Spruce aphid population dynamics in relation to canopy character: scope for cultural regulation.

KR Day, H Armour

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    Abstract

    The dynamic relationships between annual population densities of the spruce aphid in plantations of Sitka spruce are reviewed. The aphid is anholocyclic in western Europe and unlike many aphids on trees, it can be strongly affected by winter weather. In general, mild winters may be followed by higher aphid populations which are capable of causing widespread defoliation, but overcompensating density dependence between years is also indicated and among those processes responsible are behavioural responses of aphids to increased crowding in spring. Alate aphids were found to accumulate on foliage bearing low initial aphid populations, but it was also significant that they preferentially accumulated on tree canopies which were more exposed (apparent) than those under normal plantation conditions (cryptic). From initially similar population densities of aphids, larger aphid populations were shown to develop on apparent trees than on cryptic trees of the same provenance. The redistribution of alate aphids can therefore be seen as a significant (although not the only) process responsible for generating differences in aphid numbers between trees. The process is density dependent but different canopy types could support different equilibrium densities of aphids. The consequences of differences in canopy exposure in plantations (edges or spacing between trees) may be an increased risk of aphid damage, and this should be considered in silvicultural planning, particularly as better interactive models for the growth of Sitka spruce plantations become available and the economic effects of the aphid become better understood.
    LanguageEnglish
    Title of host publicationUnknown Host Publication
    Pages23-38
    Number of pages16
    Publication statusPublished - 1997
    EventINTEGRATING CULTURAL TACTICS INTO THE MANAGEMENT OF BARK BEETLE AND REFORESTATION PESTS, PROCEEDINGS - Vallombrossa
    Duration: 1 Jan 1997 → …

    Publication series

    NameUSDA FOREST SERVICE GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT NORTHEASTERN FOREST EXPERIMENTAL STATION

    Conference

    ConferenceINTEGRATING CULTURAL TACTICS INTO THE MANAGEMENT OF BARK BEETLE AND REFORESTATION PESTS, PROCEEDINGS
    Period1/01/97 → …

    Fingerprint

    Picea
    Aphidoidea
    population dynamics
    canopy
    plantations
    Picea sitchensis
    population density
    winter
    Western European region
    economic impact
    defoliation
    growth models
    provenance
    weather
    planning
    spatial distribution

    Cite this

    Day, KR., & Armour, H. (1997). Spruce aphid population dynamics in relation to canopy character: scope for cultural regulation. In Unknown Host Publication (pp. 23-38). (USDA FOREST SERVICE GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT NORTHEASTERN FOREST EXPERIMENTAL STATION).
    Day, KR ; Armour, H. / Spruce aphid population dynamics in relation to canopy character: scope for cultural regulation. Unknown Host Publication. 1997. pp. 23-38 (USDA FOREST SERVICE GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT NORTHEASTERN FOREST EXPERIMENTAL STATION).
    @inproceedings{f35f30c8b5e44458aa0310f31e2a6a2e,
    title = "Spruce aphid population dynamics in relation to canopy character: scope for cultural regulation.",
    abstract = "The dynamic relationships between annual population densities of the spruce aphid in plantations of Sitka spruce are reviewed. The aphid is anholocyclic in western Europe and unlike many aphids on trees, it can be strongly affected by winter weather. In general, mild winters may be followed by higher aphid populations which are capable of causing widespread defoliation, but overcompensating density dependence between years is also indicated and among those processes responsible are behavioural responses of aphids to increased crowding in spring. Alate aphids were found to accumulate on foliage bearing low initial aphid populations, but it was also significant that they preferentially accumulated on tree canopies which were more exposed (apparent) than those under normal plantation conditions (cryptic). From initially similar population densities of aphids, larger aphid populations were shown to develop on apparent trees than on cryptic trees of the same provenance. The redistribution of alate aphids can therefore be seen as a significant (although not the only) process responsible for generating differences in aphid numbers between trees. The process is density dependent but different canopy types could support different equilibrium densities of aphids. The consequences of differences in canopy exposure in plantations (edges or spacing between trees) may be an increased risk of aphid damage, and this should be considered in silvicultural planning, particularly as better interactive models for the growth of Sitka spruce plantations become available and the economic effects of the aphid become better understood.",
    author = "KR Day and H Armour",
    note = "Conference on Integrating Cultural Tactics into the Management of Bark Beetle and Reforestation Pests, VALLOMBROSA, ITALY, SEP 01-03, 1996",
    year = "1997",
    language = "English",
    series = "USDA FOREST SERVICE GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT NORTHEASTERN FOREST EXPERIMENTAL STATION",
    pages = "23--38",
    booktitle = "Unknown Host Publication",

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    Day, KR & Armour, H 1997, Spruce aphid population dynamics in relation to canopy character: scope for cultural regulation. in Unknown Host Publication. USDA FOREST SERVICE GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT NORTHEASTERN FOREST EXPERIMENTAL STATION, pp. 23-38, INTEGRATING CULTURAL TACTICS INTO THE MANAGEMENT OF BARK BEETLE AND REFORESTATION PESTS, PROCEEDINGS, 1/01/97.

    Spruce aphid population dynamics in relation to canopy character: scope for cultural regulation. / Day, KR; Armour, H.

    Unknown Host Publication. 1997. p. 23-38 (USDA FOREST SERVICE GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT NORTHEASTERN FOREST EXPERIMENTAL STATION).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    TY - GEN

    T1 - Spruce aphid population dynamics in relation to canopy character: scope for cultural regulation.

    AU - Day, KR

    AU - Armour, H

    N1 - Conference on Integrating Cultural Tactics into the Management of Bark Beetle and Reforestation Pests, VALLOMBROSA, ITALY, SEP 01-03, 1996

    PY - 1997

    Y1 - 1997

    N2 - The dynamic relationships between annual population densities of the spruce aphid in plantations of Sitka spruce are reviewed. The aphid is anholocyclic in western Europe and unlike many aphids on trees, it can be strongly affected by winter weather. In general, mild winters may be followed by higher aphid populations which are capable of causing widespread defoliation, but overcompensating density dependence between years is also indicated and among those processes responsible are behavioural responses of aphids to increased crowding in spring. Alate aphids were found to accumulate on foliage bearing low initial aphid populations, but it was also significant that they preferentially accumulated on tree canopies which were more exposed (apparent) than those under normal plantation conditions (cryptic). From initially similar population densities of aphids, larger aphid populations were shown to develop on apparent trees than on cryptic trees of the same provenance. The redistribution of alate aphids can therefore be seen as a significant (although not the only) process responsible for generating differences in aphid numbers between trees. The process is density dependent but different canopy types could support different equilibrium densities of aphids. The consequences of differences in canopy exposure in plantations (edges or spacing between trees) may be an increased risk of aphid damage, and this should be considered in silvicultural planning, particularly as better interactive models for the growth of Sitka spruce plantations become available and the economic effects of the aphid become better understood.

    AB - The dynamic relationships between annual population densities of the spruce aphid in plantations of Sitka spruce are reviewed. The aphid is anholocyclic in western Europe and unlike many aphids on trees, it can be strongly affected by winter weather. In general, mild winters may be followed by higher aphid populations which are capable of causing widespread defoliation, but overcompensating density dependence between years is also indicated and among those processes responsible are behavioural responses of aphids to increased crowding in spring. Alate aphids were found to accumulate on foliage bearing low initial aphid populations, but it was also significant that they preferentially accumulated on tree canopies which were more exposed (apparent) than those under normal plantation conditions (cryptic). From initially similar population densities of aphids, larger aphid populations were shown to develop on apparent trees than on cryptic trees of the same provenance. The redistribution of alate aphids can therefore be seen as a significant (although not the only) process responsible for generating differences in aphid numbers between trees. The process is density dependent but different canopy types could support different equilibrium densities of aphids. The consequences of differences in canopy exposure in plantations (edges or spacing between trees) may be an increased risk of aphid damage, and this should be considered in silvicultural planning, particularly as better interactive models for the growth of Sitka spruce plantations become available and the economic effects of the aphid become better understood.

    M3 - Conference contribution

    T3 - USDA FOREST SERVICE GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT NORTHEASTERN FOREST EXPERIMENTAL STATION

    SP - 23

    EP - 38

    BT - Unknown Host Publication

    ER -

    Day KR, Armour H. Spruce aphid population dynamics in relation to canopy character: scope for cultural regulation. In Unknown Host Publication. 1997. p. 23-38. (USDA FOREST SERVICE GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT NORTHEASTERN FOREST EXPERIMENTAL STATION).