Seeing and knowing Titanic Belfast using augmented reality: an auto-ethnographic view

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This paper brings together auto-ethnographic and participatory research to investigate how the practice of vision constructed through a locative-based augmented reality (AR) browser creates and reveals values and meanings connected to geographies of the place. Leveraging the potential of the collective cultural consciousness formed by the legacy of Titanic, the author has developed an AR browser that layers historic photographs of Titanic with the modern day view of the Belfast shipyard in which the ship was built, to investigate the narrative logic of what is seen and understood through the AR browser. This paper seeks to first show the experience of the AR construction using an authorial voice, enabling the reader to enter the subjective world of the author’s experience, and then tell of the experience using a broad framework of visual cultures discourse, thus enabling the narrative fidelity of the subjective experience to have reached beyond that of a description of what is seen and felt. Using this methodology, the paper identifies the affordances and constraints of the AR image in those situations where what is seen via AR technologies contributes to what is known of the cultural symbolism and value of the place.
LanguageEnglish
Pages1-17
JournalJournal of Media Practice
Volume18
Issue number1
Early online date21 Sep 2017
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 21 Sep 2017

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Augmented reality
Shipyards
Ships

Keywords

  • Augmented reality
  • photography
  • auto- ethnography
  • Titanic

Cite this

@article{02d75ae562144f8791f2bb069ada164d,
title = "Seeing and knowing Titanic Belfast using augmented reality: an auto-ethnographic view",
abstract = "This paper brings together auto-ethnographic and participatory research to investigate how the practice of vision constructed through a locative-based augmented reality (AR) browser creates and reveals values and meanings connected to geographies of the place. Leveraging the potential of the collective cultural consciousness formed by the legacy of Titanic, the author has developed an AR browser that layers historic photographs of Titanic with the modern day view of the Belfast shipyard in which the ship was built, to investigate the narrative logic of what is seen and understood through the AR browser. This paper seeks to first show the experience of the AR construction using an authorial voice, enabling the reader to enter the subjective world of the author’s experience, and then tell of the experience using a broad framework of visual cultures discourse, thus enabling the narrative fidelity of the subjective experience to have reached beyond that of a description of what is seen and felt. Using this methodology, the paper identifies the affordances and constraints of the AR image in those situations where what is seen via AR technologies contributes to what is known of the cultural symbolism and value of the place.",
keywords = "Augmented reality, photography, auto- ethnography, Titanic",
author = "Helen Jackson",
note = "UIR Compliant - evidence uploaded to other files Reference text: Barthes, R. (1964) 1981. “Rhetoric of the Image.” In Classic Essays on Photography, edited by Alan Trachtenberg, 269–285. New Haven: Leete’s Island Books. Brown, Stephen. 2014. “She Was Fine When She Left Here: Polysemy, Patriarchy, and Personification in Brand Titanic’s Birthplace.” Psychology & Marketing, Special Issue: Brand Personification 31 (1): 93–102. doi:10.1002/mar.20678. Bruzzi, Stella. 2000. New Documentary: A Critical Introduction. London: Routledge. Buttimer, Anne, and David Seamon. 1980. The Human Experience of Space and Place. London: Croom Helm. Coyles, David. 2013. “Reflections on Titanic Quarter: The Cultural and Material Legacy of an Historic Belfast Brand.” The Journal of Architecture 18 (3): 331–363. doi:10.1080/13602365.2013.804855. Crang, Mike, and Stephen Graham. 2007. “Sentient Cities: Ambient Intelligence and the Politics of Urban Space.” Information, Communication & Society 10 (6): 789–817. doi:/10.1080/1369118070175099. Devlin, Paul. 2014. “Class, Heritage, Space and Their Configuration in the Belfast Titanic Experience and Stewart Parker’s Iceberg.” In The Theatre of Stewart Parker, edited by Mark Phelan, 1–200. Dublin: Carysfort. Dixon, Dan, Saad Liaquat Kian, and Ahsan Ikram. 2013. “Experiences with AR Plots: Design Issues and Recommendations for Augmented Reality Based Mobile Games.” Communications in Mobile Computing 2: 1. doi:10.1186/2192-1121-2-1. Ellis, Carolyn, Tony E. Adams, and Arthur P. Bochner. 2011. “Autoethnography: An Overview.” Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung /Forum: Qualitative Social Research 12 (1): Art. 10. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101108. Entrikin, N. J. 1991. The Betweenness of Place, Towards a Geography of Modernity. Basingstoke: Macmillan Education. Fern, Edward F. 1982. “The Use of Focus Groups for Idea Generation: The Effects of Group Size, Acquaintanceship, and Moderator on Response Quantity and Quality.” Journal of Marketing Research 19 (1): 1–13. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3151525. Fishenden, J. 2013. “Interactive Digital Technologies and the User Experience of Time and Place.” PhD diss., De Montfort University. Foster, J. W. 1997. The Titanic Complex, A Cultural Manifest. Vancouver: Belcouver Press. Griesser, Rita, Florian Niebling, and Uwe Woessner. 2008. “Using Augmented Reality and Interactive Simulations to Realize Hybrid Prototypes.” In Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Advances in Visual Computing. Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, 1008–1017. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-89639-5_96. Grudens-Schuck, Nancy, Beverlyn L. Allen, and Kathleen Larson. 2004. “Methodology Brief: Focus Group Fundamentals.” Extension Community and Economic Development Publications 12. http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/extension_communities_pubs/12. Gunter, Barrie. 2000. Media Research Methods: Measuring Audiences, Reactions and Impact. London: SAGE. Hahn, Jim. 2012. “Mobile Augmented Reality Applications for Library Services.” New Library World 113 (9/10): 429–438. doi:10.1108/03074801211273902. Hansen, M. B. N. 2004. New Philosophy for New Media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Heyer, Paul. 1995. Titanic Legacy, Disaster as Media Event and History. Westport, CT: Praeger. Horst, Heather, Larissa Hjorth, and Jo Tacchi. 2012. “Rethinking Ethnography: An Introduction.” Media International Australia 145: 86–93. http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn= 992325759066048;res=IELLCC. Howells, Richard. 1999. The Myth of the Titanic. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press. Jackson, Helen. 2016. “Embodiment, Meaning, and the Augmented Reality Image.” In Image Embodiment: New Perspectives of the Sensory Turn, edited by Lars C. Grabbe, Patrick Rupert- Kruse, and Norbert M. Schmitz, 211–236. Darmstadt: B{\"u}chner-Verlag. Jeong Kim, M. 2013. “A Framework for Context Immersion in Mobile Augmented Reality.” Automation in Construction 33: 79–85. Kabisch, Eric. 2008. “Datascape: A Synthesis of Digital and Embodied Worlds.” Space and Culture 11 (3): 222–238. doi:10.1177/1206331208319147. Kato, Hirokazu, Mark Billinghurst, Ivan Poupyrev, Kenji Imamoto, and Keihachiro Tachibana. 2000. “Virtual Object Manipulation on a Table-Top AR Environment.” In Proceedings of the IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Augmented Reality, Munich, Germany. ISAR 2000, 111–119. doi:10.1109/ISAR.2000.880934. Kluitenberg, Eric. 2006. “The Network of Waves: Living and Acting in Hybrid Space.” Open 11: 6–17. www.scribd.com/doc/77541438/Open-11-Hybrid-Space. Kozel, Susan. 2012. “AffeXity: Performing Affect with Augmented Reality.” Fibreculture Journal. Issue 21. http://twentyone.fibreculturejournal.org/fcj-150-affexity-performing-affect-with-augmentedreality/#sthash.OcI4RfVA.zPkX5Zkg.dpbs. Lunt, Peter, and Sonia Livingstone. 1996. “Rethinking the Focus Group in Media and Communications Research.” London: LSE Research Online. http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/archive/00000409. Mac Aoidh, Eoin, and Adam Winstanley. 2009. “Interpretation of Spatial Movement And Perception In Location Based Services.” In CIICT 2009: Proceedings of the China-Ireland Information and Communications Technologies Conference. National University of Ireland Maynooth, Dept of Computer Science, Maynooth, Ireland. http://eprints.maynoothuniversity.ie/2541/1/EM_Spatial_ Movement.pdf. McCaughan, Michael, 1996. “National Maritime Museum, Reading the Relics: Titanic Culture and the Wreck of the Titanic Exhibit.” Material Culture Review / Revue de la Culture Mat{\'e}rielle 43, Spring. http://journals.hil.unb.ca/index.php/MCR/article/view/17672/22292. Neill, W. J. V. 2006. “Return to Titanic and Lost in the Maze: The Search for Representation of ‘Post-Conflict’ Belfast.” Space and Polity 10 (2): 109–120. doi:10.1080/13562570600921477. Neill, W. J. V. 2011. “The Debasing of Myth: The Privatization of Titanic Memory in Designing the ‘Post-Conflict’ City.” Journal of Urban Design 16 (1): 67–86. Nelson, Robert S. 1996. “Appropriation.” In Critical Terms for Art History, edited by Robert S. Nelson and Richard Shiff, 160–173. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Olsson, Thomas, Else Lagerstam, Tuula K{\"a}rkk{\"a}inen, and Kaisa V{\"a}{\"a}n{\"a}nen-Vainio-Mattila. 2013. “Expected User Experience of Mobile Augmented Reality Services: A User Study in the Context of Shopping Centres.” Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 17 (2): 287–304. doi:10.1007/s00779- 011-0494-x. Olsson, Thomas, and Markus Salo. 2012. “Narratives of Satisfying and Unsatisfying Experiences of Current Mobile Augmented Reality Applications.” In Proceedings of CHI 2012, Austin, Texas, 5– 10 May 2012. doi:10.1145/2207676.2208677. Pence, Harry E. 2010. “Smartphones, Smart Objects, and Augmented Reality.” The Reference Librarian 52 (1–2): 136–145. doi:10.1080/02763877.2011.528281 Roberts, Les. 2012. Mapping Cultures; Place, Practice, Performance. Macmillan: Palgrave. Schall, Gerhard, Johannes Sch{\"o}ning, Volker Paelke, and Georg Gartner. 2011. “A Survey on Augmented Maps and Environments: Approaches, Interactions and Applications.” In Advances in Web-based GIS, Mapping Services and Applications, edited by Songnian Li, Suzana Dragicevic, and Bert Veenendaal, 207–255. London: Taylor & Francis Group UK. Smithson, Janet. 2000. “Using and Analysing Focus Groups: Limitations and Possibilities.” International Journal of Social Research Methodology 3 (2): 103–119. doi:10.1080/13645570040 5172. Tuan, Yu-fi. 1977. Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience. London: Edward Arnold. Tuters, Marc. 2012. “From Mannerist Situationism to Situated Media.” Convergence: The International Journal of Research Into New Media Technologies 18 (3): 267–282. doi:10.1177/1354856512441149. Weiser, Mark. 1991. “The Computer for the Twenty-First Century.” Scientific American 265 (3): 94–104. Yovcheva, Zornitza, Dimitrios Buhalisb, Christos Gatzidis, and Corn{\'e} van Elzakke. 2013. Towards Meaningful Augmentation of the Cityscape: New Challenges for Mobile. GeoHCI Workshop at CHI 2013, April 27–28, 2013, Paris, France. http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~bhecht/geohci2013ps/ paper_39.pdf. Yovcheva, Zornitza, Dimitrios Buhalisb, Christos Gatzidisc, and John Kent. 2012. “Overview of Smartphone Augmented Reality Applications for Tourism.” e-Review of Tourism Research (eRTR) 10 (2): 63–66. http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/20219/1/eRTR_SI_V10i2_Yovcheva_Buhalis_Gatzidis_ 63-66.pdf.",
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Seeing and knowing Titanic Belfast using augmented reality: an auto-ethnographic view. / Jackson, Helen.

Vol. 18, No. 1, 21.09.2017, p. 1-17.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N1 - UIR Compliant - evidence uploaded to other files Reference text: Barthes, R. (1964) 1981. “Rhetoric of the Image.” In Classic Essays on Photography, edited by Alan Trachtenberg, 269–285. New Haven: Leete’s Island Books. Brown, Stephen. 2014. “She Was Fine When She Left Here: Polysemy, Patriarchy, and Personification in Brand Titanic’s Birthplace.” Psychology & Marketing, Special Issue: Brand Personification 31 (1): 93–102. doi:10.1002/mar.20678. Bruzzi, Stella. 2000. New Documentary: A Critical Introduction. London: Routledge. Buttimer, Anne, and David Seamon. 1980. The Human Experience of Space and Place. London: Croom Helm. Coyles, David. 2013. “Reflections on Titanic Quarter: The Cultural and Material Legacy of an Historic Belfast Brand.” The Journal of Architecture 18 (3): 331–363. doi:10.1080/13602365.2013.804855. Crang, Mike, and Stephen Graham. 2007. “Sentient Cities: Ambient Intelligence and the Politics of Urban Space.” Information, Communication & Society 10 (6): 789–817. doi:/10.1080/1369118070175099. Devlin, Paul. 2014. “Class, Heritage, Space and Their Configuration in the Belfast Titanic Experience and Stewart Parker’s Iceberg.” In The Theatre of Stewart Parker, edited by Mark Phelan, 1–200. Dublin: Carysfort. Dixon, Dan, Saad Liaquat Kian, and Ahsan Ikram. 2013. “Experiences with AR Plots: Design Issues and Recommendations for Augmented Reality Based Mobile Games.” Communications in Mobile Computing 2: 1. doi:10.1186/2192-1121-2-1. Ellis, Carolyn, Tony E. Adams, and Arthur P. Bochner. 2011. “Autoethnography: An Overview.” Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung /Forum: Qualitative Social Research 12 (1): Art. 10. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101108. Entrikin, N. J. 1991. The Betweenness of Place, Towards a Geography of Modernity. Basingstoke: Macmillan Education. Fern, Edward F. 1982. “The Use of Focus Groups for Idea Generation: The Effects of Group Size, Acquaintanceship, and Moderator on Response Quantity and Quality.” Journal of Marketing Research 19 (1): 1–13. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3151525. Fishenden, J. 2013. “Interactive Digital Technologies and the User Experience of Time and Place.” PhD diss., De Montfort University. Foster, J. W. 1997. The Titanic Complex, A Cultural Manifest. Vancouver: Belcouver Press. Griesser, Rita, Florian Niebling, and Uwe Woessner. 2008. “Using Augmented Reality and Interactive Simulations to Realize Hybrid Prototypes.” In Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Advances in Visual Computing. Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, 1008–1017. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-89639-5_96. Grudens-Schuck, Nancy, Beverlyn L. Allen, and Kathleen Larson. 2004. “Methodology Brief: Focus Group Fundamentals.” Extension Community and Economic Development Publications 12. http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/extension_communities_pubs/12. Gunter, Barrie. 2000. Media Research Methods: Measuring Audiences, Reactions and Impact. London: SAGE. Hahn, Jim. 2012. “Mobile Augmented Reality Applications for Library Services.” New Library World 113 (9/10): 429–438. doi:10.1108/03074801211273902. Hansen, M. B. N. 2004. New Philosophy for New Media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Heyer, Paul. 1995. Titanic Legacy, Disaster as Media Event and History. Westport, CT: Praeger. Horst, Heather, Larissa Hjorth, and Jo Tacchi. 2012. “Rethinking Ethnography: An Introduction.” Media International Australia 145: 86–93. http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn= 992325759066048;res=IELLCC. Howells, Richard. 1999. The Myth of the Titanic. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press. Jackson, Helen. 2016. “Embodiment, Meaning, and the Augmented Reality Image.” In Image Embodiment: New Perspectives of the Sensory Turn, edited by Lars C. Grabbe, Patrick Rupert- Kruse, and Norbert M. Schmitz, 211–236. Darmstadt: Büchner-Verlag. Jeong Kim, M. 2013. “A Framework for Context Immersion in Mobile Augmented Reality.” Automation in Construction 33: 79–85. Kabisch, Eric. 2008. “Datascape: A Synthesis of Digital and Embodied Worlds.” Space and Culture 11 (3): 222–238. doi:10.1177/1206331208319147. Kato, Hirokazu, Mark Billinghurst, Ivan Poupyrev, Kenji Imamoto, and Keihachiro Tachibana. 2000. “Virtual Object Manipulation on a Table-Top AR Environment.” In Proceedings of the IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Augmented Reality, Munich, Germany. ISAR 2000, 111–119. doi:10.1109/ISAR.2000.880934. Kluitenberg, Eric. 2006. “The Network of Waves: Living and Acting in Hybrid Space.” Open 11: 6–17. www.scribd.com/doc/77541438/Open-11-Hybrid-Space. Kozel, Susan. 2012. “AffeXity: Performing Affect with Augmented Reality.” Fibreculture Journal. Issue 21. http://twentyone.fibreculturejournal.org/fcj-150-affexity-performing-affect-with-augmentedreality/#sthash.OcI4RfVA.zPkX5Zkg.dpbs. Lunt, Peter, and Sonia Livingstone. 1996. “Rethinking the Focus Group in Media and Communications Research.” London: LSE Research Online. http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/archive/00000409. Mac Aoidh, Eoin, and Adam Winstanley. 2009. “Interpretation of Spatial Movement And Perception In Location Based Services.” In CIICT 2009: Proceedings of the China-Ireland Information and Communications Technologies Conference. National University of Ireland Maynooth, Dept of Computer Science, Maynooth, Ireland. http://eprints.maynoothuniversity.ie/2541/1/EM_Spatial_ Movement.pdf. McCaughan, Michael, 1996. “National Maritime Museum, Reading the Relics: Titanic Culture and the Wreck of the Titanic Exhibit.” Material Culture Review / Revue de la Culture Matérielle 43, Spring. http://journals.hil.unb.ca/index.php/MCR/article/view/17672/22292. Neill, W. J. V. 2006. “Return to Titanic and Lost in the Maze: The Search for Representation of ‘Post-Conflict’ Belfast.” Space and Polity 10 (2): 109–120. doi:10.1080/13562570600921477. Neill, W. J. V. 2011. “The Debasing of Myth: The Privatization of Titanic Memory in Designing the ‘Post-Conflict’ City.” Journal of Urban Design 16 (1): 67–86. Nelson, Robert S. 1996. “Appropriation.” In Critical Terms for Art History, edited by Robert S. Nelson and Richard Shiff, 160–173. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Olsson, Thomas, Else Lagerstam, Tuula Kärkkäinen, and Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila. 2013. “Expected User Experience of Mobile Augmented Reality Services: A User Study in the Context of Shopping Centres.” Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 17 (2): 287–304. doi:10.1007/s00779- 011-0494-x. Olsson, Thomas, and Markus Salo. 2012. “Narratives of Satisfying and Unsatisfying Experiences of Current Mobile Augmented Reality Applications.” In Proceedings of CHI 2012, Austin, Texas, 5– 10 May 2012. doi:10.1145/2207676.2208677. Pence, Harry E. 2010. “Smartphones, Smart Objects, and Augmented Reality.” The Reference Librarian 52 (1–2): 136–145. doi:10.1080/02763877.2011.528281 Roberts, Les. 2012. Mapping Cultures; Place, Practice, Performance. Macmillan: Palgrave. Schall, Gerhard, Johannes Schöning, Volker Paelke, and Georg Gartner. 2011. “A Survey on Augmented Maps and Environments: Approaches, Interactions and Applications.” In Advances in Web-based GIS, Mapping Services and Applications, edited by Songnian Li, Suzana Dragicevic, and Bert Veenendaal, 207–255. London: Taylor & Francis Group UK. Smithson, Janet. 2000. “Using and Analysing Focus Groups: Limitations and Possibilities.” International Journal of Social Research Methodology 3 (2): 103–119. doi:10.1080/13645570040 5172. Tuan, Yu-fi. 1977. Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience. London: Edward Arnold. Tuters, Marc. 2012. “From Mannerist Situationism to Situated Media.” Convergence: The International Journal of Research Into New Media Technologies 18 (3): 267–282. doi:10.1177/1354856512441149. Weiser, Mark. 1991. “The Computer for the Twenty-First Century.” Scientific American 265 (3): 94–104. Yovcheva, Zornitza, Dimitrios Buhalisb, Christos Gatzidis, and Corné van Elzakke. 2013. Towards Meaningful Augmentation of the Cityscape: New Challenges for Mobile. GeoHCI Workshop at CHI 2013, April 27–28, 2013, Paris, France. http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~bhecht/geohci2013ps/ paper_39.pdf. Yovcheva, Zornitza, Dimitrios Buhalisb, Christos Gatzidisc, and John Kent. 2012. “Overview of Smartphone Augmented Reality Applications for Tourism.” e-Review of Tourism Research (eRTR) 10 (2): 63–66. http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/20219/1/eRTR_SI_V10i2_Yovcheva_Buhalis_Gatzidis_ 63-66.pdf.

PY - 2017/9/21

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N2 - This paper brings together auto-ethnographic and participatory research to investigate how the practice of vision constructed through a locative-based augmented reality (AR) browser creates and reveals values and meanings connected to geographies of the place. Leveraging the potential of the collective cultural consciousness formed by the legacy of Titanic, the author has developed an AR browser that layers historic photographs of Titanic with the modern day view of the Belfast shipyard in which the ship was built, to investigate the narrative logic of what is seen and understood through the AR browser. This paper seeks to first show the experience of the AR construction using an authorial voice, enabling the reader to enter the subjective world of the author’s experience, and then tell of the experience using a broad framework of visual cultures discourse, thus enabling the narrative fidelity of the subjective experience to have reached beyond that of a description of what is seen and felt. Using this methodology, the paper identifies the affordances and constraints of the AR image in those situations where what is seen via AR technologies contributes to what is known of the cultural symbolism and value of the place.

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KW - auto- ethnography

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