Some CHP Options for Wood-fired Fuel Cells

D McIlveen-Wright, JT McMullan, DAVID Guiney

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    1 Citation (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The possibility of integrating biomass gasifiers withfuel cells has already been explored and shown to offer amethod for using renewable energy to generate electricity at asmall scale. A preliminary study of applying such a system foruse in an isolated community and for several selected buildingshas been made and the results of these studies reported earlier.In this study wood gasification integrated with fuelcell (WGIFC) systems in CHP configurations for five buildingsystems with different energy demand profiles, are assessed.These are a hospital, a hotel, a leisure centre, a multi-residentialcommunity and a university hall of residence. Heat andelectricity use profiles for typical examples of these buildingswere obtained and the WGIFC system scaled to the powerdemand. Detailed technical, environmental and economicanalyses of each version are made, using the ECLIPSE processsimulation package. Various factors influencing the economicviability of each application are examined and a sensitivityanalysis for each system produced.The WGIFC system was modelled for two differenttypes of fuel cell, the Molten Carbonate and the PhosphoricAcid. In each case an oxygen-fired gasification system isproposed, in order to eliminate the need for a methanereformer.Technical, environmental and economic analyses of eachversion were made, using ECLIPSE. Since fuel cell lifetimesare not yet precisely known, economics for a range of fuel celllifetimes have been produced.While the wood-fired Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell(WFPAFC) system was found to have low electrical efficiency(13 – 16%), the wood-fired Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell(WFMCFC) system was found to be quite efficient forelectricity generation (24 to 27%). Much of the waste heatcould be recovered for the WFPAFC, so that the overallefficiency was 64 to 67%, and some waste heat, but potentiallyof higher grade, could be recovered by the WFMCFC to givean overall energy efficiency of 60 to 63%. The capital costs ofboth systems are still expected to be very high, but theexamination of wood fuel prices, fuel cell costs, fuel celllifetime and waste heat selling prices on the break-even sellingprice for electricity, as well as comparative sensitivity analyses,can help identify which other factors would have the mainimpacts on the system economics.
    LanguageEnglish
    Title of host publicationUnknown Host Publication
    Pages11-26
    Number of pages16
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2004
    Event7th Biennial ASME Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis - Manchester, England
    Duration: 1 Oct 2004 → …

    Conference

    Conference7th Biennial ASME Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis
    Period1/10/04 → …

    Fingerprint

    Fuel cells
    Wood
    Gasification
    Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC)
    Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC)
    Waste heat
    Economics
    Electricity
    Wood fuels
    Hotels
    Energy efficiency
    Molten materials
    Costs
    Carbonates
    Sales
    Biomass
    Oxygen

    Cite this

    McIlveen-Wright, D., McMullan, JT., & Guiney, DAVID. (2004). Some CHP Options for Wood-fired Fuel Cells. In Unknown Host Publication (pp. 11-26)
    McIlveen-Wright, D ; McMullan, JT ; Guiney, DAVID. / Some CHP Options for Wood-fired Fuel Cells. Unknown Host Publication. 2004. pp. 11-26
    @inproceedings{8f6cfc4d498a466fa7bd5595d37a5b77,
    title = "Some CHP Options for Wood-fired Fuel Cells",
    abstract = "The possibility of integrating biomass gasifiers withfuel cells has already been explored and shown to offer amethod for using renewable energy to generate electricity at asmall scale. A preliminary study of applying such a system foruse in an isolated community and for several selected buildingshas been made and the results of these studies reported earlier.In this study wood gasification integrated with fuelcell (WGIFC) systems in CHP configurations for five buildingsystems with different energy demand profiles, are assessed.These are a hospital, a hotel, a leisure centre, a multi-residentialcommunity and a university hall of residence. Heat andelectricity use profiles for typical examples of these buildingswere obtained and the WGIFC system scaled to the powerdemand. Detailed technical, environmental and economicanalyses of each version are made, using the ECLIPSE processsimulation package. Various factors influencing the economicviability of each application are examined and a sensitivityanalysis for each system produced.The WGIFC system was modelled for two differenttypes of fuel cell, the Molten Carbonate and the PhosphoricAcid. In each case an oxygen-fired gasification system isproposed, in order to eliminate the need for a methanereformer.Technical, environmental and economic analyses of eachversion were made, using ECLIPSE. Since fuel cell lifetimesare not yet precisely known, economics for a range of fuel celllifetimes have been produced.While the wood-fired Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell(WFPAFC) system was found to have low electrical efficiency(13 – 16{\%}), the wood-fired Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell(WFMCFC) system was found to be quite efficient forelectricity generation (24 to 27{\%}). Much of the waste heatcould be recovered for the WFPAFC, so that the overallefficiency was 64 to 67{\%}, and some waste heat, but potentiallyof higher grade, could be recovered by the WFMCFC to givean overall energy efficiency of 60 to 63{\%}. The capital costs ofboth systems are still expected to be very high, but theexamination of wood fuel prices, fuel cell costs, fuel celllifetime and waste heat selling prices on the break-even sellingprice for electricity, as well as comparative sensitivity analyses,can help identify which other factors would have the mainimpacts on the system economics.",
    author = "D McIlveen-Wright and JT McMullan and DAVID Guiney",
    note = "Reference text: [1] McIlveen-Wright DR, Williams BC and McMullan JT, “Wood Gasification Integrated with Fuel Cells”, Renewable Energy ; 19 (1/2), (2000), pp. 223-228. [2] McIlveen-Wright D, McMullan JT and Williams BC, “Biomass-fired Fuel Cells”, Int. J. Global Energy Issues, 15 (3-4), (2001), pp. 220-246. [3] McIlveen-Wright DR, McMullan JTand Guiney DJ, “Wood-Fired Fuel Cells In Selected Buildings”, J. Power Sources, 118, (2003), pp. 393-404. [4] Williams BC and McMullan JT, “Techno-economic analysis of fuel conversion and power generation systems - the development of a portable chemical process simulator with capital cost and economic performance analysis capabilities”, Int. J. Energy Research , 20, (1996). pp.125-142. [5] Srinivasan, S. et al., “Overview of Fuel Cell Technology”, Fuel Cell Systems, (eds., Blomen L.J. and Mugerwa M.N.), Plenum Press, New York, (1993), p. 48. [6] Appelby, A.J., Int. J. Hydrogen Energy , 19 (2), (1994), pp.175-180. [7] Ogden and Nitsch, “Solar Hydrogen”, Chapter 22 of Renewable Energy, Sources for Fuels and Electricity, Island Press, Washington DC, (1993). [8] Reed T. B. Levie B. and Graboski M. S., Fundamentals, development and scale-up of the air-oxygen stratified downdraft gasifier, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Report, (1988), Richland, Washington. [9] Evans R. J., Knight R. A., Onischak M. and Babu S. P., Development of biomass gasification to produce substitute fuels, Report PNL-6518, prepared by the Institute of Gas Technology, (1988), Richland, Washington. [10] Gravel G. et al., {"}Gasification project: energy from biomass{"}, Sixth Annual Canadian Bioenergy Seminar, Elsevier Applied Sciences, (1987), New York. [11] Cox J.L., Tonkovitch A.Y., Elliott D.C., Baker E.G. and Hoffman E.J., {"}Hydrogen from Biomass: A Fresh Approach{"}, presented at the 2nd Biomass Conference of the Americas, Portland Oregon, 21-24 August 1995, pp. 657-675. [12] 1. Feldmann H.F., Paisley M.A. Appelbaum H.R. and Taylor D.R., {"}Conversion of forest residues to a methane-rich gas in a high-throughput gasifier{"}, PNL Report PNL-6570, (1988), prepared by Batelle Columbus Division, Columbus, Ohio for the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. [13] Wyman, C.E., Bain, R.L., Hinman, N.D. and Stevens, D.J. (1993) Ethanol and methanol from cellulosic biomass. Chapter 21 of Renewable energy, sources for fuels and electricity, Island Press, Washington DC, pp.865-923. [14] Chem Systems (1990) Assessment of cost of production of methanol from biomass. Report DOE/PE-0097P, Chem Systems, Tarrytown, New York. [15] McIlveen-Wright DR, Williams BC and McMullan, JT, “A Reappraisal of Wood-Fired Combustion”, Bioresource Technology, 76 (3), (2000), pp183-190. [16] McMullan JT, Williams BC, Campbell PE, McIlveen- Wright DR, Brennan S and McCahey S, {"}Fuel Cell Optimisation Studies{"}, the final report for contract JOUL2- CT93-0278 to the European Commission in the framework of the Non-Nuclear Energy Programme, JOULE II, 1996, 122pp. [17] McIlveen-Wright DR and Guiney, DJ, “Wood-Fired Fuel Cells In An Isolated Community”, J. Power Sources, 106 (1-2), (2002), pp. 93-101.",
    year = "2004",
    month = "10",
    language = "English",
    pages = "11--26",
    booktitle = "Unknown Host Publication",

    }

    McIlveen-Wright, D, McMullan, JT & Guiney, DAVID 2004, Some CHP Options for Wood-fired Fuel Cells. in Unknown Host Publication. pp. 11-26, 7th Biennial ASME Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, 1/10/04.

    Some CHP Options for Wood-fired Fuel Cells. / McIlveen-Wright, D; McMullan, JT; Guiney, DAVID.

    Unknown Host Publication. 2004. p. 11-26.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

    TY - GEN

    T1 - Some CHP Options for Wood-fired Fuel Cells

    AU - McIlveen-Wright, D

    AU - McMullan, JT

    AU - Guiney, DAVID

    N1 - Reference text: [1] McIlveen-Wright DR, Williams BC and McMullan JT, “Wood Gasification Integrated with Fuel Cells”, Renewable Energy ; 19 (1/2), (2000), pp. 223-228. [2] McIlveen-Wright D, McMullan JT and Williams BC, “Biomass-fired Fuel Cells”, Int. J. Global Energy Issues, 15 (3-4), (2001), pp. 220-246. [3] McIlveen-Wright DR, McMullan JTand Guiney DJ, “Wood-Fired Fuel Cells In Selected Buildings”, J. Power Sources, 118, (2003), pp. 393-404. [4] Williams BC and McMullan JT, “Techno-economic analysis of fuel conversion and power generation systems - the development of a portable chemical process simulator with capital cost and economic performance analysis capabilities”, Int. J. Energy Research , 20, (1996). pp.125-142. [5] Srinivasan, S. et al., “Overview of Fuel Cell Technology”, Fuel Cell Systems, (eds., Blomen L.J. and Mugerwa M.N.), Plenum Press, New York, (1993), p. 48. [6] Appelby, A.J., Int. J. Hydrogen Energy , 19 (2), (1994), pp.175-180. [7] Ogden and Nitsch, “Solar Hydrogen”, Chapter 22 of Renewable Energy, Sources for Fuels and Electricity, Island Press, Washington DC, (1993). [8] Reed T. B. Levie B. and Graboski M. S., Fundamentals, development and scale-up of the air-oxygen stratified downdraft gasifier, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Report, (1988), Richland, Washington. [9] Evans R. J., Knight R. A., Onischak M. and Babu S. P., Development of biomass gasification to produce substitute fuels, Report PNL-6518, prepared by the Institute of Gas Technology, (1988), Richland, Washington. [10] Gravel G. et al., "Gasification project: energy from biomass", Sixth Annual Canadian Bioenergy Seminar, Elsevier Applied Sciences, (1987), New York. [11] Cox J.L., Tonkovitch A.Y., Elliott D.C., Baker E.G. and Hoffman E.J., "Hydrogen from Biomass: A Fresh Approach", presented at the 2nd Biomass Conference of the Americas, Portland Oregon, 21-24 August 1995, pp. 657-675. [12] 1. Feldmann H.F., Paisley M.A. Appelbaum H.R. and Taylor D.R., "Conversion of forest residues to a methane-rich gas in a high-throughput gasifier", PNL Report PNL-6570, (1988), prepared by Batelle Columbus Division, Columbus, Ohio for the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. [13] Wyman, C.E., Bain, R.L., Hinman, N.D. and Stevens, D.J. (1993) Ethanol and methanol from cellulosic biomass. Chapter 21 of Renewable energy, sources for fuels and electricity, Island Press, Washington DC, pp.865-923. [14] Chem Systems (1990) Assessment of cost of production of methanol from biomass. Report DOE/PE-0097P, Chem Systems, Tarrytown, New York. [15] McIlveen-Wright DR, Williams BC and McMullan, JT, “A Reappraisal of Wood-Fired Combustion”, Bioresource Technology, 76 (3), (2000), pp183-190. [16] McMullan JT, Williams BC, Campbell PE, McIlveen- Wright DR, Brennan S and McCahey S, "Fuel Cell Optimisation Studies", the final report for contract JOUL2- CT93-0278 to the European Commission in the framework of the Non-Nuclear Energy Programme, JOULE II, 1996, 122pp. [17] McIlveen-Wright DR and Guiney, DJ, “Wood-Fired Fuel Cells In An Isolated Community”, J. Power Sources, 106 (1-2), (2002), pp. 93-101.

    PY - 2004/10

    Y1 - 2004/10

    N2 - The possibility of integrating biomass gasifiers withfuel cells has already been explored and shown to offer amethod for using renewable energy to generate electricity at asmall scale. A preliminary study of applying such a system foruse in an isolated community and for several selected buildingshas been made and the results of these studies reported earlier.In this study wood gasification integrated with fuelcell (WGIFC) systems in CHP configurations for five buildingsystems with different energy demand profiles, are assessed.These are a hospital, a hotel, a leisure centre, a multi-residentialcommunity and a university hall of residence. Heat andelectricity use profiles for typical examples of these buildingswere obtained and the WGIFC system scaled to the powerdemand. Detailed technical, environmental and economicanalyses of each version are made, using the ECLIPSE processsimulation package. Various factors influencing the economicviability of each application are examined and a sensitivityanalysis for each system produced.The WGIFC system was modelled for two differenttypes of fuel cell, the Molten Carbonate and the PhosphoricAcid. In each case an oxygen-fired gasification system isproposed, in order to eliminate the need for a methanereformer.Technical, environmental and economic analyses of eachversion were made, using ECLIPSE. Since fuel cell lifetimesare not yet precisely known, economics for a range of fuel celllifetimes have been produced.While the wood-fired Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell(WFPAFC) system was found to have low electrical efficiency(13 – 16%), the wood-fired Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell(WFMCFC) system was found to be quite efficient forelectricity generation (24 to 27%). Much of the waste heatcould be recovered for the WFPAFC, so that the overallefficiency was 64 to 67%, and some waste heat, but potentiallyof higher grade, could be recovered by the WFMCFC to givean overall energy efficiency of 60 to 63%. The capital costs ofboth systems are still expected to be very high, but theexamination of wood fuel prices, fuel cell costs, fuel celllifetime and waste heat selling prices on the break-even sellingprice for electricity, as well as comparative sensitivity analyses,can help identify which other factors would have the mainimpacts on the system economics.

    AB - The possibility of integrating biomass gasifiers withfuel cells has already been explored and shown to offer amethod for using renewable energy to generate electricity at asmall scale. A preliminary study of applying such a system foruse in an isolated community and for several selected buildingshas been made and the results of these studies reported earlier.In this study wood gasification integrated with fuelcell (WGIFC) systems in CHP configurations for five buildingsystems with different energy demand profiles, are assessed.These are a hospital, a hotel, a leisure centre, a multi-residentialcommunity and a university hall of residence. Heat andelectricity use profiles for typical examples of these buildingswere obtained and the WGIFC system scaled to the powerdemand. Detailed technical, environmental and economicanalyses of each version are made, using the ECLIPSE processsimulation package. Various factors influencing the economicviability of each application are examined and a sensitivityanalysis for each system produced.The WGIFC system was modelled for two differenttypes of fuel cell, the Molten Carbonate and the PhosphoricAcid. In each case an oxygen-fired gasification system isproposed, in order to eliminate the need for a methanereformer.Technical, environmental and economic analyses of eachversion were made, using ECLIPSE. Since fuel cell lifetimesare not yet precisely known, economics for a range of fuel celllifetimes have been produced.While the wood-fired Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell(WFPAFC) system was found to have low electrical efficiency(13 – 16%), the wood-fired Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell(WFMCFC) system was found to be quite efficient forelectricity generation (24 to 27%). Much of the waste heatcould be recovered for the WFPAFC, so that the overallefficiency was 64 to 67%, and some waste heat, but potentiallyof higher grade, could be recovered by the WFMCFC to givean overall energy efficiency of 60 to 63%. The capital costs ofboth systems are still expected to be very high, but theexamination of wood fuel prices, fuel cell costs, fuel celllifetime and waste heat selling prices on the break-even sellingprice for electricity, as well as comparative sensitivity analyses,can help identify which other factors would have the mainimpacts on the system economics.

    M3 - Conference contribution

    SP - 11

    EP - 26

    BT - Unknown Host Publication

    ER -

    McIlveen-Wright D, McMullan JT, Guiney DAVID. Some CHP Options for Wood-fired Fuel Cells. In Unknown Host Publication. 2004. p. 11-26