Role of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the revolutionization of advanced melanoma care

Sima Singh, Arshid Numan, Nikhil Agrawal, Murtaza M. Tambuwala, Vijender Singh, Prashant Kesharwani

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31 Citations (Scopus)
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Melanoma cancer is an important public health concern owing to its prevalence, high recurrence risk, treatment failures and immunosuppressive abilities. Prolonged immune system activation is the main objective of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) therapies directed against melanoma cancer. Despite the staggering advancements in approved ICIs therapy effectiveness, immune-related adverse events (imAEs) and therapeutic resistance has limited its wide application. Thus, there is a need to establish biomarkers that predict the response to ICIs and imAEs. In this review article, we provide an in-depth understanding of the role of tolerance, immunity, and immunosuppression in antitumor immune response regulation, together with ongoing clinical therapy and suggested biomarkers. These attainments advise that approved ICIs provide a novel approach to durable and prolonged response in cancer patients and will aid in the reduction of treatment cost and duration and enhance patient recovery.
Original languageEnglish
Article number106417
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Immunopharmacology
Early online date19 Mar 2020
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 30 Jun 2020


  • Biomarkers
  • CTLA-4
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors
  • Malignant melanoma
  • PD-1/PD-L1
  • T-cell dysfunction


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