Second-order perturbation theory-based digital predistortion for fiber nonlinearity compensation

Sunish Kumar Orappanpara Soman, Abdelkerim Amari, Octavia A. Dobre, Ramachandran Venkatesan

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The first-order (FO) perturbation theory-based nonlinearity compensation (PB-NLC) technique has been widely investigated to combat the detrimental effects of the intra-channel Kerr nonlinearity in polarization-multiplexed (Pol-Mux) optical fiber communication systems. However, the NLC performance of the FO-PB-NLC technique is significantly limited in highly nonlinear regimes of the Pol-Mux long-haul optical transmission systems. In this paper, we extend the FO theory to second-order (SO) to improve the NLC performance. This technique is referred to as the SO-PB-NLC. A detailed theoretical analysis is performed to derive the SO perturbative field for a Pol-Mux optical transmission system. Following that, we investigate a few simplifying assumptions to reduce the implementation complexity of the SO-PB-NLC technique. The numerical simulations for a single-channel system show that the SO-PB-NLC technique provides an improved bit-error-rate performance and increases the transmission reach, in comparison with the FO-PB-NLC technique. The complexity analysis demonstrates that the proposed SO-PB-NLC technique has a reduced computational complexity when compared to the digital back-propagation with one step per span.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5474 - 5485
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Lightwave Technology
Issue number17
Early online date16 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 1 Sept 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by Huawei Technologies Canada, through the Fiber Optic Communications Algorithms Laboratory (FOCAL) project. (Corresponding author: Sunish Kumar Orappanpara Soman.) Sunish Kumar Orappanpara Soman was with the Department of Computer Engineering, Memorial University, St. John’s, NL A1B 3X5, Canada, and also with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada. He is now with the School of Engineering, Ulster University, Jordanstown, BT37 0QB, U.K. (e-mail:

Publisher Copyright:
© 1983-2012 IEEE.


  • Coherent detection
  • digital predistortion
  • fiber nonlinearity
  • optical communications
  • perturbation theory


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