Due to microbial infections dramatically affect cell survival and increase the risk of implant failure, scaffolds produced with antimicrobial materials are now much more likely to be successful. Multidrug-resistant infections without suitable prevention strategies are increasing at an alarming rate. The ability of cells to organize, develop, differentiate, produce a functioning extracellular matrix (ECM) and create new functional tissue can all be controlled by careful control of the extracellular microenvironment. This review covers the present state of advanced strategies to develop scaffolds with antimicrobial properties for bone, oral tissue, skin, muscle, nerve, trachea, cardiac and other tissue engineering applications. The review focuses on the development of antimicrobial scaffolds against bacteria and fungi using a wide range of materials, including polymers, biopolymers, glass, ceramics and antimicrobials agents such as antibiotics, antiseptics, antimicrobial polymers, peptides, metals, carbon nanomaterials, combinatorial strategies, and includes discussions on the antimicrobial mechanisms involved in these antimicrobial approaches. The toxicological aspects of these advanced scaffolds are also analyzed to ensure future technological transfer to clinics. The main antimicrobial methods of characterizing scaffolds' antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties are described. The production methods of these porous supports, such as electrospinning, phase separation, gas foaming, the porogen method, polymerization in solution, fiber mesh coating, self-assembly, membrane lamination, freeze drying, 3D printing and bioprinting, among others, are also included in this article. These important advances in antimicrobial materials-based scaffolds for regenerative medicine offer many new promising avenues to the material design and tissue-engineering communities. [Abstract copyright: © 2022 The Authors.]
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors are grateful to the Fundación Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente Mártir for Grant Nº 2020-231-006UCV , and to the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (PID2020-119333RB-I00/ AEI / 10.13039/501100011033 ) for their financial support (awarded to Á.S.-A.).
© 2022 The Authors
- Tissue engineering
- Antimicrobial activity