Rough Justice: Considerations on the role of violence, masculinity, and the alienation of young men in communities and peacebuilding processes in Northern Ireland

Ken Harland, Sam McCready

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    7 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Statistics reveal that young men from working class communities are over-represented amongst victims of the Northern Ireland Troubles, suicides, crime, school suspensions, expulsions and academic underachievement. Despite a new political context of peacebuilding the relationship between violence and personal safety continues to be critical to marginalised young men’s everyday lives and experiences. Drawing upon primary research from a five year longitudinal study and previous studies carried out by the Centre for Young Men’s Studies, this paper provides a critical analysis of young men born after the 1994 ceasefires capturing their sense of alienation, perceived normality of violence, unwelcomed interactions with paramilitary members and restrictive notions of masculinity. These factors combined with attitudes of suspicion and distrust surrounding the role of the police leaves young men feeling confused about law and youth justice. This paper argues the need for a more relevant school curriculum informed by, and aimed specifically at, engaging young men through a youth work methodology addressing the themes of youth justice, violence and masculinity. The authors acknowledge that whilst addressing the behaviour of certain young men can be very challenging, there is a need for those working with young men to more proactively engage young men through a ‘Balanced Approach’ of collaborative working between formal, informal and non-formal education
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages269-283
    JournalYouth Justice
    Volume14
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2014

    Fingerprint

    alienation
    masculinity
    justice
    violence
    community
    youth work
    everyday experience
    expulsion
    normality
    working class
    school
    suicide
    everyday life
    longitudinal study
    police
    statistics
    offense
    curriculum
    Law
    methodology

    Keywords

    • work with young men
    • violence
    • paramilitaries
    • masculinity
    • peacebuilding
    • youth work methodology

    Cite this

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    title = "Rough Justice: Considerations on the role of violence, masculinity, and the alienation of young men in communities and peacebuilding processes in Northern Ireland",
    abstract = "Statistics reveal that young men from working class communities are over-represented amongst victims of the Northern Ireland Troubles, suicides, crime, school suspensions, expulsions and academic underachievement. Despite a new political context of peacebuilding the relationship between violence and personal safety continues to be critical to marginalised young men’s everyday lives and experiences. Drawing upon primary research from a five year longitudinal study and previous studies carried out by the Centre for Young Men’s Studies, this paper provides a critical analysis of young men born after the 1994 ceasefires capturing their sense of alienation, perceived normality of violence, unwelcomed interactions with paramilitary members and restrictive notions of masculinity. These factors combined with attitudes of suspicion and distrust surrounding the role of the police leaves young men feeling confused about law and youth justice. This paper argues the need for a more relevant school curriculum informed by, and aimed specifically at, engaging young men through a youth work methodology addressing the themes of youth justice, violence and masculinity. The authors acknowledge that whilst addressing the behaviour of certain young men can be very challenging, there is a need for those working with young men to more proactively engage young men through a ‘Balanced Approach’ of collaborative working between formal, informal and non-formal education",
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    author = "Ken Harland and Sam McCready",
    note = "Reference text: Ashe F, (2012) Gendering War and Peace: Militarized Masculinities in Northern Ireland. Men and Masculinities, 15 (3): 230-248 Ashe F. and Harland K (2014) Troubling Masculinities: Changing patterns of violent masculinities in a society emerging from political conflict. Journal of Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. 37 (9) DOI: 10.1080/1057610X.2014.931210 Barwick B (2004) Young Males: Strengths-Based Male-Focused Approaches. Ministry of Youth Development: New Zealand. Blacker H (2010) Relationships, friendship and youth. In Jeffs T and Smith M K Youth Work Practice. Palgrave: 15-30. Connell R W, and Messerschmidt J W (2005) Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept. Gender and Society, 19, (6): 829-859 Crawford D, (2003) Becoming a Man. The views and experiences of some second- generation males Electronic Journal of Sociology ISSN 11983655 Department of Education (2011) GCSE Headline Statistics 2010 / 2011. Available at: http://www.deni.gov.uk/index/80-curriculum-and-assessment/115-curriculum-and-assessmentqualifications- pg/gcse_headline_statistics_2011-2.htm Accessed 20/12/2013 Department of Education (2011) Suspension Statistics 2010 / 2011. Available at: http://www.deni.gov.uk/suspension_statistics_2010-11_22.6kb.pdf Dragiewitcz M. (2008) In Renzetti, C.M. and Edleson, J.L. (2008)(Eds.) Encyclopaedia of Interpersonal Violence Thousand Oaks CA: Sage: 1-2 Drake D H, Fergusson R and Briggs D B (2014 Hearing new voices: Re-viewing Youth Justice Policy through Practitioners’ Relationships with Young People. Youth Justice. Vol. 14(1): 22–39 Feenan D, (2002) Justice in conflict: Paramilitary punishment in Ireland. International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 30: 151-172. Goodman R, (1997) The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A Research Note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38: 581-586. Gormley-Heenan C, and Monaghan R (2012) Political Reverberations: Northern Ireland's conflict, peace process and paramilitaries, Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 4 (1): 1-3, Harland K (2000) Men and Masculinity: The construction of masculine identities in inner city Belfast PHD Thesis University of Ulster Harland, K. (2001) ‘The Challenges and Potential of developing a more effective Youth Work Curriculum with young men. Child Care in Practice Journal Vol. 7, No 4 Harland K, and Morgan S (2003) ‘Work with Young Men in Northern Ireland – An Advocacy Approach' Youth & Policy: Vol. 81: 74-85 Harland K, McCready S and Beattie K (2005) Young men and the squeeze of masculinity. Centre for Young Men’s Studies. http://www.socsci.ulster.ac.uk/sociology/research/y{\%}20publications/cyms_op1.pdf Harland K, (2011) Violent Youth Culture in Northern Ireland: Young Men, Violence and the Challenges of Peacebuilding. Youth & Society. 43 (2): 422 - 430. Harland K, and McCready S (2010) ‘Stuck’ between ceasefires and peacebuilding: Finding positive responses to young men’s experiences of violence, and personal safety. Queen’s University, Journal of Shared Spaces. Community Relations Council publications. (10) Harland K and McCready S (2012) Taking Boys Seriously: A longitudinal study into adolescent boys’ school-life experiences in Northern Ireland Department of Education and Department of Justice and Centre for Young Men`s Studies Publication. http://www.socsci.ulster.ac.uk/sociology/research/young.html Harland K and McCready S (2013) Youth Work as Education. Curriculum Development News. Curriculum Development Unit, Belfast. http://www.youthworkni.org.uk/publications/?assetdet40=17211&categoryesctl156292=433 11-13 Harland K, and Morgan T (2010) Undervalued or Misunderstood: Youth Work and its contribution to Lifelong Learning. Journal of Child and Youth Care Work. 23: 201-214 Harris A and Allen T (2011) Young people’s views of multi-agency working. British Educational Research Journal 37(3): 405–419. Haydon D, McAlister S and Scraton P (2012), Young People, Conflict and Regulation. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 51: 503–520 Illich I (1971) Deschooling Society. London: Calder and Boyers. Kelly L, (2012) Representing and Preventing Youth Crime and Disorder: Intended and Unintended Consequences of Targeted Youth Programmes in England Youth Justice 12: 101 Kilpatrick, C. (2013) We Cannot Turn Our Backs On Savagery. The Belfast Telegraph, 19th November: 4. Kimmel M, Hearn J and Connell R W (2005) Handbook of Studies on Men & Masculinities. London: Sage. Ledwith M (2011) Community Development: A Critical Approach. The Policy Press Lloyd T (2009) Stuck in the Middle (some young men’s attitudes and experience of Violence, Conflict and Safety) Centre for Young Men’s Studies Publication. University of Ulster. Lomas T (2014) Masculinity, meditation and mental health. Palgrave. Lusher D, and Robins G (2010). Hegemonic and Other Masculinities in Local Social Contexts. Men and Masculinities 11. (4): 387-423. Millennium Cohort Study Third Survey: A User's Guide to Initial Findings (2008). Centre for Longitudinal Studies. Moller M, (2007) 'Exploiting Patterns: A Critique of Hegemonic Masculinity', Journal of Gender Studies 16 (3): 263 - 276. McAlister S Scraton P and Haydon D (2009) Childhood in Transition: Experiencing Marginalisation and Conflict in Northern Ireland. Belfast: QUB, Save the Children, Prince’s Trust. McCready S Harland K and Beattie K (2006) Violent Victims? Young men as perpetrators and victims of violent crime. Research Update 1. Centre for Young Men’s Studies Publications. University of Ulster. Nolan P (2014) Northern Ireland Policing Report. Community Relations Council. (3): 37 Rajmil L, Herdman M De Sanmamed M J F Detmar S., Bruil J Ravens-Sieberer U Bullinger M Simeoni M C and Auquier P (2004) Generic health-related quality of life instruments in children and adolescents: a qualitative analysis of content. Journal of Adolescent Health. 8:37–45. Renzetti C M and Edelson J L (eds) (2008) Encyclopaedia of Interpersonal Violence. California: Sage Review of Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland, December (2011) Transforming Your Care 89. Robertson S (2007). Understanding Men and Health. Buckingham: Open University Press Scowcroft E (2012) Suicide Statistics Report 2012: Data for 2008-2010, Samaritans, February Smith H (2010) Engaging in Conversation. In Jeffs T and Smith M K Youth Work Practice. Palgrave. 31-40. Spence J and Devanney C (2006) Youth Work: Voices of Practice. The National Youth Agency Topping J and Byrne J (2012) Paramilitary punishments in Belfast: policing beneath the peace. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression. 4 (1): 41-59. Young K (2006) The Art of Youth Work. Russell House. Review of the Youth Justice System in Northern Ireland (2011) http://www.dojni.gov.uk/index/publications/publication-categories/pubs-criminal- justice/review-of-youth-justice---large-print-version-of-report.pdf 22-23 Zaykowski H, (2013) Reporting Physical Assault: How Experiences With Violence Influence Adolescents' Response to Victimization. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. 11 (1): 44-59.",
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    Rough Justice: Considerations on the role of violence, masculinity, and the alienation of young men in communities and peacebuilding processes in Northern Ireland. / Harland, Ken; McCready, Sam.

    In: Youth Justice, Vol. 14, No. 3, 01.12.2014, p. 269-283.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    N1 - Reference text: Ashe F, (2012) Gendering War and Peace: Militarized Masculinities in Northern Ireland. Men and Masculinities, 15 (3): 230-248 Ashe F. and Harland K (2014) Troubling Masculinities: Changing patterns of violent masculinities in a society emerging from political conflict. Journal of Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. 37 (9) DOI: 10.1080/1057610X.2014.931210 Barwick B (2004) Young Males: Strengths-Based Male-Focused Approaches. Ministry of Youth Development: New Zealand. Blacker H (2010) Relationships, friendship and youth. In Jeffs T and Smith M K Youth Work Practice. Palgrave: 15-30. Connell R W, and Messerschmidt J W (2005) Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept. Gender and Society, 19, (6): 829-859 Crawford D, (2003) Becoming a Man. The views and experiences of some second- generation males Electronic Journal of Sociology ISSN 11983655 Department of Education (2011) GCSE Headline Statistics 2010 / 2011. Available at: http://www.deni.gov.uk/index/80-curriculum-and-assessment/115-curriculum-and-assessmentqualifications- pg/gcse_headline_statistics_2011-2.htm Accessed 20/12/2013 Department of Education (2011) Suspension Statistics 2010 / 2011. Available at: http://www.deni.gov.uk/suspension_statistics_2010-11_22.6kb.pdf Dragiewitcz M. (2008) In Renzetti, C.M. and Edleson, J.L. (2008)(Eds.) Encyclopaedia of Interpersonal Violence Thousand Oaks CA: Sage: 1-2 Drake D H, Fergusson R and Briggs D B (2014 Hearing new voices: Re-viewing Youth Justice Policy through Practitioners’ Relationships with Young People. Youth Justice. Vol. 14(1): 22–39 Feenan D, (2002) Justice in conflict: Paramilitary punishment in Ireland. International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 30: 151-172. Goodman R, (1997) The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A Research Note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38: 581-586. Gormley-Heenan C, and Monaghan R (2012) Political Reverberations: Northern Ireland's conflict, peace process and paramilitaries, Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 4 (1): 1-3, Harland K (2000) Men and Masculinity: The construction of masculine identities in inner city Belfast PHD Thesis University of Ulster Harland, K. (2001) ‘The Challenges and Potential of developing a more effective Youth Work Curriculum with young men. Child Care in Practice Journal Vol. 7, No 4 Harland K, and Morgan S (2003) ‘Work with Young Men in Northern Ireland – An Advocacy Approach' Youth & Policy: Vol. 81: 74-85 Harland K, McCready S and Beattie K (2005) Young men and the squeeze of masculinity. Centre for Young Men’s Studies. http://www.socsci.ulster.ac.uk/sociology/research/y%20publications/cyms_op1.pdf Harland K, (2011) Violent Youth Culture in Northern Ireland: Young Men, Violence and the Challenges of Peacebuilding. Youth & Society. 43 (2): 422 - 430. Harland K, and McCready S (2010) ‘Stuck’ between ceasefires and peacebuilding: Finding positive responses to young men’s experiences of violence, and personal safety. Queen’s University, Journal of Shared Spaces. Community Relations Council publications. (10) Harland K and McCready S (2012) Taking Boys Seriously: A longitudinal study into adolescent boys’ school-life experiences in Northern Ireland Department of Education and Department of Justice and Centre for Young Men`s Studies Publication. http://www.socsci.ulster.ac.uk/sociology/research/young.html Harland K and McCready S (2013) Youth Work as Education. Curriculum Development News. Curriculum Development Unit, Belfast. http://www.youthworkni.org.uk/publications/?assetdet40=17211&categoryesctl156292=433 11-13 Harland K, and Morgan T (2010) Undervalued or Misunderstood: Youth Work and its contribution to Lifelong Learning. Journal of Child and Youth Care Work. 23: 201-214 Harris A and Allen T (2011) Young people’s views of multi-agency working. British Educational Research Journal 37(3): 405–419. Haydon D, McAlister S and Scraton P (2012), Young People, Conflict and Regulation. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 51: 503–520 Illich I (1971) Deschooling Society. London: Calder and Boyers. Kelly L, (2012) Representing and Preventing Youth Crime and Disorder: Intended and Unintended Consequences of Targeted Youth Programmes in England Youth Justice 12: 101 Kilpatrick, C. (2013) We Cannot Turn Our Backs On Savagery. The Belfast Telegraph, 19th November: 4. Kimmel M, Hearn J and Connell R W (2005) Handbook of Studies on Men & Masculinities. London: Sage. Ledwith M (2011) Community Development: A Critical Approach. The Policy Press Lloyd T (2009) Stuck in the Middle (some young men’s attitudes and experience of Violence, Conflict and Safety) Centre for Young Men’s Studies Publication. University of Ulster. Lomas T (2014) Masculinity, meditation and mental health. Palgrave. Lusher D, and Robins G (2010). Hegemonic and Other Masculinities in Local Social Contexts. Men and Masculinities 11. (4): 387-423. Millennium Cohort Study Third Survey: A User's Guide to Initial Findings (2008). Centre for Longitudinal Studies. Moller M, (2007) 'Exploiting Patterns: A Critique of Hegemonic Masculinity', Journal of Gender Studies 16 (3): 263 - 276. McAlister S Scraton P and Haydon D (2009) Childhood in Transition: Experiencing Marginalisation and Conflict in Northern Ireland. Belfast: QUB, Save the Children, Prince’s Trust. McCready S Harland K and Beattie K (2006) Violent Victims? Young men as perpetrators and victims of violent crime. Research Update 1. Centre for Young Men’s Studies Publications. University of Ulster. Nolan P (2014) Northern Ireland Policing Report. Community Relations Council. (3): 37 Rajmil L, Herdman M De Sanmamed M J F Detmar S., Bruil J Ravens-Sieberer U Bullinger M Simeoni M C and Auquier P (2004) Generic health-related quality of life instruments in children and adolescents: a qualitative analysis of content. Journal of Adolescent Health. 8:37–45. Renzetti C M and Edelson J L (eds) (2008) Encyclopaedia of Interpersonal Violence. California: Sage Review of Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland, December (2011) Transforming Your Care 89. Robertson S (2007). Understanding Men and Health. Buckingham: Open University Press Scowcroft E (2012) Suicide Statistics Report 2012: Data for 2008-2010, Samaritans, February Smith H (2010) Engaging in Conversation. In Jeffs T and Smith M K Youth Work Practice. Palgrave. 31-40. Spence J and Devanney C (2006) Youth Work: Voices of Practice. The National Youth Agency Topping J and Byrne J (2012) Paramilitary punishments in Belfast: policing beneath the peace. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression. 4 (1): 41-59. Young K (2006) The Art of Youth Work. Russell House. Review of the Youth Justice System in Northern Ireland (2011) http://www.dojni.gov.uk/index/publications/publication-categories/pubs-criminal- justice/review-of-youth-justice---large-print-version-of-report.pdf 22-23 Zaykowski H, (2013) Reporting Physical Assault: How Experiences With Violence Influence Adolescents' Response to Victimization. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. 11 (1): 44-59.

    PY - 2014/12/1

    Y1 - 2014/12/1

    N2 - Statistics reveal that young men from working class communities are over-represented amongst victims of the Northern Ireland Troubles, suicides, crime, school suspensions, expulsions and academic underachievement. Despite a new political context of peacebuilding the relationship between violence and personal safety continues to be critical to marginalised young men’s everyday lives and experiences. Drawing upon primary research from a five year longitudinal study and previous studies carried out by the Centre for Young Men’s Studies, this paper provides a critical analysis of young men born after the 1994 ceasefires capturing their sense of alienation, perceived normality of violence, unwelcomed interactions with paramilitary members and restrictive notions of masculinity. These factors combined with attitudes of suspicion and distrust surrounding the role of the police leaves young men feeling confused about law and youth justice. This paper argues the need for a more relevant school curriculum informed by, and aimed specifically at, engaging young men through a youth work methodology addressing the themes of youth justice, violence and masculinity. The authors acknowledge that whilst addressing the behaviour of certain young men can be very challenging, there is a need for those working with young men to more proactively engage young men through a ‘Balanced Approach’ of collaborative working between formal, informal and non-formal education

    AB - Statistics reveal that young men from working class communities are over-represented amongst victims of the Northern Ireland Troubles, suicides, crime, school suspensions, expulsions and academic underachievement. Despite a new political context of peacebuilding the relationship between violence and personal safety continues to be critical to marginalised young men’s everyday lives and experiences. Drawing upon primary research from a five year longitudinal study and previous studies carried out by the Centre for Young Men’s Studies, this paper provides a critical analysis of young men born after the 1994 ceasefires capturing their sense of alienation, perceived normality of violence, unwelcomed interactions with paramilitary members and restrictive notions of masculinity. These factors combined with attitudes of suspicion and distrust surrounding the role of the police leaves young men feeling confused about law and youth justice. This paper argues the need for a more relevant school curriculum informed by, and aimed specifically at, engaging young men through a youth work methodology addressing the themes of youth justice, violence and masculinity. The authors acknowledge that whilst addressing the behaviour of certain young men can be very challenging, there is a need for those working with young men to more proactively engage young men through a ‘Balanced Approach’ of collaborative working between formal, informal and non-formal education

    KW - work with young men

    KW - violence

    KW - paramilitaries

    KW - masculinity

    KW - peacebuilding

    KW - youth work methodology

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    DO - 10.1177/1473225414549696

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    VL - 14

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    JO - Youth Justice

    T2 - Youth Justice

    JF - Youth Justice

    SN - 1473-2254

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