Sailing Against the Tide: Taiwanese Women’s Journey From Pregnancy Loss to Motherhood

Hui-Lin Sun, Marlene Sinclair, George Kernohan, Te-Hsin Chang, Hiliary Patterson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: To understand the experiences of Asian women inTaiwan who are adjusting to motherhood following previouspregnancy loss.Study Design and Methods: Phenomenology was used asthe study design, and interviews were used to collect data ina medical center in Northern Taiwan with six women who hadgiven birth to a healthy baby after previous pregnancy loss.Following ethical approval, interviews were audio-recorded,transcribed, and analyzed to develop data themes.Results: The nautical metaphor was chosen because of thefact that Taiwan is an island and surround by sea. The sea hasdeep cultural meaning of uncertainty in life for the Taiwanesepeople. A metaphor of “sailing against the tide” emergedfrom the data to depict three stages of the women’s journey:remembering the previous journey of loss; the rising sunbrings new life within; and changing tide brings new birth.The essence of their journey through the pregnancy and birthwas a permutation of fear, uncertainty, and a deep desire forreassurance of fetal well-being.Clinical Implications: This study reinforces the diffi cultiesthat women have after a pregnancy loss, but examines itwith a unique cultural focus. Nurses and midwives can usethese fi ndings to develop caring and understanding practicesdesigned to help women in these circumstances. Pregnancyafter a loss is never the same as a previous pregnancy, and isperceived as different from a pregnancy that other “normal”pregnant women have. Women need nurses and midwiveswho can provide comprehensive practical, physical, culturallyspecifi c, psychosocial, and spiritual support to help themsuccessfully chart their journey out of profound loss.
LanguageEnglish
Pages127-133
JournalMCN: American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing
Volume3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011

Fingerprint

Pregnancy
Metaphor
Taiwan
Oceans and Seas
Uncertainty
Parturition
Interviews
Nurse Midwives
Islands
Fear
Pregnant Women
Nurses

Keywords

  • Lived experience
  • Motherhood
  • Pregnancy loss
  • Subsequent pregnancy

Cite this

@article{6ab79e627ee54e6d9907d73f13691f0f,
title = "Sailing Against the Tide: Taiwanese Women’s Journey From Pregnancy Loss to Motherhood",
abstract = "Purpose: To understand the experiences of Asian women inTaiwan who are adjusting to motherhood following previouspregnancy loss.Study Design and Methods: Phenomenology was used asthe study design, and interviews were used to collect data ina medical center in Northern Taiwan with six women who hadgiven birth to a healthy baby after previous pregnancy loss.Following ethical approval, interviews were audio-recorded,transcribed, and analyzed to develop data themes.Results: The nautical metaphor was chosen because of thefact that Taiwan is an island and surround by sea. The sea hasdeep cultural meaning of uncertainty in life for the Taiwanesepeople. A metaphor of “sailing against the tide” emergedfrom the data to depict three stages of the women’s journey:remembering the previous journey of loss; the rising sunbrings new life within; and changing tide brings new birth.The essence of their journey through the pregnancy and birthwas a permutation of fear, uncertainty, and a deep desire forreassurance of fetal well-being.Clinical Implications: This study reinforces the diffi cultiesthat women have after a pregnancy loss, but examines itwith a unique cultural focus. Nurses and midwives can usethese fi ndings to develop caring and understanding practicesdesigned to help women in these circumstances. Pregnancyafter a loss is never the same as a previous pregnancy, and isperceived as different from a pregnancy that other “normal”pregnant women have. Women need nurses and midwiveswho can provide comprehensive practical, physical, culturallyspecifi c, psychosocial, and spiritual support to help themsuccessfully chart their journey out of profound loss.",
keywords = "Lived experience, Motherhood, Pregnancy loss, Subsequent pregnancy",
author = "Hui-Lin Sun and Marlene Sinclair and George Kernohan and Te-Hsin Chang and Hiliary Patterson",
note = "Reference text: References Armstrong, D. S. (2004). Impact of prior perinatal loss on subsequent pregnancies. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 33(6), 765-773. doi:10.1177/0884217504270714 Armstrong, D. S., Hutti, M. H., & Myers, J. (2009). The infl uence of prior perinatal loss on parents’ psychological distress after the birth of a subsequent healthy infant. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 38(6), 654-666. doi:10.1111/j.1552-6909.2009.01069.x Bergner, A., Beyer, R., Klapp, B. F., & Rauchfuss, M. (2008). Pregnancy after early pregnancy loss: a prospective study of anxiety, depressive symptomatology and coping. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 29(2), 105-113. doi:10.1080/01674820701687521 Bureau of National Health Insurance, Taiwan, & ROC. (1998-2008). Total number of patients—National health insurance annual statistical report. http://www.nhi.gov.tw/english/webdata.asp?menu=11&menu_ id=296&webdata_id=1942 Cote-Arsenault, D. (2006). Threat appraisal, coping, and emotions across pregnancy subsequent to perinatal loss. Nursing Research, 56(2), 108-116. doi:00006199-200703000-00006. Cote-Arsenault, D., Bidlack, D., and Humm, A. (2001). Women’s emotions and concerns during pregnancy following perinatal loss. MCN, American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 26(3), 128-134. Cote-Arsenault, D., & Dombeck, M. T. (2001). Maternal assignment of fetal personhood to a previous pregnancy loss: relationship to anxiety in the current pregnancy. Health Care for Women International, 22(7), 649-665. Cote-Arsenault, D., & Donato, K. L. (2007). Restrained expectations in late pregnancy following loss. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 36(6), 550-557. doi:10.1111/j.1552-6909.2007. 00185.x Cote-Arsenault, D., Donato, K. L., & Earl, S. S. (2006). Watching and worrying: Early pregnancy after loss experiences. MCN, American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 31(6), 356-363. doi:00005721- 200611000-00005 Cote-Arsenault, D., & Mahlangu, N. (1999). Impact of perinatal loss on the subsequent pregnancy and self: Women’s experiences. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 28(3), 274-282. Cote-Arsenault, D., & Marshall, R. (2000). One foot in-one foot out: Weathering the storm of pregnancy after perinatal loss. Research in Nursing and Health, 23(6), 473-485. doi:10.1002/1098-240X(200012) 23:6<473::AID-NUR6>3.0.CO;2-I Cuisinier, M., Janssen, H., de Graauw, C., Bakker, S., & Hoogduin, C. (1996). Pregnancy following miscarriage: Course of grief and some determining factors. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 17(3), 168-174. DeBackere, K. J., Hill, P. D., & Kavanaugh, K. L. (2008). The parental experience of pregnancy after perinatal loss. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 37(5), 525-537. doi:10.1111/ j.1552-6909.2008.00275.x Franche, R. L., & Mikail, S. F. (1999). The impact of perinatal loss on adjustment to subsequent pregnancy. Social Science and Medicine, 48(11), 1613-1623. doi:S0277953698004389 Ganaba, R., Marshall, T., Sombie, I., Baggaley, R. F., Ouedraogo, T. W., & Filippi, V. (2010). Women’s sexual health and contraceptive needs after a severe obstetric complication (“near-miss”): A cohort study in Burkina Faso. Reproductive Health, 7, 22. doi:10.1186/1742-4755- 7-22 Hiraki, A. (1992). Tradition, rationality, and power in introductory nursing textbooks: A critical hermeneutics study. Advances in Nursing Science, 14(3), 1-12. Ho, S. W., & Brotherson, S. E. (2007). Cultural infl uences on parental bereavement in Chinese families. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 55(1), 1-25. Hsu, M. T., Tseng, Y. F., Banks, J. M., & Kuo, L. L. (2004). Interpretations of stillbirth. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 47(4), 408-416. doi:10.1111/ j.1365-2648.2004.03119.x Hsu, M. T., Tseng, Y. F., & Kuo, L. L. (2002). Transforming loss: Taiwanese women’s adaptation to stillbirth. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 40(4), 387-395. doi:2386 DOI: 10.1046/j.13652648.2002.02386.x Hughes, P., Turton, P., & Evans, C. D. (1999). Stillbirth as a risk factor for depression and anxiety in the subsequent pregnancy: Cohort study. British Medical Journal, 318(7200), 1721-1724. Hunfeld, J. A., Agterberg, G., Wladimiroff, J. W., & Passchier, J. (1996). Quality of life and anxiety in pregnancies after late pregnancy loss: A case-control study. Prenatal diagnosis, 16(9), 783-790. doi:10.1002/ (SICI)1097-0223(199609)16:9<783::AID-PD943>3.0.CO;2-7 Kavanaugh, K., Trier, D., & Korzec, M. (2004). Social support following perinatal loss. Journal of Family Nursing, 10(1), 70-92. doi:10.1177/ 1074840703260905 Mann, J. R., McKeown, R. E., Bacon, J., Vesselinov, R., & Bush, F. (2008). Predicting depressive symptoms and grief after pregnancy loss. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 29(4), 274-279. doi:10.1080/01674820802015366 O’Leary, J. (2004). Grief and its impact on prenatal attachment in the subsequent pregnancy. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 7(1), 7-18. doi:10.1007/s00737-003-0037-1 O’Leary, J., & Thorwick, C. (2008). Attachment to the unborn child and parental mental representations of pregnancy following perinatal loss. New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis, 2(3), 292-320. Parahoo, K. (1997). Nursing research: Principles, process and issues. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Peterson, G. (1994). Chains of grief: Impact of perinatal loss in subsequent pregnancy. Pre and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 9(2), 149- 158. Phipps, S. (1985). The subsequent pregnancy after stillbirth: Anticipatory parenthood in the face of uncertainty. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 15(3), 243-264. Radestad, I., Surkan, P. J., Steineck, G., Cnattingius, S., Onelov, E., & Dickman, P. W. (2009). Long-term outcomes for mothers who have or have not held their stillborn baby. Midwifery, 25(4), 422-429. doi:10.1016/j.midw.2007.03.005 Robertson, P. A., & Kavanaugh, K. (1998). Supporting parents during and after a pregnancy subsequent to a perinatal loss. The Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing, 12(2), 63-71. Sinclair, M. K., Gardner, J., Gillen, P., Boreland, Z., & Hood R (2001). Analyses of the records of maternity patients deemed as low-risk on admission and of former patients’ perceptions of maternity care. Report prepared for Down Lisburn Trust and accessible from the Doctoral Midwifery Research Society publications page www. doctoralmidwiferysociety.org/Recent_Papers.aspx Smith, J. A. (1995). Semi-structured interviewing and qualitative analysis. In J. A. Smith, R. Harre, & L. V. Langenhove (Eds.), Rethinking methods in psychology (pp. 9-26). London: Sage. Smith, J. A., Jarman, M., & Osborn, M. (1999). Doing interpretative phenomenological analysis. In M. M. K. Chamberlain (Ed.), Qualitative health psychology: Theories and methods (pp. 218-240). London: Sage. Theut, S. K., Pedersen, F. A., Zaslow, M. J., & Rabinovich, B. A. (1988). Pregnancy subsequent to perinatal loss: Parental anxiety and depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27(3), 289-292. doi:10.1097/00004583-198805000-00004 Turton, P., Hughes, P., Evans, C. D., & Fainman, D. (2001). Incidence, correlates and predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder in the pregnancy after stillbirth. British Journal of Psychiatry 178(6), 556-560. Wallerstedt, C., Lilley, M., & Baldwin, K. (2003). Interconceptional counseling after perinatal and infant loss. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 32(4), 533-542. Wheeler, S. (2000). A loss innocence and a gain in vulnerability: Subsequent pregnancy after a loss. Illness, Crisis and Loss, 8(3), 310-326.",
year = "2011",
month = "3",
language = "English",
volume = "3",
pages = "127--133",
journal = "MCN: American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing",
issn = "0361-929X",

}

Sailing Against the Tide: Taiwanese Women’s Journey From Pregnancy Loss to Motherhood. / Sun, Hui-Lin; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, George; Chang, Te-Hsin; Patterson, Hiliary.

In: MCN: American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, Vol. 3, 03.2011, p. 127-133.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sailing Against the Tide: Taiwanese Women’s Journey From Pregnancy Loss to Motherhood

AU - Sun, Hui-Lin

AU - Sinclair, Marlene

AU - Kernohan, George

AU - Chang, Te-Hsin

AU - Patterson, Hiliary

N1 - Reference text: References Armstrong, D. S. (2004). Impact of prior perinatal loss on subsequent pregnancies. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 33(6), 765-773. doi:10.1177/0884217504270714 Armstrong, D. S., Hutti, M. H., & Myers, J. (2009). The infl uence of prior perinatal loss on parents’ psychological distress after the birth of a subsequent healthy infant. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 38(6), 654-666. doi:10.1111/j.1552-6909.2009.01069.x Bergner, A., Beyer, R., Klapp, B. F., & Rauchfuss, M. (2008). Pregnancy after early pregnancy loss: a prospective study of anxiety, depressive symptomatology and coping. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 29(2), 105-113. doi:10.1080/01674820701687521 Bureau of National Health Insurance, Taiwan, & ROC. (1998-2008). Total number of patients—National health insurance annual statistical report. http://www.nhi.gov.tw/english/webdata.asp?menu=11&menu_ id=296&webdata_id=1942 Cote-Arsenault, D. (2006). Threat appraisal, coping, and emotions across pregnancy subsequent to perinatal loss. Nursing Research, 56(2), 108-116. doi:00006199-200703000-00006. Cote-Arsenault, D., Bidlack, D., and Humm, A. (2001). Women’s emotions and concerns during pregnancy following perinatal loss. MCN, American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 26(3), 128-134. Cote-Arsenault, D., & Dombeck, M. T. (2001). Maternal assignment of fetal personhood to a previous pregnancy loss: relationship to anxiety in the current pregnancy. Health Care for Women International, 22(7), 649-665. Cote-Arsenault, D., & Donato, K. L. (2007). Restrained expectations in late pregnancy following loss. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 36(6), 550-557. doi:10.1111/j.1552-6909.2007. 00185.x Cote-Arsenault, D., Donato, K. L., & Earl, S. S. (2006). Watching and worrying: Early pregnancy after loss experiences. MCN, American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 31(6), 356-363. doi:00005721- 200611000-00005 Cote-Arsenault, D., & Mahlangu, N. (1999). Impact of perinatal loss on the subsequent pregnancy and self: Women’s experiences. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 28(3), 274-282. Cote-Arsenault, D., & Marshall, R. (2000). One foot in-one foot out: Weathering the storm of pregnancy after perinatal loss. Research in Nursing and Health, 23(6), 473-485. doi:10.1002/1098-240X(200012) 23:6<473::AID-NUR6>3.0.CO;2-I Cuisinier, M., Janssen, H., de Graauw, C., Bakker, S., & Hoogduin, C. (1996). Pregnancy following miscarriage: Course of grief and some determining factors. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 17(3), 168-174. DeBackere, K. J., Hill, P. D., & Kavanaugh, K. L. (2008). The parental experience of pregnancy after perinatal loss. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 37(5), 525-537. doi:10.1111/ j.1552-6909.2008.00275.x Franche, R. L., & Mikail, S. F. (1999). The impact of perinatal loss on adjustment to subsequent pregnancy. Social Science and Medicine, 48(11), 1613-1623. doi:S0277953698004389 Ganaba, R., Marshall, T., Sombie, I., Baggaley, R. F., Ouedraogo, T. W., & Filippi, V. (2010). Women’s sexual health and contraceptive needs after a severe obstetric complication (“near-miss”): A cohort study in Burkina Faso. Reproductive Health, 7, 22. doi:10.1186/1742-4755- 7-22 Hiraki, A. (1992). Tradition, rationality, and power in introductory nursing textbooks: A critical hermeneutics study. Advances in Nursing Science, 14(3), 1-12. Ho, S. W., & Brotherson, S. E. (2007). Cultural infl uences on parental bereavement in Chinese families. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 55(1), 1-25. Hsu, M. T., Tseng, Y. F., Banks, J. M., & Kuo, L. L. (2004). Interpretations of stillbirth. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 47(4), 408-416. doi:10.1111/ j.1365-2648.2004.03119.x Hsu, M. T., Tseng, Y. F., & Kuo, L. L. (2002). Transforming loss: Taiwanese women’s adaptation to stillbirth. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 40(4), 387-395. doi:2386 DOI: 10.1046/j.13652648.2002.02386.x Hughes, P., Turton, P., & Evans, C. D. (1999). Stillbirth as a risk factor for depression and anxiety in the subsequent pregnancy: Cohort study. British Medical Journal, 318(7200), 1721-1724. Hunfeld, J. A., Agterberg, G., Wladimiroff, J. W., & Passchier, J. (1996). Quality of life and anxiety in pregnancies after late pregnancy loss: A case-control study. Prenatal diagnosis, 16(9), 783-790. doi:10.1002/ (SICI)1097-0223(199609)16:9<783::AID-PD943>3.0.CO;2-7 Kavanaugh, K., Trier, D., & Korzec, M. (2004). Social support following perinatal loss. Journal of Family Nursing, 10(1), 70-92. doi:10.1177/ 1074840703260905 Mann, J. R., McKeown, R. E., Bacon, J., Vesselinov, R., & Bush, F. (2008). Predicting depressive symptoms and grief after pregnancy loss. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 29(4), 274-279. doi:10.1080/01674820802015366 O’Leary, J. (2004). Grief and its impact on prenatal attachment in the subsequent pregnancy. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 7(1), 7-18. doi:10.1007/s00737-003-0037-1 O’Leary, J., & Thorwick, C. (2008). Attachment to the unborn child and parental mental representations of pregnancy following perinatal loss. New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis, 2(3), 292-320. Parahoo, K. (1997). Nursing research: Principles, process and issues. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Peterson, G. (1994). Chains of grief: Impact of perinatal loss in subsequent pregnancy. Pre and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 9(2), 149- 158. Phipps, S. (1985). The subsequent pregnancy after stillbirth: Anticipatory parenthood in the face of uncertainty. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 15(3), 243-264. Radestad, I., Surkan, P. J., Steineck, G., Cnattingius, S., Onelov, E., & Dickman, P. W. (2009). Long-term outcomes for mothers who have or have not held their stillborn baby. Midwifery, 25(4), 422-429. doi:10.1016/j.midw.2007.03.005 Robertson, P. A., & Kavanaugh, K. (1998). Supporting parents during and after a pregnancy subsequent to a perinatal loss. The Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing, 12(2), 63-71. Sinclair, M. K., Gardner, J., Gillen, P., Boreland, Z., & Hood R (2001). Analyses of the records of maternity patients deemed as low-risk on admission and of former patients’ perceptions of maternity care. Report prepared for Down Lisburn Trust and accessible from the Doctoral Midwifery Research Society publications page www. doctoralmidwiferysociety.org/Recent_Papers.aspx Smith, J. A. (1995). Semi-structured interviewing and qualitative analysis. In J. A. Smith, R. Harre, & L. V. Langenhove (Eds.), Rethinking methods in psychology (pp. 9-26). London: Sage. Smith, J. A., Jarman, M., & Osborn, M. (1999). Doing interpretative phenomenological analysis. In M. M. K. Chamberlain (Ed.), Qualitative health psychology: Theories and methods (pp. 218-240). London: Sage. Theut, S. K., Pedersen, F. A., Zaslow, M. J., & Rabinovich, B. A. (1988). Pregnancy subsequent to perinatal loss: Parental anxiety and depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27(3), 289-292. doi:10.1097/00004583-198805000-00004 Turton, P., Hughes, P., Evans, C. D., & Fainman, D. (2001). Incidence, correlates and predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder in the pregnancy after stillbirth. British Journal of Psychiatry 178(6), 556-560. Wallerstedt, C., Lilley, M., & Baldwin, K. (2003). Interconceptional counseling after perinatal and infant loss. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 32(4), 533-542. Wheeler, S. (2000). A loss innocence and a gain in vulnerability: Subsequent pregnancy after a loss. Illness, Crisis and Loss, 8(3), 310-326.

PY - 2011/3

Y1 - 2011/3

N2 - Purpose: To understand the experiences of Asian women inTaiwan who are adjusting to motherhood following previouspregnancy loss.Study Design and Methods: Phenomenology was used asthe study design, and interviews were used to collect data ina medical center in Northern Taiwan with six women who hadgiven birth to a healthy baby after previous pregnancy loss.Following ethical approval, interviews were audio-recorded,transcribed, and analyzed to develop data themes.Results: The nautical metaphor was chosen because of thefact that Taiwan is an island and surround by sea. The sea hasdeep cultural meaning of uncertainty in life for the Taiwanesepeople. A metaphor of “sailing against the tide” emergedfrom the data to depict three stages of the women’s journey:remembering the previous journey of loss; the rising sunbrings new life within; and changing tide brings new birth.The essence of their journey through the pregnancy and birthwas a permutation of fear, uncertainty, and a deep desire forreassurance of fetal well-being.Clinical Implications: This study reinforces the diffi cultiesthat women have after a pregnancy loss, but examines itwith a unique cultural focus. Nurses and midwives can usethese fi ndings to develop caring and understanding practicesdesigned to help women in these circumstances. Pregnancyafter a loss is never the same as a previous pregnancy, and isperceived as different from a pregnancy that other “normal”pregnant women have. Women need nurses and midwiveswho can provide comprehensive practical, physical, culturallyspecifi c, psychosocial, and spiritual support to help themsuccessfully chart their journey out of profound loss.

AB - Purpose: To understand the experiences of Asian women inTaiwan who are adjusting to motherhood following previouspregnancy loss.Study Design and Methods: Phenomenology was used asthe study design, and interviews were used to collect data ina medical center in Northern Taiwan with six women who hadgiven birth to a healthy baby after previous pregnancy loss.Following ethical approval, interviews were audio-recorded,transcribed, and analyzed to develop data themes.Results: The nautical metaphor was chosen because of thefact that Taiwan is an island and surround by sea. The sea hasdeep cultural meaning of uncertainty in life for the Taiwanesepeople. A metaphor of “sailing against the tide” emergedfrom the data to depict three stages of the women’s journey:remembering the previous journey of loss; the rising sunbrings new life within; and changing tide brings new birth.The essence of their journey through the pregnancy and birthwas a permutation of fear, uncertainty, and a deep desire forreassurance of fetal well-being.Clinical Implications: This study reinforces the diffi cultiesthat women have after a pregnancy loss, but examines itwith a unique cultural focus. Nurses and midwives can usethese fi ndings to develop caring and understanding practicesdesigned to help women in these circumstances. Pregnancyafter a loss is never the same as a previous pregnancy, and isperceived as different from a pregnancy that other “normal”pregnant women have. Women need nurses and midwiveswho can provide comprehensive practical, physical, culturallyspecifi c, psychosocial, and spiritual support to help themsuccessfully chart their journey out of profound loss.

KW - Lived experience

KW - Motherhood

KW - Pregnancy loss

KW - Subsequent pregnancy

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