Simultaneous immunochemical detection of four banned antibiotic growth promoters in raw and cooked poultry tissue

S.E. McNamee, R. Cunningham, C.T. Elliott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Spiramycin, tylosin, bacitracin and virginiamycin are among a group of antibiotic growth promoters that have been banned in the European Union since the 1999 Council. This was due to concerns over the development of resistant bacteria emerging between humans and animals with the threat of antibiotics no longer being able to be used effectively to treat human infections. A sensitive and fast immunochemical method is presented for the determination of these four antibiotic growth promoters simultaneously in poultry tissue. The method employs methanol extraction followed by sample clean-up by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with determination by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA). The limit of detection (LOD) was less than 1 ng g−1 and the detection capability (CCβ) was 3 ng g−1 or less for all four antibiotic growth promoters. Validation was completed with both raw and cooked chicken, therefore either matrix could be used for the monitoring of these banned drugs. In a feeding trial no residues of either bacitracin or virginiamycin were found in medicated birds even without a withdrawal period. In the case of tylosin and spiramycin much higher residues level were detected immunochemically than was the case by mass spectrometry.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1270-1278
Number of pages9
JournalFood Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
Issue number7
Early online date10 May 2013
Publication statusPublished online - 10 May 2013


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