RISUS study: Rugby Injury Surveillance in Ulster Schools

HAP Archbold, AT Rankin, R Nicholas, NWA Eames, RK Wilson, LA Henderson, GJ Heyes, CM Bleakley

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    18 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Objective To examine injury patterns in adolescent rugby players and determine factors associated with injury risk. Design Prospective injury surveillance study. Setting N=28 Grammar Schools in Ulster, Ireland (2014–2015 playing season). Participants 825 adolescent rugby players, across in 28 school first XV rugby squads; mean age 16.9 years. Main outcome measures Injuries were classified by body part and diagnosis, and injury incidence using injuries per 1000 match hours of exposure. HRs for injury were calculated through Cox proportional hazard regression after correction for influential covariates. Results A total of n=426 injuries were reported across the playing season. Over 50% of injuries occurred in the tackle situation or during collisions (270/426), with few reported during set plays. The 3 most common injury sites were head/face (n=102, 23.9%), clavicle/shoulder (n=65, 15.3%) and the knee (n=56, 13.1%). Sprain (n=133, 31.2%), concussion (n=81, 19%) and muscle injury (n=65, 15.3%) were the most common diagnoses. Injury incidence is calculated at 29.06 injuries per 1000 match hours. There were no catastrophic injuries. A large percentage of injuries (208/424) resulted in absence from play for more than 28 days. Concussion carried the most significant time out from play (n=33; 15.9%), followed by dislocations of the shoulder (n=22; 10.6%), knee sprains (n=19, 9.1%), ankle sprains (n=14, 6.7%), hand/finger/thumb (n=11; 5.3%). 36.8% of participants in the study (304/825) suffered at least one injury during the playing season. Multivariate models found higher risk of injury (adjusted HR (AHR); 95% CI) with: higher age (AHR 1.45; 1.14 to 1.83), heavier weight (AHR 1.32; 1.04 to 1.69), playing representative rugby (AHR 1.42; 1.06 to 1.90) and undertaking regular strength training (AHR 1.65; 1.11 to 2.46). Playing for a lower ranked team (AHR 0.67; 0.49 to 0.90) and wearing a mouthguard (AHR 0.70; 0.54 to 0.92) were associated with lower risk of injury. Conclusions There was a high incidence of severe injuries, with concussion, ankle and knee ligament injuries and upper limb fractures/dislocations causing greatest time loss. Players were compliant with current graduated return-to-play regulations following concussion. Physical stature and levels of competition were important risk factors and there was limited evidence for protective equipment.
    LanguageEnglish
    JournalBritish Journal of Sports Medicine
    Volumedoi:10
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 23 Dec 2014

    Fingerprint

    Football
    Wounds and Injuries
    Sprains and Strains
    Knee
    Incidence
    Shoulder Dislocation
    Ankle Injuries
    Knee Injuries
    Clavicle
    Resistance Training

    Keywords

    • rugby
    • injury
    • adolescents

    Cite this

    Archbold, HAP., Rankin, AT., Nicholas, R., Eames, NWA., Wilson, RK., Henderson, LA., ... Bleakley, CM. (2014). RISUS study: Rugby Injury Surveillance in Ulster Schools. British Journal of Sports Medicine, doi:10. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095491
    Archbold, HAP ; Rankin, AT ; Nicholas, R ; Eames, NWA ; Wilson, RK ; Henderson, LA ; Heyes, GJ ; Bleakley, CM. / RISUS study: Rugby Injury Surveillance in Ulster Schools. In: British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2014 ; Vol. doi:10.
    @article{f96d072297ab4b9d8a18ab6115532e66,
    title = "RISUS study: Rugby Injury Surveillance in Ulster Schools",
    abstract = "Objective To examine injury patterns in adolescent rugby players and determine factors associated with injury risk. Design Prospective injury surveillance study. Setting N=28 Grammar Schools in Ulster, Ireland (2014–2015 playing season). Participants 825 adolescent rugby players, across in 28 school first XV rugby squads; mean age 16.9 years. Main outcome measures Injuries were classified by body part and diagnosis, and injury incidence using injuries per 1000 match hours of exposure. HRs for injury were calculated through Cox proportional hazard regression after correction for influential covariates. Results A total of n=426 injuries were reported across the playing season. Over 50{\%} of injuries occurred in the tackle situation or during collisions (270/426), with few reported during set plays. The 3 most common injury sites were head/face (n=102, 23.9{\%}), clavicle/shoulder (n=65, 15.3{\%}) and the knee (n=56, 13.1{\%}). Sprain (n=133, 31.2{\%}), concussion (n=81, 19{\%}) and muscle injury (n=65, 15.3{\%}) were the most common diagnoses. Injury incidence is calculated at 29.06 injuries per 1000 match hours. There were no catastrophic injuries. A large percentage of injuries (208/424) resulted in absence from play for more than 28 days. Concussion carried the most significant time out from play (n=33; 15.9{\%}), followed by dislocations of the shoulder (n=22; 10.6{\%}), knee sprains (n=19, 9.1{\%}), ankle sprains (n=14, 6.7{\%}), hand/finger/thumb (n=11; 5.3{\%}). 36.8{\%} of participants in the study (304/825) suffered at least one injury during the playing season. Multivariate models found higher risk of injury (adjusted HR (AHR); 95{\%} CI) with: higher age (AHR 1.45; 1.14 to 1.83), heavier weight (AHR 1.32; 1.04 to 1.69), playing representative rugby (AHR 1.42; 1.06 to 1.90) and undertaking regular strength training (AHR 1.65; 1.11 to 2.46). Playing for a lower ranked team (AHR 0.67; 0.49 to 0.90) and wearing a mouthguard (AHR 0.70; 0.54 to 0.92) were associated with lower risk of injury. Conclusions There was a high incidence of severe injuries, with concussion, ankle and knee ligament injuries and upper limb fractures/dislocations causing greatest time loss. Players were compliant with current graduated return-to-play regulations following concussion. Physical stature and levels of competition were important risk factors and there was limited evidence for protective equipment.",
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    author = "HAP Archbold and AT Rankin and R Nicholas and NWA Eames and RK Wilson and LA Henderson and GJ Heyes and CM Bleakley",
    year = "2014",
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    Archbold, HAP, Rankin, AT, Nicholas, R, Eames, NWA, Wilson, RK, Henderson, LA, Heyes, GJ & Bleakley, CM 2014, 'RISUS study: Rugby Injury Surveillance in Ulster Schools', British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. doi:10. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095491

    RISUS study: Rugby Injury Surveillance in Ulster Schools. / Archbold, HAP; Rankin, AT; Nicholas, R; Eames, NWA; Wilson, RK; Henderson, LA; Heyes, GJ; Bleakley, CM.

    In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. doi:10, 23.12.2014.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - RISUS study: Rugby Injury Surveillance in Ulster Schools

    AU - Archbold, HAP

    AU - Rankin, AT

    AU - Nicholas, R

    AU - Eames, NWA

    AU - Wilson, RK

    AU - Henderson, LA

    AU - Heyes, GJ

    AU - Bleakley, CM

    PY - 2014/12/23

    Y1 - 2014/12/23

    N2 - Objective To examine injury patterns in adolescent rugby players and determine factors associated with injury risk. Design Prospective injury surveillance study. Setting N=28 Grammar Schools in Ulster, Ireland (2014–2015 playing season). Participants 825 adolescent rugby players, across in 28 school first XV rugby squads; mean age 16.9 years. Main outcome measures Injuries were classified by body part and diagnosis, and injury incidence using injuries per 1000 match hours of exposure. HRs for injury were calculated through Cox proportional hazard regression after correction for influential covariates. Results A total of n=426 injuries were reported across the playing season. Over 50% of injuries occurred in the tackle situation or during collisions (270/426), with few reported during set plays. The 3 most common injury sites were head/face (n=102, 23.9%), clavicle/shoulder (n=65, 15.3%) and the knee (n=56, 13.1%). Sprain (n=133, 31.2%), concussion (n=81, 19%) and muscle injury (n=65, 15.3%) were the most common diagnoses. Injury incidence is calculated at 29.06 injuries per 1000 match hours. There were no catastrophic injuries. A large percentage of injuries (208/424) resulted in absence from play for more than 28 days. Concussion carried the most significant time out from play (n=33; 15.9%), followed by dislocations of the shoulder (n=22; 10.6%), knee sprains (n=19, 9.1%), ankle sprains (n=14, 6.7%), hand/finger/thumb (n=11; 5.3%). 36.8% of participants in the study (304/825) suffered at least one injury during the playing season. Multivariate models found higher risk of injury (adjusted HR (AHR); 95% CI) with: higher age (AHR 1.45; 1.14 to 1.83), heavier weight (AHR 1.32; 1.04 to 1.69), playing representative rugby (AHR 1.42; 1.06 to 1.90) and undertaking regular strength training (AHR 1.65; 1.11 to 2.46). Playing for a lower ranked team (AHR 0.67; 0.49 to 0.90) and wearing a mouthguard (AHR 0.70; 0.54 to 0.92) were associated with lower risk of injury. Conclusions There was a high incidence of severe injuries, with concussion, ankle and knee ligament injuries and upper limb fractures/dislocations causing greatest time loss. Players were compliant with current graduated return-to-play regulations following concussion. Physical stature and levels of competition were important risk factors and there was limited evidence for protective equipment.

    AB - Objective To examine injury patterns in adolescent rugby players and determine factors associated with injury risk. Design Prospective injury surveillance study. Setting N=28 Grammar Schools in Ulster, Ireland (2014–2015 playing season). Participants 825 adolescent rugby players, across in 28 school first XV rugby squads; mean age 16.9 years. Main outcome measures Injuries were classified by body part and diagnosis, and injury incidence using injuries per 1000 match hours of exposure. HRs for injury were calculated through Cox proportional hazard regression after correction for influential covariates. Results A total of n=426 injuries were reported across the playing season. Over 50% of injuries occurred in the tackle situation or during collisions (270/426), with few reported during set plays. The 3 most common injury sites were head/face (n=102, 23.9%), clavicle/shoulder (n=65, 15.3%) and the knee (n=56, 13.1%). Sprain (n=133, 31.2%), concussion (n=81, 19%) and muscle injury (n=65, 15.3%) were the most common diagnoses. Injury incidence is calculated at 29.06 injuries per 1000 match hours. There were no catastrophic injuries. A large percentage of injuries (208/424) resulted in absence from play for more than 28 days. Concussion carried the most significant time out from play (n=33; 15.9%), followed by dislocations of the shoulder (n=22; 10.6%), knee sprains (n=19, 9.1%), ankle sprains (n=14, 6.7%), hand/finger/thumb (n=11; 5.3%). 36.8% of participants in the study (304/825) suffered at least one injury during the playing season. Multivariate models found higher risk of injury (adjusted HR (AHR); 95% CI) with: higher age (AHR 1.45; 1.14 to 1.83), heavier weight (AHR 1.32; 1.04 to 1.69), playing representative rugby (AHR 1.42; 1.06 to 1.90) and undertaking regular strength training (AHR 1.65; 1.11 to 2.46). Playing for a lower ranked team (AHR 0.67; 0.49 to 0.90) and wearing a mouthguard (AHR 0.70; 0.54 to 0.92) were associated with lower risk of injury. Conclusions There was a high incidence of severe injuries, with concussion, ankle and knee ligament injuries and upper limb fractures/dislocations causing greatest time loss. Players were compliant with current graduated return-to-play regulations following concussion. Physical stature and levels of competition were important risk factors and there was limited evidence for protective equipment.

    KW - rugby

    KW - injury

    KW - adolescents

    U2 - 10.1136/bjsports-2015-095491

    DO - 10.1136/bjsports-2015-095491

    M3 - Article

    VL - doi:10

    JO - British Journal of Sports Medicine

    T2 - British Journal of Sports Medicine

    JF - British Journal of Sports Medicine

    SN - 0306-3674

    ER -

    Archbold HAP, Rankin AT, Nicholas R, Eames NWA, Wilson RK, Henderson LA et al. RISUS study: Rugby Injury Surveillance in Ulster Schools. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2014 Dec 23;doi:10. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095491