Segmental sequencing of kinetic energy in a computer-simulated golf swing

Ian C. Kenny, Alex J. McCloy, Eric S. Wallace, Steve R. Otto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The concept of the transfer of kinetic energy (KE) sequentially through the human body from proximal to distal segments is an influential concept in biomechanics literature. The present study develops this area of research through investigation of segmental sequencing of the transfer of KE by means of computer simulation. Using a musculoskeletal computer model previously developed by the authors, driven using three-dimensional kinematic data from a single elite male golfer, combined inverse and forward dynamics analyses enabled derivation of KE. Rigid body segments of torso, hips, arms and clubhead were examined in line with previous literature. Using this method a driver swing was compared to a 7 iron swing.Findings showed a high level of correlation between driver and iron peak KE and timing of peak KE relative to impact. This seems to indicate equivalent trunk and arms linear velocity, thus force applied, for an iron shot and a driver shot. There were highly significant differences between KE output for body segments for both clubs. In addition, peak KE magnitudes increased sequentially from proximal todistal segments during swing simulations for both the driver and 7 iron. This supports the principle of the summation of speed. However, timing of peak KE was not sequential from proximal to distal segments, nor did segments peak simultaneously. Rather, arms peaked first, followed by hips, torso and club. This seems to indicate a subjective optimal coordination of sequencing.
LanguageEnglish
Pages37-45
JournalSports Engineering
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008

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Golf
Iron
Torso
Arm
Energy Transfer
Biomechanical Phenomena
Computer Simulation
Hip
Human Body

Keywords

  • Computer simulation Golf Kinetic energy Segmental sequencing

Cite this

Kenny, Ian C. ; McCloy, Alex J. ; Wallace, Eric S. ; Otto, Steve R. / Segmental sequencing of kinetic energy in a computer-simulated golf swing. In: Sports Engineering. 2008 ; Vol. 11, No. 1. pp. 37-45.
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note = "Reference text: 1. Adlington GS (1996) Proper swing technique and biomechanics of golf. Clin Sports Med 15:9–25 2. Anderson BC, Wright IC, Stefanyshyn DJ (2006) Segmental sequencing of kinetic energy in the golf swing. In: Moritz F, Haake S (eds) The engineering of sport 6, vol 1. Springer, NY, pp 167–172 3. Bates BT (1996) Single-subject methodology: an alternative approach. Med Sci Sports Exerc 28(5):631–638 4. Bates BT, Rodger CJ, Dufek JS (2004) Single-subject analysis. In: Stergiou N (ed) Innovative analyses of human movement. Human kinetics, IL, pp 3–28 5. Budney DR (1979) Measuring grip pressure during the golf swing. Research Quaterly 50(2):272–277 6. Budney D, Bellow DG (1982) On the swing mechanics of a matched set of golf clubs. Res Q Exerc Sport 53(3):185–192 7. Bunn JW (1972) Scientific principals of coaching. Prentice-Hall, Eaglewood Cliffs 8. Egret CI, Vincent O, Weber J, Dujardin FH, Chollet D (2003) Analysis of 3D kinematics concerning three different clubs in golf swing. Int J Sports Med 24:465–469 9. English Golf Union (2007) A brief guide to handicapping (online). Available from http://www.englishgolfunion.org/showpage.asp? code=0001000200090005. Accessed 26 Sept 2007 10. Farrally MR, Cochran AJ, Crews DJ, Hurdzan MJ, Price RJ, Snow JT, Thomas PR (2003) Golf science research at the beginning of the twenty-first century. J Sports Sci 21:753–765 11. Hatze H (2005) Towards a comprehensive large-scale computer model of the human neuromusculoskeletal system. Theor Issues Ergon Sci 6(3–4):239–250 12. Kenny IC, Wallace ES, Brown D, Otto SR (2005) Development of a full-body computer model for golf biomechanics. Presented at the 2005 annual conference of the exercise and sport sciences association of Ireland, 22 October 2005, Limerick, Ireland 13. Kenny IC, Wallace ES, Brown D, Otto SR (2006) Validation of a full-body computer simulation model for the golf drive for clubs of differing length. In: Moritz F, Haake S (eds) The engineering of sport 6, vol 2. Springer, NY, pp 11–16 14. Kinugasa T, Cerin E, Hooper S (2004) Single-subject research designs and data analyses for assessing elite athletes’ conditioning. Sports Med 34(15):1035–1050 15. Mitchell K, Banks S, Morgan D, Sugaya H (2003) Shoulder motions during the golf swing in male amateur golfers. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 33(4):196–203 16. Nikonovas A, Harrison AJL, Hoult S, Sammut D (2004) The application of force-sensing resistor sensors for measuring forces developed by the human hand. J Eng Med 218(H):121–126 17. Putnam CA (1991) A segment interaction analysis of proximalto- distal sequential segment motion patterns. Med Sci Sports Exerc 23(1):130–144 18. Putnam CA (1993) Sequential motions of body segments in striking and throwing skills: descriptions and explanations. J Biomech 26(suppl 1):125–135 19. Rasmussen J (2005) Model validation. AnyBODY Interest Group Newsletter, June 29 20. Reboussin DM, Morgan TM (1996) Statistical considerations in the use and analysis of single-subject designs. Med Sci Sports Exerc 28(5):639–644 21. Stergiou N (ed) (2003) Innovative analyses of human movement. In: Human kinetics, Champaign, IL 22. Van Gheluwe B, Hebbelinck M (1985) The kinematics of the service movement in tennis: A three-dimensional cinematographical approach. In: Winter DA, Norman RW, Wells RP, Hayes KC, Patla AE (eds) Biomechanics IX-B. Human kinetics, Champaign, IL",
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Segmental sequencing of kinetic energy in a computer-simulated golf swing. / Kenny, Ian C.; McCloy, Alex J.; Wallace, Eric S.; Otto, Steve R.

In: Sports Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2008, p. 37-45.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - McCloy, Alex J.

AU - Wallace, Eric S.

AU - Otto, Steve R.

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N2 - The concept of the transfer of kinetic energy (KE) sequentially through the human body from proximal to distal segments is an influential concept in biomechanics literature. The present study develops this area of research through investigation of segmental sequencing of the transfer of KE by means of computer simulation. Using a musculoskeletal computer model previously developed by the authors, driven using three-dimensional kinematic data from a single elite male golfer, combined inverse and forward dynamics analyses enabled derivation of KE. Rigid body segments of torso, hips, arms and clubhead were examined in line with previous literature. Using this method a driver swing was compared to a 7 iron swing.Findings showed a high level of correlation between driver and iron peak KE and timing of peak KE relative to impact. This seems to indicate equivalent trunk and arms linear velocity, thus force applied, for an iron shot and a driver shot. There were highly significant differences between KE output for body segments for both clubs. In addition, peak KE magnitudes increased sequentially from proximal todistal segments during swing simulations for both the driver and 7 iron. This supports the principle of the summation of speed. However, timing of peak KE was not sequential from proximal to distal segments, nor did segments peak simultaneously. Rather, arms peaked first, followed by hips, torso and club. This seems to indicate a subjective optimal coordination of sequencing.

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