Self-efficacy and self-care behaviours among adults with type 2 diabetes

Melba Sheila D'Souza, Subrahmanya Nairy Karkada, Kader Parahoo, Ramesh Venkatesaperumal, Susan Achora, Arcalyd Rose R Cayaban

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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has an impact on an individuals' health and is influenced by glycemic control.


To examine the relationship between glycemic control, demographic and clinical factors on self-efficacy and self-care behaviours among adults with T2DM.


A correlational, descriptive study was used. One hundred and forty Omani adults with T2DM were recruited from a public hospital.


Data on self-efficacy, self-care behaviours and glycemic control were collected between April and July 2016. The study was approved by the College Ethics Committee and Hospital Board. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted.


Most adults had a fasting blood glucose > 7.2 mmol/L (90.7%), with the majority demonstrating ‘uncontrolled’ or poor HbA1c of > 8% (65%). Variance of self-care behaviour (20.6%) and 31.3% of the variance of the self-efficacy was explained by the age, duration of diabetes, medication, HbA1c and prevention of activities of living.


Adults with T2DM with poor glycemic control were more probable to have poor self-efficacy and self-care behaviours. Glycemic control has an effect on improving diet, exercise, medication, foot care efficacy and behaviours.

Clinical relevance

The study recommends using these findings to plan self-efficacy and self-care behaviour to improve glycemic control among adults with T2DM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-32
Number of pages8
JournalApplied Nursing Research
Early online date22 May 2017
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 30 Aug 2017


  • Self-efficacy
  • Self-care behaviours
  • Glycemic control
  • Adults
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Nursing
  • Assessment


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