Microbial biofilms have co-evolved with grazing animals, such as gastropods, to develop mutually beneficial relationships. Although microbial biofilms demonstrate resilience and resistance to chemical exposure, pre-existing relationships can be negatively affected by chemical input. In this study, we determined how the grazer, Littorina littorea (common periwinkle sea snail), and a biological surfactant (rhamnolipid) interact on a phototrophic marine biofilm. Biofilms were cultured in 32 twenty-liter buckets at the Queen’s University Marine Laboratory in Portaferry, Northern Ireland on clay tiles that were either exposed to 150 ppm of a rhamnolipid solution or that had no chemical exposure. L. littorea were added into half of the buckets, and biofilms were developed over 14 days. Biofilms exposed to grazing alone demonstrated high tolerance to the disturbance, while those growing on rhamnolipid-exposed substrate demonstrated resistance but experienced slight declines in carbon and stoichiometric ratios. However, when exposed to both, biofilms had significant decreases in stoichiometry and declined in productivity and respiration. This is problematic, as continuing marine pollution increases the likelihood that biofilms will be exposed to combinations of stressors and disturbances. Loss of biofilm productivity within these areas could lead to the loss of an important food source and nutrient cycler within the marine ecosystem.
|Number of pages||10|
|Early online date||12 Dec 2022|
|Publication status||Published online - 12 Dec 2022|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
SG is funded by an Ulster University Vice Chancellors Doctoral Research Fellowship and received additional support through the G and M Williams Fund. Analytical costs were partly supported by core funding from the AFBI Aquatic Chemistry Laboratory (BH).
© 2022 by the authors.
- aquatic toxicology
- marine snails
- metabolic activity