Sport Psychology Consulting at Elite Sport Competitions

Lee-Ann Sharp, Ken Hodge, Steve Danish

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The purpose of this investigation was to examine what experienced sport psychology consultants (SPCs) believed to be essential for consulting effectiveness at elite sport competitions (i.e., pinnacle sporting events). A purposeful sampling method was used to recruit 10 experienced SPCs (8 male and 2 female, M age = 50.44 years, M years consulting experience = 21.67 years) who held current sport psychology accreditation/certification and who had considerable experience consulting at pinnacle sporting events (e.g., Olympic Games, World Championships, World Cups, European Championships). Following individual participant interviews, extensive inductive content analysis revealed that effective consulting was reflective of building a relationship with clients that has a positive impact on the individual and which the client is both happy with and will continue to develop. Additionally, fitting in but not getting in the way, consistent SPC behavior and working closely with coaches were perceived as essential while working at elite sport competitions.
LanguageEnglish
Pages75-88
JournalSport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology
Volume3
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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Sports
Consultants
Accreditation
Certification
Interviews
Sports Psychology

Keywords

  • consulting effectiveness
  • elite sport
  • consulting relationship
  • coaches

Cite this

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title = "Sport Psychology Consulting at Elite Sport Competitions",
abstract = "The purpose of this investigation was to examine what experienced sport psychology consultants (SPCs) believed to be essential for consulting effectiveness at elite sport competitions (i.e., pinnacle sporting events). A purposeful sampling method was used to recruit 10 experienced SPCs (8 male and 2 female, M age = 50.44 years, M years consulting experience = 21.67 years) who held current sport psychology accreditation/certification and who had considerable experience consulting at pinnacle sporting events (e.g., Olympic Games, World Championships, World Cups, European Championships). Following individual participant interviews, extensive inductive content analysis revealed that effective consulting was reflective of building a relationship with clients that has a positive impact on the individual and which the client is both happy with and will continue to develop. Additionally, fitting in but not getting in the way, consistent SPC behavior and working closely with coaches were perceived as essential while working at elite sport competitions.",
keywords = "consulting effectiveness, elite sport, consulting relationship, coaches",
author = "Lee-Ann Sharp and Ken Hodge and Steve Danish",
note = "Reference text: References Allen, J., & Hodge, K. P. (2006). Fostering a learning environment: Coaches and the motivational climate. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching 1, 261-277. Anderson, A. G., Miles, A., Mahoney, C., & Robinson, P. (2002). Evaluating the effectiveness of applied sport psychology practice: Making the case for a case study approach. The Sport Psychologist, 16, 432-453. Anderson, A., Miles, A., Robinson, P., & Mahoney, C. (2004). Evaluating the athlete's perception of the sport psychologist's effectiveness: What should we be assessing? Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 5, 255-277. Corbin, J.M., & Strauss, A.L. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. London: SAGE Publications. Cushing, C.C., & Steele, R.G. (2011) Establishing and maintain physical exercise. In J.K. Lusielli, & D.D. Reid (Eds.), Behavioral Sport Psychology: Evidence-Based Approaches to performance enhancement (pp. 127-142). London: Springer. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The {"}what{"} and {"}why{"} of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. Faull, A., & Cropley, B. (2009). Reflective learning in sport: A case study of a senior level triathlete. Reflective Practice, 10, 325-339. Fletcher, D., Rumbold, J.L., Tester, R., & Coombes, M.S. (2011). Sport psychologists’ experiences of organisational stressors. The Sport Psychologist, 25, 363-381. Fletcher, D., & Scott, M. (2010). Psychological stress in sports coaches: A review of concepts, research and practice. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28, 127-137. Fletcher, D., & Wagstaff, C. (2009). Organisational psychology in elite sport: Its emergence, application and future. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 427-434. Fifer, A., Henschen, K. P., Gould, D., & Ravizza, K. (2008). What works when working with athletes. The Sport Psychologist, 22, 356-377. Gardner, F. (1995). The coach and the team psychologist: An integrated organisational model. In S. M. Murphy (Ed.), Sport psychology interventions (pp. 147-175). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Giges, B., & Petitpas, A. (2000). Brief contact interventions in sport psychology. The Sport Psychologist, 14, 176-187. Gould, D., Murphy, S., Tammen, V., & May, J. (1991). An evaluation of U.S. Olympic sport psychology consultant effectiveness. The Sport Psychologist, 5, 111-127. Gould, D., Hodge, K., Peterson, K., & Petlichkoff, L. (1987). Psychological foundations of coaching: similarities and differences among Intercollegiate wrestling coaches. The Sport Psychologist, 1, 293 308. Haberl, P., & McCann, S. (2012).Evaluating USOC sport psychology consultant effectiveness: A philosophical and practical imperative at the Olympic Games. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 3, 65-76. Haberl, P., & Petersen, K. (2006). Olympic-Size ethical dilemmas: Issues and challenges for sport psychology consultants on the road and at the Olympic Games. Ethics & Behavior, 16, 25-40. Hanton, S., Fletcher, D., & Coughlan, G. (2005). Stress in elite sport performers: A comparative study of competitive and organisational stressors. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23, 1129-1141. Hardy, L., & Parfitt, G. (1994). The development of a model for the provision of psychological support to a national squad. The Sport Psychologist, 8, 126-142. Harwood, C., & Knight, C. (2009). Understanding parental stressors: An investigation of British tennis players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 2, 96-99. Hays, K. F. (2006). Being fit: The ethics of practice diversification in performance psychology. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37, 223-232. Hodge, K., & Hermansson, G. (2007). Psychological preparation of athletes for the Olympic context: The New Zealand Summer and Winter Olympic Teams. Athletic Insight, 9, 1-14. Kirschenbaum, D.S., & Bale, R.M. (1984). Cognitive-behavioral skills in sports: Application to golf and speculations about soccer. In W.F. Straub & J.M. Williams (Eds.), Cognitive sport psychology (pp. 84-97). New York: Sport Science Associates. Knowles, Z., Katz, J., & Gilbourne, D. (2012). Reflective practice within elite consultancy: Diary and further discussion on a personal and elusive process. The Sport Psychologist, 26, 454-469. Lubker, J.R., Visek, A.J., Geer, J.R., & Watson, J.C. (2008). Characteristics of an effective sport psychology consultant: Perspectives from athletes and consultants. Journal of Sport Behavior, 31, 147-165. Martindale, A., & Collins, D. (2010). But why does what works work? A response to Fifer, Henschen, Gould, and Ravizza, 2008. The Sport Psychologist, 24, 113-116. Mageau, G. A., & Vallerand, R. J. (2003). The coach-athlete relationship: a motivational model. Journal of Sport Sciences, 21, 883-904. McCann, S. (2008). At the Olympics, everything is a performance issue. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6, 267-276. McCann, S. C. (2000). Doing sport psychology in the really big show. In M. B. Andersen (Ed.), Doing sport psychology (pp. 209-277). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Miller, P.S., & Kerr, G.A. (2002). Conceptualising excellence: Past, present, and future. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 140-153. Norcross, J.C., & Wampold, B.E. (2011). Evidence-based therapy relationships: Research conclusions and clinical practices. Psychotherapy, 48, 98-102. Olusoga, P., Butt, J., Hays, K., & Maynard, I. (2009). Stress in elite sports coaching: Identifying stressors. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 21, 442-459. Orlick, T., & Partington, J. (1987). The sport psychology consultant: analysis of critical components as viewed by Canadian Olympic athletes. The Sport Psychologist, 1, 4-17. Petitpas, A. J., Giges, B., & Danish, S. J. (1999). The sport psychologist-athlete relationship: implications for training. The Sport Psychologist, 13, 344-357. Portenga, S.T., Aoyagi, M.W., & Statler, T.A. (2012). Consulting on the run: Performance psychology and the preparation of USA track and field athletes for the Olympics. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 3, 98-108. Poczwardowski, A., & Sherman, C. P. (2011). Revisions to the Sport Psychology Service Delivery (SPSD) Heuristic: Explorations with experienced consultants. The Sport Psychologist, 25, 511-531. Poczwardowski, A., Sherman, C. P., & Ravizza, K. (2004). Professional philosophy in the sport psychology service delivery: Building on theory and practice. The Sport Psychologist, 18, 445-463. Reid, C., Stewart, E., & Thorne, G. (2004). Multidisciplinary sport science teams in elite sport: Comprehensive servicing or conflict and confusion? The Sport Psychologist, 18, 204-217. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2008). A Self-Determination Theory approach to psychotherapy: The Motivational basis for effective change. Canadian Psychology, 49, 186-193. Singer, R. N., & Anshel, M. H. (2006). An overview of interventions in sport. In J. Dosil (Ed.), The sport psychologists handbook: A guide for sport specific performance enhancement (pp. 63-88). Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Sharp, L., & Hodge, K. (in press). Effective sport psychology consulting relationships: Two coach case studies. The Sport Psychologist. Sharp, L., & Hodge, K. (2011). Sport psychology consulting effectiveness: The sport psychology consultant’s perspective. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23, 360-376. Smith, K., Shanteau, J., & Johnson, P. (2004). Psychological investigations of competence in decision making. Cambridge: AUS. Sparkes, A. C. (1998). Validity in qualitative inquiry and the problem of criteria: Implications for sport psychology. The Sport Psychologist, 12, 363-386. Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. M. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Strean, W.B., & Roberts, G.C. (1992). Future directions in applied sport psychology research. The Sport Psychologist, 6, 55-65. Tod, D., & Andersen, M. B. (2005). Success in sport psych: Effective sport psychologists. In S. Murphy (Ed.), The sport psych handbook (pp. 305-335). Auckland: Human Kinetics. Thelwell, R.C., Weston, N. J.V., Greenlees, I.A., & Hutchings, N.V. (2008). A qualitative exploration of psychological-skills use in coaches. The Sport Psychologist, 22, 38-53. Vealey, R. S. (1988). Future directions in psychological skills training. The Sport Psychologist, 2, 318-336. Weber, R. (1990). Basic content analyses. London: Sage. Williams, J. (1992). The psychological treatment of depression: A guide to the theory and practice of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. Younggren, J. N., & Gottlieb, M. C. (2004). Managing risk when contemplating multiple relationships. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35, 255–260. Zaichkowsky, L.D. (2006). Industry challenges facing sport psychology. Athletic Insight, 8, 39-46.",
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doi = "10.1037/spy0000011",
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journal = "Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology",
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Sport Psychology Consulting at Elite Sport Competitions. / Sharp, Lee-Ann; Hodge, Ken; Danish, Steve.

In: Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2013, p. 75-88.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sport Psychology Consulting at Elite Sport Competitions

AU - Sharp, Lee-Ann

AU - Hodge, Ken

AU - Danish, Steve

N1 - Reference text: References Allen, J., & Hodge, K. P. (2006). Fostering a learning environment: Coaches and the motivational climate. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching 1, 261-277. Anderson, A. G., Miles, A., Mahoney, C., & Robinson, P. (2002). Evaluating the effectiveness of applied sport psychology practice: Making the case for a case study approach. The Sport Psychologist, 16, 432-453. Anderson, A., Miles, A., Robinson, P., & Mahoney, C. (2004). Evaluating the athlete's perception of the sport psychologist's effectiveness: What should we be assessing? Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 5, 255-277. Corbin, J.M., & Strauss, A.L. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. London: SAGE Publications. Cushing, C.C., & Steele, R.G. (2011) Establishing and maintain physical exercise. In J.K. Lusielli, & D.D. Reid (Eds.), Behavioral Sport Psychology: Evidence-Based Approaches to performance enhancement (pp. 127-142). London: Springer. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. Faull, A., & Cropley, B. (2009). Reflective learning in sport: A case study of a senior level triathlete. Reflective Practice, 10, 325-339. Fletcher, D., Rumbold, J.L., Tester, R., & Coombes, M.S. (2011). Sport psychologists’ experiences of organisational stressors. The Sport Psychologist, 25, 363-381. Fletcher, D., & Scott, M. (2010). Psychological stress in sports coaches: A review of concepts, research and practice. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28, 127-137. Fletcher, D., & Wagstaff, C. (2009). Organisational psychology in elite sport: Its emergence, application and future. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 427-434. Fifer, A., Henschen, K. P., Gould, D., & Ravizza, K. (2008). What works when working with athletes. The Sport Psychologist, 22, 356-377. Gardner, F. (1995). The coach and the team psychologist: An integrated organisational model. In S. M. Murphy (Ed.), Sport psychology interventions (pp. 147-175). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Giges, B., & Petitpas, A. (2000). Brief contact interventions in sport psychology. The Sport Psychologist, 14, 176-187. Gould, D., Murphy, S., Tammen, V., & May, J. (1991). An evaluation of U.S. Olympic sport psychology consultant effectiveness. The Sport Psychologist, 5, 111-127. Gould, D., Hodge, K., Peterson, K., & Petlichkoff, L. (1987). Psychological foundations of coaching: similarities and differences among Intercollegiate wrestling coaches. The Sport Psychologist, 1, 293 308. Haberl, P., & McCann, S. (2012).Evaluating USOC sport psychology consultant effectiveness: A philosophical and practical imperative at the Olympic Games. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 3, 65-76. Haberl, P., & Petersen, K. (2006). Olympic-Size ethical dilemmas: Issues and challenges for sport psychology consultants on the road and at the Olympic Games. Ethics & Behavior, 16, 25-40. Hanton, S., Fletcher, D., & Coughlan, G. (2005). Stress in elite sport performers: A comparative study of competitive and organisational stressors. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23, 1129-1141. Hardy, L., & Parfitt, G. (1994). The development of a model for the provision of psychological support to a national squad. The Sport Psychologist, 8, 126-142. Harwood, C., & Knight, C. (2009). Understanding parental stressors: An investigation of British tennis players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 2, 96-99. Hays, K. F. (2006). Being fit: The ethics of practice diversification in performance psychology. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37, 223-232. Hodge, K., & Hermansson, G. (2007). Psychological preparation of athletes for the Olympic context: The New Zealand Summer and Winter Olympic Teams. Athletic Insight, 9, 1-14. Kirschenbaum, D.S., & Bale, R.M. (1984). Cognitive-behavioral skills in sports: Application to golf and speculations about soccer. In W.F. Straub & J.M. Williams (Eds.), Cognitive sport psychology (pp. 84-97). New York: Sport Science Associates. Knowles, Z., Katz, J., & Gilbourne, D. (2012). Reflective practice within elite consultancy: Diary and further discussion on a personal and elusive process. The Sport Psychologist, 26, 454-469. Lubker, J.R., Visek, A.J., Geer, J.R., & Watson, J.C. (2008). Characteristics of an effective sport psychology consultant: Perspectives from athletes and consultants. Journal of Sport Behavior, 31, 147-165. Martindale, A., & Collins, D. (2010). But why does what works work? A response to Fifer, Henschen, Gould, and Ravizza, 2008. The Sport Psychologist, 24, 113-116. Mageau, G. A., & Vallerand, R. J. (2003). The coach-athlete relationship: a motivational model. Journal of Sport Sciences, 21, 883-904. McCann, S. (2008). At the Olympics, everything is a performance issue. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6, 267-276. McCann, S. C. (2000). Doing sport psychology in the really big show. In M. B. Andersen (Ed.), Doing sport psychology (pp. 209-277). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Miller, P.S., & Kerr, G.A. (2002). Conceptualising excellence: Past, present, and future. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 140-153. Norcross, J.C., & Wampold, B.E. (2011). Evidence-based therapy relationships: Research conclusions and clinical practices. Psychotherapy, 48, 98-102. Olusoga, P., Butt, J., Hays, K., & Maynard, I. (2009). Stress in elite sports coaching: Identifying stressors. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 21, 442-459. Orlick, T., & Partington, J. (1987). The sport psychology consultant: analysis of critical components as viewed by Canadian Olympic athletes. The Sport Psychologist, 1, 4-17. Petitpas, A. J., Giges, B., & Danish, S. J. (1999). The sport psychologist-athlete relationship: implications for training. The Sport Psychologist, 13, 344-357. Portenga, S.T., Aoyagi, M.W., & Statler, T.A. (2012). Consulting on the run: Performance psychology and the preparation of USA track and field athletes for the Olympics. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 3, 98-108. Poczwardowski, A., & Sherman, C. P. (2011). Revisions to the Sport Psychology Service Delivery (SPSD) Heuristic: Explorations with experienced consultants. The Sport Psychologist, 25, 511-531. Poczwardowski, A., Sherman, C. P., & Ravizza, K. (2004). Professional philosophy in the sport psychology service delivery: Building on theory and practice. The Sport Psychologist, 18, 445-463. Reid, C., Stewart, E., & Thorne, G. (2004). Multidisciplinary sport science teams in elite sport: Comprehensive servicing or conflict and confusion? The Sport Psychologist, 18, 204-217. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2008). A Self-Determination Theory approach to psychotherapy: The Motivational basis for effective change. Canadian Psychology, 49, 186-193. Singer, R. N., & Anshel, M. H. (2006). An overview of interventions in sport. In J. Dosil (Ed.), The sport psychologists handbook: A guide for sport specific performance enhancement (pp. 63-88). Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Sharp, L., & Hodge, K. (in press). Effective sport psychology consulting relationships: Two coach case studies. The Sport Psychologist. Sharp, L., & Hodge, K. (2011). Sport psychology consulting effectiveness: The sport psychology consultant’s perspective. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23, 360-376. Smith, K., Shanteau, J., & Johnson, P. (2004). Psychological investigations of competence in decision making. Cambridge: AUS. Sparkes, A. C. (1998). Validity in qualitative inquiry and the problem of criteria: Implications for sport psychology. The Sport Psychologist, 12, 363-386. Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. M. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Strean, W.B., & Roberts, G.C. (1992). Future directions in applied sport psychology research. The Sport Psychologist, 6, 55-65. Tod, D., & Andersen, M. B. (2005). Success in sport psych: Effective sport psychologists. In S. Murphy (Ed.), The sport psych handbook (pp. 305-335). Auckland: Human Kinetics. Thelwell, R.C., Weston, N. J.V., Greenlees, I.A., & Hutchings, N.V. (2008). A qualitative exploration of psychological-skills use in coaches. The Sport Psychologist, 22, 38-53. Vealey, R. S. (1988). Future directions in psychological skills training. The Sport Psychologist, 2, 318-336. Weber, R. (1990). Basic content analyses. London: Sage. Williams, J. (1992). The psychological treatment of depression: A guide to the theory and practice of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. Younggren, J. N., & Gottlieb, M. C. (2004). Managing risk when contemplating multiple relationships. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35, 255–260. Zaichkowsky, L.D. (2006). Industry challenges facing sport psychology. Athletic Insight, 8, 39-46.

PY - 2013

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N2 - The purpose of this investigation was to examine what experienced sport psychology consultants (SPCs) believed to be essential for consulting effectiveness at elite sport competitions (i.e., pinnacle sporting events). A purposeful sampling method was used to recruit 10 experienced SPCs (8 male and 2 female, M age = 50.44 years, M years consulting experience = 21.67 years) who held current sport psychology accreditation/certification and who had considerable experience consulting at pinnacle sporting events (e.g., Olympic Games, World Championships, World Cups, European Championships). Following individual participant interviews, extensive inductive content analysis revealed that effective consulting was reflective of building a relationship with clients that has a positive impact on the individual and which the client is both happy with and will continue to develop. Additionally, fitting in but not getting in the way, consistent SPC behavior and working closely with coaches were perceived as essential while working at elite sport competitions.

AB - The purpose of this investigation was to examine what experienced sport psychology consultants (SPCs) believed to be essential for consulting effectiveness at elite sport competitions (i.e., pinnacle sporting events). A purposeful sampling method was used to recruit 10 experienced SPCs (8 male and 2 female, M age = 50.44 years, M years consulting experience = 21.67 years) who held current sport psychology accreditation/certification and who had considerable experience consulting at pinnacle sporting events (e.g., Olympic Games, World Championships, World Cups, European Championships). Following individual participant interviews, extensive inductive content analysis revealed that effective consulting was reflective of building a relationship with clients that has a positive impact on the individual and which the client is both happy with and will continue to develop. Additionally, fitting in but not getting in the way, consistent SPC behavior and working closely with coaches were perceived as essential while working at elite sport competitions.

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KW - elite sport

KW - consulting relationship

KW - coaches

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DO - 10.1037/spy0000011

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EP - 88

JO - Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

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JF - Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

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