of the discharge power was not a significant parameter in this regard. In contrast, the value of the applied power played the dominant role in achieving the observed enrichment of the surface oxygen abundance, as measured by XPS, with the duration of exposure to the discharge playing a secondary role in this case.The nature and scale of the induced surface changes that originate from the various processing conditions employed have been further considered to determine if an interrelationship exists between them. Non-parametric data analysis indicates that no significant correlation exists between the observed changes in measured polymer wettability and the attendant surface oxygen enrichment. This result suggests that the increase in surface wettability caused by DBD processing, as manifested in a reduced contact angle, is not merely attributable to changes in the surface chemistry. As such, it is postulated that changes in the surface microstructure may also contribute to this change in surface wettability.

AB - A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, operating in air at atmospheric pressure, has been used to induce changes in the surface properties of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) films. The relative effects that key DBD operating parameters, specifically: discharge power, electrode gap and duration of exposure have on producing chemical and microstructural changes in the polymer surface region have been investigated. The approach taken involves the application of an orthogonal array experimental design and statistical analysis methodology. The various data sets obtained from these analyses have been used to develop an equation in which induced changes in the surface properties of the DBD modified PMMA films are expressed in terms of the effectiveness of the various processing parameters in producing them.In general, the results obtained clearly indicate that DBD plasma processing is an effective method for the controlled surface modification of PMMA. Relatively short exposures to the atmospheric pressure discharge produces a significant amount of oxygen incorporation at the surface as indicted by a pronounced reduction in water contact angle. Analysis of the role of each of the operating parameters concerned shows that they do indeed have selective effectiveness for inducing resultant surface modification. Duration of exposure to the DBD plasma, expressed here as the number of treatment cycles at a given speed of specimen transit through the electrode gap, was found to play a major role in decreasing the surface wettability of PMMA. Conversely, the magnitude of the discharge power was not a significant parameter in this regard. In contrast, the value of the applied power played the dominant role in achieving the observed enrichment of the surface oxygen abundance, as measured by XPS, with the duration of exposure to the discharge playing a secondary role in this case.The nature and scale of the induced surface changes that originate from the various processing conditions employed have been further considered to determine if an interrelationship exists between them. Non-parametric data analysis indicates that no significant correlation exists between the observed changes in measured polymer wettability and the attendant surface oxygen enrichment. This result suggests that the increase in surface wettability caused by DBD processing, as manifested in a reduced contact angle, is not merely attributable to changes in the surface chemistry. As such, it is postulated that changes in the surface microstructure may also contribute to this change in surface wettability.

KW - Surface modification

KW - Dielectric barrier discharge

KW - Atmospheric plasma processing

KW - Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA)

KW - Statistical analysis

U2 - 10.1016/j.susc.2004.11.026

DO - 10.1016/j.susc.2004.11.026

M3 - Article

VL - 575

SP - 273

EP - 286

IS - 3

ER -