Shadow policing: the boundaries of community-based ‘policing’ in Northern Ireland

John Topping, Jonny Byrne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The intention of this article is to provide a structural and operational analysis ofpolicing beyond the police in Northern Ireland. While the polity enjoys low levels of‘officially’ recorded crime as part of its post-conflict status, little empirical analysisexists as to the epistemological roots of security production outside that of the PoliceService of Northern Ireland. The empirical evidence presented seeks to establish thatbeyond more prominent analyses related to paramilitary ‘policing’, the country is infact replete with a substantial reservoir of legitimate civil society policing – thecollective mass of which contributes to policing, community safety and quality of lifeissues. While such non-state policing at the level of locale was recognised by theIndependent Commission for Policing, structured understandings have rarely permeatedgovernmental or academic discourse beyond anecdotal contentions. Thus, thepresent argument provides an empirical assessment of the complex, non-state policinglandscape beyond the formal state apparatus; examines definitions and structures ofsuch community-based policing activities; and explores issues related to co-opting thisnon-state security ‘otherness’ into more formal relations with the state.
LanguageEnglish
Pages522-543
JournalPolicing and Society
Volume26
Issue number5
Early online date16 Dec 2014
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 16 Dec 2014

Fingerprint

security production
foreignness
community
civil society
police
offense
discourse
evidence

Keywords

  • policing
  • security
  • community
  • non-state policing
  • Northern Ireland

Cite this

@article{529336bf8f8f49c1bd7f835ebf5dbf1b,
title = "Shadow policing: the boundaries of community-based ‘policing’ in Northern Ireland",
abstract = "The intention of this article is to provide a structural and operational analysis ofpolicing beyond the police in Northern Ireland. While the polity enjoys low levels of‘officially’ recorded crime as part of its post-conflict status, little empirical analysisexists as to the epistemological roots of security production outside that of the PoliceService of Northern Ireland. The empirical evidence presented seeks to establish thatbeyond more prominent analyses related to paramilitary ‘policing’, the country is infact replete with a substantial reservoir of legitimate civil society policing – thecollective mass of which contributes to policing, community safety and quality of lifeissues. While such non-state policing at the level of locale was recognised by theIndependent Commission for Policing, structured understandings have rarely permeatedgovernmental or academic discourse beyond anecdotal contentions. Thus, thepresent argument provides an empirical assessment of the complex, non-state policinglandscape beyond the formal state apparatus; examines definitions and structures ofsuch community-based policing activities; and explores issues related to co-opting thisnon-state security ‘otherness’ into more formal relations with the state.",
keywords = "policing, security, community, non-state policing, Northern Ireland",
author = "John Topping and Jonny Byrne",
note = "Reference text: Acheson, N., et al., 2004. Two paths, one purpose: voluntary action in Northern Ireland, North and South. Dublin: Institute of Public Administration. Altebeker, A., 2005. The dirty work of democracy. Johannesburg: Jonathon Bell. Baker, B., 2002. Living with non-state policing in South Africa: the issues and dilemmas. Journal of modern African studies, 40 (1), 29–53. Bayley, D. H., 2008. Post-conflict police reform: is Northern Ireland a model? Policing, 2 (2), 233–240. 18 J. Topping and J. Byrne Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 05:42 17 December 2014 Belfast Telegraph, 2012. Protest brands PSNI’s drug fight ‘toothless’. Available from: http://www. belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/local-national/northern-ireland/protest-brands-psnis-drugs-fight-tooth less-28782198.html [Accessed 17 Aug]. Braithwaite, J., 2000. The new regulatory state and the transformation of criminology. British journal of criminology, 40 (2), 222–238. Brewer, J., 2001. The growth, extent and causes of crime: Northern Ireland. In: M. Shaw, ed. Crime and policing in transitional societies seminar report. Johannesburg: KAS, 103–110. Brogden, M., 2000. Burning churches and victim surveys: the myth of Northern Ireland as lowcrime society. Irish journal of sociology, 10, 27–48. Brogden, M. and Nijhar, P., 2005. Community policing: national and international approaches. Cullompton: Willan Publishing. Brunger, M., 2011. From Police to Policing: Policing Reform in Northern Ireland and the Vision of Partnership. Thesis (PhD). Queen’s University Belfast, Northern Ireland. Byrne, J. and Monaghan, L., 2008. Policing loyalist and republican communities. Belfast: Institute for Conflict Research. Campbell, C., Ni Aolain, F., and Harvey, C., 2003. The frontiers of legal analysis: reframing the transition in Northern Ireland. Modern law review, 66 (3), 317–345. Coleman, J., 1994. The foundations of social theory. London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Crawford, A., 1995. Appeals to community crime prevention. Crime, law and social change, 22(2), 97–126. Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland, 2006. Added value? A review of the voluntary and community sectors’ contribution to the Northern Ireland criminal justice system. Belfast: Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland. Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland, 2008, Community restorative justice Ireland report of pre inspection. Belfast: Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland. Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland, 2009. Evaluation of the west Belfast community safety forum. Belfast: Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland. Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland, 2012. Policing with the community: a follow up review of inspection recommendations. Belfast: Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland. Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland, 2014. Community restorative justice Ireland a preaccreditation inspection of north Belfast and south and east Belfast community restorative justice Ireland schemes. Belfast: Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland. Criminal Justice Review Group, 2000. Review of the criminal justice system in Northern Ireland. A guide. Belfast: The Stationary Office. Delanty, G., 2003. Community. London: Routledge. Department of Justice, 2012. Building safer, shared and confident communities: A community safety strategy for Northern Ireland 2012–2017. Belfast: Department of Justice. Dupont, B., 2004. Security in the age of networks. Policing and society, 14 (1), 76–91 Dupont, B., 2006. Power struggles in the field of security: implications for democratic transformation. In: J. Wood and B. Dupont, eds. Democracy, society and the governance of security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 86–110. Dupont, B. and Wood, J., 2006. Conclusion: the future of democracy. In: J. Wood and B. Dupont, eds. Democracy, society and the governance of security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 241–248. Dwyer, C., 2012. Expanding DDR: the transformative role of former prisoners in community-based reintegration in Northern Ireland. The international journal of transitional justice, 6 (2), 274–295. Ellison, G., 2000. Reflecting all shades of opinion’ public attitudinal surveys and the construction of police legitimacy in Northern Ireland. British journal of criminology, 40 (1), 88–111. Ellison, G., 2007. A blueprint for democratic policing anywhere in the world: police reform, political transition, and conflict resolution in Northern Ireland. Police quarterly, 10 (3), 243–269. Ellison, G. and Martin, G., 2000. Policing, collective action and social movement theory: the case of the Northern Ireland civil rights campaign. British journal of sociology, 51 (4), 681–699. Ellison, G. and Mulcahy, A., 2001. Policing and social conflict in Northern Ireland. Policing and society, 11 (3–4), 243–258. Policing and Society 19 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 05:42 17 December 2014 Ellison, G. and O‘Rawe, M., 2010. Security governance in transition: the compartmentalising, crowding out, and corralling of policing and security in Northern Ireland. Theoretical Criminology, 14 (1), 1–27. Frampton, M., 2010. The return of the militants: violent dissident republicanism. London: ICSR. Available from: http://icsr.info/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/1289498383ICSR_TheReturnofthe MilitantsReport.pdf [Accessed 29 May 2014]. Garland, D., 2001. The culture of control: crime and social order in contemporary society. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gilchrist, A., 2004. The well connected community. Bristol: Policy Press. Grabosky, P., 1992. Law enforcement and the citizen: non-governmental participation in crime prevention and control. Policing and society, 2, 249–271. Hamilton, A., Moore, L., and Trimble, T., 1995. Policing a divided society: issues and perceptions in Northern Ireland. Coleraine: Centre for the Study of Conflict. Hayes, B. and McAllister, I., 2005. Public support for political violence and paramilitarism in Northern Ireland and the republic of Ireland. Terrorism and political violence, 17, 599–617. Hughes, G., 2007. The politics of crime and community. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Jarman, N., 2002. Managing disorder: responding to interface violence in North Belfast. Belfast: Community Development Centre/Office of the First and Deputy First Minister. Jarman, N., 2006. Peacebuilding and policing – the role of community based initiatives. Shared space: a research journal on peace, conflict and community relations in Northern Ireland, 3, 31–44. Johnston, L. and Shearing, C., 2003. Governing security: explorations in policing and justice. London: Routledge. Jones, T., 2007. The governance of security: pluralisation, privatisation, and polarisation in crime control. In: M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner, eds. The Oxford handbook of criminology. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 841–865. Kempa, M. and Shearing, C., 2002. Microscopic and macroscopic responses to inequalities in the governance of security: respective experiments in South Africa and Northern Ireland. Transformation, 49 (1), 25–54. Knox, C., 2002. See no evil, hear no evil’ insidious paramilitary violence in Northern Ireland. British journal of criminology, 42 (1), 164–185. Lea, J., 2002. Crime and modernity: continuities in left realist criminology. London: Sage Publications. Loader, I., 2000. Plural policing and democratic governance. Social and legal studies, 9 (3), 323–345. Loader, I. and Walker, N., 2001. Policing as public good: reconstituting the connections between policing and the state. Theoretical criminology, 5 (1), 9–35. Loader, I. and Walker, N., 2006. Necessary virtues: the legitimate place of the state in the production of security. In: J. Wood and B. Dupont, eds. Democracy, society and the governance of security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 165–195. Lundy, P., 2011. Paradoxes and challenges of transitional justice at the ‘local’ level: historical enquiries in Northern Ireland. Contemporary social science, 6 (1), 89–106. Lyness, D., McEnarney, R., and Carmichael, M., 2004. Digest of information on the Northern Ireland criminal justice system. Belfast: NIO. Marks, M. and Goldsmith, A., 2006 The state, the people and democratic policing: the case of South Africa. In: J. Wood and B. Dupont, eds. Democracy, society and the governance of security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 139–164. Marnoch, G., Topping, J. R., and Boyd, G., 2014. Explaining the pattern of growth in strategic actions taken by police services during the new labour years: an exploratory study of an English police service. Policing and society, 24 (3), 302–317. Martin, J., 2012. Informal security nodes and force capital. Policing and Society, 23 (2), 145–163. Mason, J., 1996. Qualitative researching. London: Sage Publications. Matsueda, R., 2006. Differential social organization, collective action and crime. Crime, law and social change, 46 (1–2), 3–33. McDonald, H., 2012. Police say 1200 officers have been hurt in Northern Ireland riots in seven year. The Guardian, 4 Sep. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2012/sep/04/policehurt- northern-ireland-riots [Accessed 5 Oct 2012]. 20 J. Topping and J. Byrne Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 05:42 17 December 2014 McEvoy, K. and Mika, H., 2001. Punishment, policing and praxis: restorative justice and nonviolent alternatives to paramilitary punishments in Northern Ireland. Policing and society, 11 (3), 359–382. McEvoy, K., Gormally, B., and Mika, H., 2002. Conflict, crime control and the ‘re’-constitution of state-community relations in Northern Ireland. In: G. Hughes, E. McLauglin, and J. Muncie, eds. Crime prevention and community safety: new directions. London: Sage Publications, 182–212. Monaghan, R., 2004. ‘An imperfect peace’: paramilitary ‘punishments’ in Northern Ireland. Terrorism and Political Violence, 16 (3), 439–46. Morrissey, M. and Pease, K., 1982. The black criminal justice system in west Belfast. The Howard journal, 21 (1–3), 159–166. Morrow, D., 2006. Sustainability in a divided society: applying social capital theory to Northern Ireland. Shared space: a research journal on peace, conflict and community relations in Northern Ireland, 2, 63–79. Mulcahy, A., 2006. Policing in Northern Ireland: conflict, legitimacy and reform. Devon: Willan Publishing. Nolan, P., 2012. Northern Ireland peace monitoring report number one. Belfast: Community Relations Council for Northern Ireland. Nolan, J., Conti, N., and McDevitt, J., 2004. Situational policing: neighbourhood development and crime control. Policing and society, 14 (2), 99–117. Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action, 2012. State of the sector VI. Belfast: NICVA. Office of the Oversight Commissioner, 2006. Overseeing the proposed revisions for the policing services in Northern Ireland report 18. Belfast: Office of the Oversight Commissioner. Office of the Oversight Commissioner, 2007. Overseeing the proposed revisions for the policing services of Northern Ireland report 19. Belfast: Office of the Oversight Commissioner. O’Mahony, D., et al., 2000. Crime, community and locale: the Northern Ireland communities crime survey. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Company. O’Rawe, M., 2003. Transitional policing arrangements in Northern Ireland: the can’t and won’t of change dialect. Fordham international law journal, 22, 1015–1073. Perry, R., Gillespie, D., and Parker, H., 1976. Social movements and local community. Sage research papers in the social sciences (Social ecology of the community series, No. 90–037). Beverly Hills and London: Sage Publications. Police Service of Northern Ireland, 2012. Recorded crime and clearances 1st April 219 – 31st March 2012 Annual Statistical Report. Available from: http://www.psni.police.uk/index/updates/ updates_statistics.htm [Accessed 1 May 2012]. Putzel, J., 1997. Policy Arena Accounting for the ‘Dark Side’ of Social Capital. Journal of International Development, 9 (7), 939–949. Report of the Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland, 1999. A new beginning: policing in Northern Ireland. Belfast: HMSO. Rose, N., 1996. The death of the social? Re – figuring the territory of government. Economy and society, 25 (3), 327–356. Ryder, C., 1997. The RUC 1922–1997 a force under fire. London: Mandarin Paperbacks. Shaw, M. and Shearing, C., 1998. Reshaping security: an examination of the governance of security in South Africa. African security review, 7 (3), 3–12. Shearing, C., 2000. ‘A new beginning’ for policing. Journal of law and society, 27 (3), 386–393. Shearing, C., 2006. Reflections on the refusal to acknowledge private governments. In: J. Wood and B. Dupont, eds. Democracy, society and the governance of security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 11–32. Shearing, C. and Wood, J., 2003. Governing security for common goods. International journal of the sociology of law, 31 (3), 205–255. Shirlow, P. and Murtagh, B., 2006. Belfast: segregation, violence and the city. London: Pluto Press. Shirlow, P., et al., 2005. Politically motivated former prisoner groups: community activism and conflict transformation. Belfast: A Research Report Submitted to the Community Relations Council. Stenson, K., 2005. Sovereignty, biopolitics and the local government of crime in Britain. Theoretical criminology, 9 (3), 265–287. Tonkiss, F. and Passey, A., 1999. Trust, confidence and voluntary organisations: between values and institutions. Sociology, 33 (2), 257–274. Policing and Society 21 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 05:42 17 December 2014 Topping, J.R., 2008a. Community policing in Northern Ireland: a resistance narrative. Policing andsociety, 18 (4), 377–398. Topping, J.R., 2008b. Diversifying from within: community policing and the governance of security in Northern Ireland. British journal of criminology, 48 (6), 778–797. Topping, J. R. 2009. Beyond the patten report: the governance of security in policing with the community. Thesis (PhD). University of Ulster. Topping, J., 2013. Northern Ireland neighbourhood watch: participatory mapping and socio demographic uptake. Institute for Research in Social Sciences. Available from: http://www. nipolicingboard.org.uk/es/ni_neighbourhood_watch___8211__gis_mapping.pdf [Accessed 1 Dec 2013]. Topping, J.R. and Byrne, J., 2012a. Community safety: a decade of development, delivery, challenge and change in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Belfast Conflict Resolution Consortium. Available from: http://www.bcrc.eu/userfiles/Community{\%}20Safety{\%}20{\%}20A{\%}20Decade{\%} 20of{\%}20Change{\%}20in{\%}20NI.pdf [Accessed 10 December 2012]. Topping, J.R. and Byrne, J., 2012b. Paramilitary punishments in Belfast: policing beneath the peace. Behavioral sciences of terrorism and political aggression, 4 (1), 41–59. Undheim, T., 2003. Getting connected: how sociologists can access the high tech elite. The Qualitative Report. Available from: http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR8–1/undheim.pdf [Accessed 28 January 2006]. Van Dijk, J.J.M., Mayhew, P., and Killias, M., 1990. Experiences of crime across the world: key findings from the 1989 international crime survey. Deventer: Kluwer Law and Taxation. Vaughan, B., 2007. The provision of policing and the problem of pluralism. Theoretical criminology, 11 (3), 347–366. Walklate, S., 2003. ‘I can’t name any names but what’s-his-face up the road will sort it out’: communities and conflict resolution. In: K. McEvoy and T. Newburn, eds. Criminology, conflict resolution and restorative justice. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 208–222. Wood, J., 2004. Culture change in the governance of security. Policing and society, 14 (1), 31–48. Zedner, L., 2009. Security. London: Routledge.",
year = "2014",
month = "12",
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doi = "10.1080/10439463.2014.989152",
language = "English",
volume = "26",
pages = "522--543",
journal = "Policing and Society",
issn = "1043-9463",
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}

Shadow policing: the boundaries of community-based ‘policing’ in Northern Ireland. / Topping, John; Byrne, Jonny.

In: Policing and Society, Vol. 26, No. 5, 16.12.2014, p. 522-543.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Shadow policing: the boundaries of community-based ‘policing’ in Northern Ireland

AU - Topping, John

AU - Byrne, Jonny

N1 - Reference text: Acheson, N., et al., 2004. Two paths, one purpose: voluntary action in Northern Ireland, North and South. Dublin: Institute of Public Administration. Altebeker, A., 2005. The dirty work of democracy. Johannesburg: Jonathon Bell. Baker, B., 2002. Living with non-state policing in South Africa: the issues and dilemmas. Journal of modern African studies, 40 (1), 29–53. Bayley, D. H., 2008. Post-conflict police reform: is Northern Ireland a model? Policing, 2 (2), 233–240. 18 J. Topping and J. Byrne Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 05:42 17 December 2014 Belfast Telegraph, 2012. Protest brands PSNI’s drug fight ‘toothless’. Available from: http://www. belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/local-national/northern-ireland/protest-brands-psnis-drugs-fight-tooth less-28782198.html [Accessed 17 Aug]. Braithwaite, J., 2000. The new regulatory state and the transformation of criminology. British journal of criminology, 40 (2), 222–238. Brewer, J., 2001. The growth, extent and causes of crime: Northern Ireland. In: M. Shaw, ed. Crime and policing in transitional societies seminar report. Johannesburg: KAS, 103–110. Brogden, M., 2000. Burning churches and victim surveys: the myth of Northern Ireland as lowcrime society. Irish journal of sociology, 10, 27–48. Brogden, M. and Nijhar, P., 2005. Community policing: national and international approaches. Cullompton: Willan Publishing. Brunger, M., 2011. From Police to Policing: Policing Reform in Northern Ireland and the Vision of Partnership. Thesis (PhD). Queen’s University Belfast, Northern Ireland. Byrne, J. and Monaghan, L., 2008. Policing loyalist and republican communities. Belfast: Institute for Conflict Research. Campbell, C., Ni Aolain, F., and Harvey, C., 2003. The frontiers of legal analysis: reframing the transition in Northern Ireland. Modern law review, 66 (3), 317–345. Coleman, J., 1994. The foundations of social theory. London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Crawford, A., 1995. Appeals to community crime prevention. Crime, law and social change, 22(2), 97–126. Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland, 2006. Added value? A review of the voluntary and community sectors’ contribution to the Northern Ireland criminal justice system. Belfast: Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland. Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland, 2008, Community restorative justice Ireland report of pre inspection. Belfast: Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland. Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland, 2009. Evaluation of the west Belfast community safety forum. Belfast: Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland. Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland, 2012. Policing with the community: a follow up review of inspection recommendations. Belfast: Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland. Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland, 2014. Community restorative justice Ireland a preaccreditation inspection of north Belfast and south and east Belfast community restorative justice Ireland schemes. Belfast: Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland. Criminal Justice Review Group, 2000. Review of the criminal justice system in Northern Ireland. A guide. Belfast: The Stationary Office. Delanty, G., 2003. Community. London: Routledge. Department of Justice, 2012. Building safer, shared and confident communities: A community safety strategy for Northern Ireland 2012–2017. Belfast: Department of Justice. Dupont, B., 2004. Security in the age of networks. Policing and society, 14 (1), 76–91 Dupont, B., 2006. Power struggles in the field of security: implications for democratic transformation. In: J. Wood and B. Dupont, eds. Democracy, society and the governance of security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 86–110. Dupont, B. and Wood, J., 2006. Conclusion: the future of democracy. In: J. Wood and B. Dupont, eds. Democracy, society and the governance of security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 241–248. Dwyer, C., 2012. Expanding DDR: the transformative role of former prisoners in community-based reintegration in Northern Ireland. The international journal of transitional justice, 6 (2), 274–295. Ellison, G., 2000. Reflecting all shades of opinion’ public attitudinal surveys and the construction of police legitimacy in Northern Ireland. British journal of criminology, 40 (1), 88–111. Ellison, G., 2007. A blueprint for democratic policing anywhere in the world: police reform, political transition, and conflict resolution in Northern Ireland. Police quarterly, 10 (3), 243–269. Ellison, G. and Martin, G., 2000. Policing, collective action and social movement theory: the case of the Northern Ireland civil rights campaign. British journal of sociology, 51 (4), 681–699. Ellison, G. and Mulcahy, A., 2001. Policing and social conflict in Northern Ireland. Policing and society, 11 (3–4), 243–258. Policing and Society 19 Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 05:42 17 December 2014 Ellison, G. and O‘Rawe, M., 2010. Security governance in transition: the compartmentalising, crowding out, and corralling of policing and security in Northern Ireland. Theoretical Criminology, 14 (1), 1–27. Frampton, M., 2010. The return of the militants: violent dissident republicanism. London: ICSR. Available from: http://icsr.info/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/1289498383ICSR_TheReturnofthe MilitantsReport.pdf [Accessed 29 May 2014]. Garland, D., 2001. The culture of control: crime and social order in contemporary society. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gilchrist, A., 2004. The well connected community. Bristol: Policy Press. Grabosky, P., 1992. Law enforcement and the citizen: non-governmental participation in crime prevention and control. Policing and society, 2, 249–271. Hamilton, A., Moore, L., and Trimble, T., 1995. Policing a divided society: issues and perceptions in Northern Ireland. Coleraine: Centre for the Study of Conflict. Hayes, B. and McAllister, I., 2005. Public support for political violence and paramilitarism in Northern Ireland and the republic of Ireland. Terrorism and political violence, 17, 599–617. Hughes, G., 2007. The politics of crime and community. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Jarman, N., 2002. Managing disorder: responding to interface violence in North Belfast. Belfast: Community Development Centre/Office of the First and Deputy First Minister. Jarman, N., 2006. Peacebuilding and policing – the role of community based initiatives. Shared space: a research journal on peace, conflict and community relations in Northern Ireland, 3, 31–44. Johnston, L. and Shearing, C., 2003. Governing security: explorations in policing and justice. London: Routledge. Jones, T., 2007. The governance of security: pluralisation, privatisation, and polarisation in crime control. In: M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner, eds. The Oxford handbook of criminology. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 841–865. Kempa, M. and Shearing, C., 2002. Microscopic and macroscopic responses to inequalities in the governance of security: respective experiments in South Africa and Northern Ireland. Transformation, 49 (1), 25–54. Knox, C., 2002. See no evil, hear no evil’ insidious paramilitary violence in Northern Ireland. British journal of criminology, 42 (1), 164–185. Lea, J., 2002. Crime and modernity: continuities in left realist criminology. London: Sage Publications. Loader, I., 2000. Plural policing and democratic governance. Social and legal studies, 9 (3), 323–345. Loader, I. and Walker, N., 2001. Policing as public good: reconstituting the connections between policing and the state. Theoretical criminology, 5 (1), 9–35. Loader, I. and Walker, N., 2006. Necessary virtues: the legitimate place of the state in the production of security. In: J. Wood and B. Dupont, eds. Democracy, society and the governance of security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 165–195. Lundy, P., 2011. Paradoxes and challenges of transitional justice at the ‘local’ level: historical enquiries in Northern Ireland. Contemporary social science, 6 (1), 89–106. Lyness, D., McEnarney, R., and Carmichael, M., 2004. Digest of information on the Northern Ireland criminal justice system. Belfast: NIO. Marks, M. and Goldsmith, A., 2006 The state, the people and democratic policing: the case of South Africa. In: J. Wood and B. Dupont, eds. Democracy, society and the governance of security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 139–164. Marnoch, G., Topping, J. R., and Boyd, G., 2014. Explaining the pattern of growth in strategic actions taken by police services during the new labour years: an exploratory study of an English police service. Policing and society, 24 (3), 302–317. Martin, J., 2012. Informal security nodes and force capital. Policing and Society, 23 (2), 145–163. Mason, J., 1996. Qualitative researching. London: Sage Publications. Matsueda, R., 2006. Differential social organization, collective action and crime. Crime, law and social change, 46 (1–2), 3–33. McDonald, H., 2012. Police say 1200 officers have been hurt in Northern Ireland riots in seven year. The Guardian, 4 Sep. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2012/sep/04/policehurt- northern-ireland-riots [Accessed 5 Oct 2012]. 20 J. Topping and J. Byrne Downloaded by [University of Ulster Library] at 05:42 17 December 2014 McEvoy, K. and Mika, H., 2001. Punishment, policing and praxis: restorative justice and nonviolent alternatives to paramilitary punishments in Northern Ireland. Policing and society, 11 (3), 359–382. McEvoy, K., Gormally, B., and Mika, H., 2002. Conflict, crime control and the ‘re’-constitution of state-community relations in Northern Ireland. In: G. Hughes, E. McLauglin, and J. Muncie, eds. Crime prevention and community safety: new directions. London: Sage Publications, 182–212. Monaghan, R., 2004. ‘An imperfect peace’: paramilitary ‘punishments’ in Northern Ireland. Terrorism and Political Violence, 16 (3), 439–46. Morrissey, M. and Pease, K., 1982. The black criminal justice system in west Belfast. The Howard journal, 21 (1–3), 159–166. Morrow, D., 2006. Sustainability in a divided society: applying social capital theory to Northern Ireland. Shared space: a research journal on peace, conflict and community relations in Northern Ireland, 2, 63–79. Mulcahy, A., 2006. Policing in Northern Ireland: conflict, legitimacy and reform. Devon: Willan Publishing. Nolan, P., 2012. Northern Ireland peace monitoring report number one. Belfast: Community Relations Council for Northern Ireland. Nolan, J., Conti, N., and McDevitt, J., 2004. Situational policing: neighbourhood development and crime control. Policing and society, 14 (2), 99–117. Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action, 2012. State of the sector VI. Belfast: NICVA. Office of the Oversight Commissioner, 2006. Overseeing the proposed revisions for the policing services in Northern Ireland report 18. Belfast: Office of the Oversight Commissioner. Office of the Oversight Commissioner, 2007. Overseeing the proposed revisions for the policing services of Northern Ireland report 19. Belfast: Office of the Oversight Commissioner. O’Mahony, D., et al., 2000. Crime, community and locale: the Northern Ireland communities crime survey. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Company. O’Rawe, M., 2003. Transitional policing arrangements in Northern Ireland: the can’t and won’t of change dialect. Fordham international law journal, 22, 1015–1073. Perry, R., Gillespie, D., and Parker, H., 1976. Social movements and local community. Sage research papers in the social sciences (Social ecology of the community series, No. 90–037). Beverly Hills and London: Sage Publications. Police Service of Northern Ireland, 2012. Recorded crime and clearances 1st April 219 – 31st March 2012 Annual Statistical Report. Available from: http://www.psni.police.uk/index/updates/ updates_statistics.htm [Accessed 1 May 2012]. Putzel, J., 1997. Policy Arena Accounting for the ‘Dark Side’ of Social Capital. Journal of International Development, 9 (7), 939–949. Report of the Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland, 1999. A new beginning: policing in Northern Ireland. Belfast: HMSO. Rose, N., 1996. The death of the social? Re – figuring the territory of government. Economy and society, 25 (3), 327–356. Ryder, C., 1997. The RUC 1922–1997 a force under fire. London: Mandarin Paperbacks. Shaw, M. and Shearing, C., 1998. Reshaping security: an examination of the governance of security in South Africa. African security review, 7 (3), 3–12. Shearing, C., 2000. ‘A new beginning’ for policing. Journal of law and society, 27 (3), 386–393. Shearing, C., 2006. 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PY - 2014/12/16

Y1 - 2014/12/16

N2 - The intention of this article is to provide a structural and operational analysis ofpolicing beyond the police in Northern Ireland. While the polity enjoys low levels of‘officially’ recorded crime as part of its post-conflict status, little empirical analysisexists as to the epistemological roots of security production outside that of the PoliceService of Northern Ireland. The empirical evidence presented seeks to establish thatbeyond more prominent analyses related to paramilitary ‘policing’, the country is infact replete with a substantial reservoir of legitimate civil society policing – thecollective mass of which contributes to policing, community safety and quality of lifeissues. While such non-state policing at the level of locale was recognised by theIndependent Commission for Policing, structured understandings have rarely permeatedgovernmental or academic discourse beyond anecdotal contentions. Thus, thepresent argument provides an empirical assessment of the complex, non-state policinglandscape beyond the formal state apparatus; examines definitions and structures ofsuch community-based policing activities; and explores issues related to co-opting thisnon-state security ‘otherness’ into more formal relations with the state.

AB - The intention of this article is to provide a structural and operational analysis ofpolicing beyond the police in Northern Ireland. While the polity enjoys low levels of‘officially’ recorded crime as part of its post-conflict status, little empirical analysisexists as to the epistemological roots of security production outside that of the PoliceService of Northern Ireland. The empirical evidence presented seeks to establish thatbeyond more prominent analyses related to paramilitary ‘policing’, the country is infact replete with a substantial reservoir of legitimate civil society policing – thecollective mass of which contributes to policing, community safety and quality of lifeissues. While such non-state policing at the level of locale was recognised by theIndependent Commission for Policing, structured understandings have rarely permeatedgovernmental or academic discourse beyond anecdotal contentions. Thus, thepresent argument provides an empirical assessment of the complex, non-state policinglandscape beyond the formal state apparatus; examines definitions and structures ofsuch community-based policing activities; and explores issues related to co-opting thisnon-state security ‘otherness’ into more formal relations with the state.

KW - policing

KW - security

KW - community

KW - non-state policing

KW - Northern Ireland

UR - https://pure.ulster.ac.uk/en/publications/shadow-policing-the-boundaries-of-community-based-policing-in-nor-3

U2 - 10.1080/10439463.2014.989152

DO - 10.1080/10439463.2014.989152

M3 - Article

VL - 26

SP - 522

EP - 543

JO - Policing and Society

T2 - Policing and Society

JF - Policing and Society

SN - 1043-9463

IS - 5

ER -