Social-Housing-Policy as Military-Security-Strategy

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

At the height of ‘the Troubles’ in 1977 social-housing in Belfast was in a crisis situation. As inner-city communities became ‘battlespaces’ of a wider and violent political conflict, social-housing settlements consolidated along ethnic boundaries. These processes revised the urban form of the inner-city resulting in divisive material forms which continue to segregate large sections of Belfast’s population. Current post-conflict policy frameworks identify the consequent ‘Interfaces’ and ‘Peace-walls’ as primary physical barriers to conflict transformation processes. This paper presents findings from an UK Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project that challenges this current critique. Through qualitative analysis of previously classified government documents, alongside practice-led architectural fieldwork investigations within Belfast’s inner-city communities, this paper presents new evidence of a much wider and undisclosed government programme of urban segregation. The examination reveals the operation of confidential government processes that assessed social-housing provision not in terms of the ‘social-need’ it addressed but in terms of the ‘security-threat’ it presented. The analysis explains how such security-focused practices were carried out without disclosure to social-housing authorities and illustrates how the impact of these decisions contravened the humanitarian need that socially focused policy was attempting to address. It argues that such processes brought into being the idea of the ‘security-threat-community’; a theoretical construct where every person is a potential insurgent and every dwelling a potential security-threat. These findings are used to provide a critical problematizing of contemporary post-conflict policy that illustrates how the security-threat-community provides a contemporary barrier to transformative policy progress. As a complement to post-911 discourses concerning ‘globalised conflicts’ and an increasing dialecticism between civil-liberty and security resilience, the findings reinforce both the primacy and the complexity of local discurvities and argue for a ‘revaluing of the value’ of architecture and urban design as a political instrument in conflict and post-conflict conditions.
LanguageEnglish
Title of host publicationUnknown Host Publication
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 18 Mar 2016
EventUrban Affairs Association International Conference - Hilton Bayfront San Diego, USA
Duration: 18 Mar 2016 → …

Conference

ConferenceUrban Affairs Association International Conference
Period18/03/16 → …

Fingerprint

social housing
housing policy
Military
threat
community
political instrument
government program
political conflict
segregation
resilience
peace
art
examination
human being
discourse
evidence
Values

Keywords

  • Architecture
  • Conflict
  • Society
  • Military
  • Urban
  • Northern Ireland
  • Planning

Cite this

@inproceedings{b087285acf7743efaa0acbf1ab5edf50,
title = "Social-Housing-Policy as Military-Security-Strategy",
abstract = "At the height of ‘the Troubles’ in 1977 social-housing in Belfast was in a crisis situation. As inner-city communities became ‘battlespaces’ of a wider and violent political conflict, social-housing settlements consolidated along ethnic boundaries. These processes revised the urban form of the inner-city resulting in divisive material forms which continue to segregate large sections of Belfast’s population. Current post-conflict policy frameworks identify the consequent ‘Interfaces’ and ‘Peace-walls’ as primary physical barriers to conflict transformation processes. This paper presents findings from an UK Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project that challenges this current critique. Through qualitative analysis of previously classified government documents, alongside practice-led architectural fieldwork investigations within Belfast’s inner-city communities, this paper presents new evidence of a much wider and undisclosed government programme of urban segregation. The examination reveals the operation of confidential government processes that assessed social-housing provision not in terms of the ‘social-need’ it addressed but in terms of the ‘security-threat’ it presented. The analysis explains how such security-focused practices were carried out without disclosure to social-housing authorities and illustrates how the impact of these decisions contravened the humanitarian need that socially focused policy was attempting to address. It argues that such processes brought into being the idea of the ‘security-threat-community’; a theoretical construct where every person is a potential insurgent and every dwelling a potential security-threat. These findings are used to provide a critical problematizing of contemporary post-conflict policy that illustrates how the security-threat-community provides a contemporary barrier to transformative policy progress. As a complement to post-911 discourses concerning ‘globalised conflicts’ and an increasing dialecticism between civil-liberty and security resilience, the findings reinforce both the primacy and the complexity of local discurvities and argue for a ‘revaluing of the value’ of architecture and urban design as a political instrument in conflict and post-conflict conditions.",
keywords = "Architecture, Conflict, Society, Military, Urban, Northern Ireland, Planning",
author = "David Coyles",
note = "Reference text: Anderson, Ben. 2011. {"}Facing the Future Enemy US Counterinsurgency Doctrine and the Pre-Insurgent.{"} Theory, Culture & Society 28 (7-8): 216-240. Brett, Charles Edward Bainbridge. 1986. Housing a Divided Community. Dublin: Institute of Public Administration. Cammaerts, Bart. 2013. {"}The Mediation of Insurrectionary Symbolic Damage: The 2010 UK Student Protests.{"} The International Journal of Press/Politics: 525-548. Coaffee, Jon and David Murakami Wood. 2006. {"}Security is Coming Home: Rethinking Scale and Constructing Resilience in the Global Urban Response to Terrorist Risk.{"} International Relations 20: 503-517. doi:10.1177/0047117806069416. Coyles, David, Donovan Wylie, and Steven Spier. 2013. Connected Communities: Communities as Constructs of People and Architecture. Online: Arts and Humanities Research Council. Edwards, Aaron. 2010. {"}Misapplying Lessons Learned? Analysing the Utility of British Counterinsurgency Strategy in Northern Ireland, 1971–76.{"} Small Wars & Insurgencies 21 (2): 303-330. Garland, David. 1997. {"}Governmentality'and the Problem of Crime: Foucault, Criminology, Sociology.{"} Theoretical Criminology 1 (2): 173-214. Garland, David. 2014. {"}What is a “history of the Present”? on Foucault’s Genealogies and their Critical Preconditions.{"} Punishment & Society 16 (4): 365-384. Graham, Stephen. 2009. {"}Cities as Battlespace: The New Military Urbanism.{"} City 13 (4): 383-402. Graham, Stephen. 2011. Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism. London: Verso. Graham, Stephen and David Wood. 2003. {"}Digitizing Surveillance: Categorization, Space, Inequality.{"} Critical Social Policy 23 (2): 227-248. Harvey, David. 2001. Spaces of Capital: Towards a Critical Geography Routledge. Kitson, Frank. 1977. Bunch of Five. London: Faber. Kitson, Frank. 1972. Low Intensity Operations. London: Faber. Murtagh, Brendan. 2003. {"}Territoriality, Research and Policy Making in Northern Ireland.{"} Researching the Troubles: Social Science Perspectives on the Northern Ireland Conflict: 209-225. Office of First Minister and deputy First Minister of the Northern Ireland Executive. 2013. Together: Building a United Community Strategy. Belfast: OFMDFM. Packer, Jeremy. 2006. {"}Becoming Bombs: Mobilizing Mobility in the War of Terror.{"} Cultural Studies 20 (4-5): 378-399. Shirlow, Peter and Brendan Murtagh. 2006. Belfast: Segregation, Violence and the City Pluto Press. Singleton, Dale, Northern Ireland, and Housing Executive. 1984. The Belfast Experience: Housing Renewal in Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Housing Executive. Weizman, Eyal. 2007. Hollow Land: Israel’s Architecture of Occupation. London: Verso. Weizman, Eyal. 2012. The Least of all Possible Evils: Humanitarian Violence from Arendt to Gaza. London: Verso. Weizman, Eyal. 2010. {"}Legislative Attack.{"} Theory, Culture & Society 27 (6): 11-22. Weizman, Eyal and Rafi Segal. 2003. A Civilian Occupation: The Politics of Israeli Architecture. London: Verso.",
year = "2016",
month = "3",
day = "18",
language = "English",
booktitle = "Unknown Host Publication",

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Coyles, D 2016, Social-Housing-Policy as Military-Security-Strategy. in Unknown Host Publication. Urban Affairs Association International Conference, 18/03/16.

Social-Housing-Policy as Military-Security-Strategy. / Coyles, David.

Unknown Host Publication. 2016.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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T1 - Social-Housing-Policy as Military-Security-Strategy

AU - Coyles, David

N1 - Reference text: Anderson, Ben. 2011. "Facing the Future Enemy US Counterinsurgency Doctrine and the Pre-Insurgent." Theory, Culture & Society 28 (7-8): 216-240. Brett, Charles Edward Bainbridge. 1986. Housing a Divided Community. Dublin: Institute of Public Administration. Cammaerts, Bart. 2013. "The Mediation of Insurrectionary Symbolic Damage: The 2010 UK Student Protests." The International Journal of Press/Politics: 525-548. Coaffee, Jon and David Murakami Wood. 2006. "Security is Coming Home: Rethinking Scale and Constructing Resilience in the Global Urban Response to Terrorist Risk." International Relations 20: 503-517. doi:10.1177/0047117806069416. Coyles, David, Donovan Wylie, and Steven Spier. 2013. Connected Communities: Communities as Constructs of People and Architecture. Online: Arts and Humanities Research Council. Edwards, Aaron. 2010. "Misapplying Lessons Learned? Analysing the Utility of British Counterinsurgency Strategy in Northern Ireland, 1971–76." Small Wars & Insurgencies 21 (2): 303-330. Garland, David. 1997. "Governmentality'and the Problem of Crime: Foucault, Criminology, Sociology." Theoretical Criminology 1 (2): 173-214. Garland, David. 2014. "What is a “history of the Present”? on Foucault’s Genealogies and their Critical Preconditions." Punishment & Society 16 (4): 365-384. Graham, Stephen. 2009. "Cities as Battlespace: The New Military Urbanism." City 13 (4): 383-402. Graham, Stephen. 2011. Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism. London: Verso. Graham, Stephen and David Wood. 2003. "Digitizing Surveillance: Categorization, Space, Inequality." Critical Social Policy 23 (2): 227-248. Harvey, David. 2001. Spaces of Capital: Towards a Critical Geography Routledge. Kitson, Frank. 1977. Bunch of Five. London: Faber. Kitson, Frank. 1972. Low Intensity Operations. London: Faber. Murtagh, Brendan. 2003. "Territoriality, Research and Policy Making in Northern Ireland." Researching the Troubles: Social Science Perspectives on the Northern Ireland Conflict: 209-225. Office of First Minister and deputy First Minister of the Northern Ireland Executive. 2013. Together: Building a United Community Strategy. Belfast: OFMDFM. Packer, Jeremy. 2006. "Becoming Bombs: Mobilizing Mobility in the War of Terror." Cultural Studies 20 (4-5): 378-399. Shirlow, Peter and Brendan Murtagh. 2006. Belfast: Segregation, Violence and the City Pluto Press. Singleton, Dale, Northern Ireland, and Housing Executive. 1984. The Belfast Experience: Housing Renewal in Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Housing Executive. Weizman, Eyal. 2007. Hollow Land: Israel’s Architecture of Occupation. London: Verso. Weizman, Eyal. 2012. The Least of all Possible Evils: Humanitarian Violence from Arendt to Gaza. London: Verso. Weizman, Eyal. 2010. "Legislative Attack." Theory, Culture & Society 27 (6): 11-22. Weizman, Eyal and Rafi Segal. 2003. A Civilian Occupation: The Politics of Israeli Architecture. London: Verso.

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N2 - At the height of ‘the Troubles’ in 1977 social-housing in Belfast was in a crisis situation. As inner-city communities became ‘battlespaces’ of a wider and violent political conflict, social-housing settlements consolidated along ethnic boundaries. These processes revised the urban form of the inner-city resulting in divisive material forms which continue to segregate large sections of Belfast’s population. Current post-conflict policy frameworks identify the consequent ‘Interfaces’ and ‘Peace-walls’ as primary physical barriers to conflict transformation processes. This paper presents findings from an UK Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project that challenges this current critique. Through qualitative analysis of previously classified government documents, alongside practice-led architectural fieldwork investigations within Belfast’s inner-city communities, this paper presents new evidence of a much wider and undisclosed government programme of urban segregation. The examination reveals the operation of confidential government processes that assessed social-housing provision not in terms of the ‘social-need’ it addressed but in terms of the ‘security-threat’ it presented. The analysis explains how such security-focused practices were carried out without disclosure to social-housing authorities and illustrates how the impact of these decisions contravened the humanitarian need that socially focused policy was attempting to address. It argues that such processes brought into being the idea of the ‘security-threat-community’; a theoretical construct where every person is a potential insurgent and every dwelling a potential security-threat. These findings are used to provide a critical problematizing of contemporary post-conflict policy that illustrates how the security-threat-community provides a contemporary barrier to transformative policy progress. As a complement to post-911 discourses concerning ‘globalised conflicts’ and an increasing dialecticism between civil-liberty and security resilience, the findings reinforce both the primacy and the complexity of local discurvities and argue for a ‘revaluing of the value’ of architecture and urban design as a political instrument in conflict and post-conflict conditions.

AB - At the height of ‘the Troubles’ in 1977 social-housing in Belfast was in a crisis situation. As inner-city communities became ‘battlespaces’ of a wider and violent political conflict, social-housing settlements consolidated along ethnic boundaries. These processes revised the urban form of the inner-city resulting in divisive material forms which continue to segregate large sections of Belfast’s population. Current post-conflict policy frameworks identify the consequent ‘Interfaces’ and ‘Peace-walls’ as primary physical barriers to conflict transformation processes. This paper presents findings from an UK Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project that challenges this current critique. Through qualitative analysis of previously classified government documents, alongside practice-led architectural fieldwork investigations within Belfast’s inner-city communities, this paper presents new evidence of a much wider and undisclosed government programme of urban segregation. The examination reveals the operation of confidential government processes that assessed social-housing provision not in terms of the ‘social-need’ it addressed but in terms of the ‘security-threat’ it presented. The analysis explains how such security-focused practices were carried out without disclosure to social-housing authorities and illustrates how the impact of these decisions contravened the humanitarian need that socially focused policy was attempting to address. It argues that such processes brought into being the idea of the ‘security-threat-community’; a theoretical construct where every person is a potential insurgent and every dwelling a potential security-threat. These findings are used to provide a critical problematizing of contemporary post-conflict policy that illustrates how the security-threat-community provides a contemporary barrier to transformative policy progress. As a complement to post-911 discourses concerning ‘globalised conflicts’ and an increasing dialecticism between civil-liberty and security resilience, the findings reinforce both the primacy and the complexity of local discurvities and argue for a ‘revaluing of the value’ of architecture and urban design as a political instrument in conflict and post-conflict conditions.

KW - Architecture

KW - Conflict

KW - Society

KW - Military

KW - Urban

KW - Northern Ireland

KW - Planning

M3 - Conference contribution

BT - Unknown Host Publication

ER -