Revisiting the feminist-figurational sociology exchange

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

This essay revisits aspects of the exchange in the sociology of sport between feminists andfigurational sociologists on the role of values in research, the balance betweeninvolvement-detachment on the part of the researcher, and the role of academic researchmore generally. In this regard, the essay summarizes this exchange in three main ‘rounds’and tries to make an incremental contribution by drawing upon some developments infeminist theory and figurational sociological research since the 1990s. It will argue,contrary to Dunning and Colwell, that there is some evidence, at least at the theoreticallevel, to suggest that the two positions are, perhaps, not as mutually exclusive as has beenpreviously suggested, even though some important distinctions between the twoapproaches remain and that revolve around the roles of values in research. In the light ofthis, this essay also revisits Elias’s work – Involvement and Detachment – in order toclarify some of the complexities associated with this argument. This essay concludes bysuggesting that there are a number of common themes in the work of feminists andfigurational sociologists which, when considered together, provide a relatively usefulbackdrop for further and more fruitful dialogue between feminists and figurationalsociologists. Overall, this essay can be taken as an attempt to contribute to theadvancement of knowledge by suggesting ideas for further theoretical and empiricalverification in the area of gender relations in sport.IntroductionThe exchange between feminists and figurational sociologists in the sociology ofsport has a relatively recent history. It seems to have originated betweenHargreaves and Dunning in the 1980s. It was continued subsequently by these twoauthors in the 1990s and has been extended more recently by MansfieldISSN 1743-0437 (print)/ISSN 1743-0445 (online)/07/040623-23 q 2007 Taylor & FrancisDOI: 10.1080/17430430701425467Katie Liston, Chester Centre for Research into Sport and Society, University of Chester, Parkgate Road, ChesterCH1 4BJ.Correspondence to: k.liston@chester.ac.ukSport in SocietyVol. 10, No. 4, July 2007, pp. 623–645Downloaded by
LanguageEnglish
Pages623-646
JournalSport in Society
Volume10
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2006

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sociology
sociologist
Sports
sociology of sports
development theory
gender relations
social research
Values
dialogue
road
history
evidence

Keywords

  • feminism
  • sport
  • figurational sociology
  • involvement and detachment

Cite this

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title = "Revisiting the feminist-figurational sociology exchange",
abstract = "This essay revisits aspects of the exchange in the sociology of sport between feminists andfigurational sociologists on the role of values in research, the balance betweeninvolvement-detachment on the part of the researcher, and the role of academic researchmore generally. In this regard, the essay summarizes this exchange in three main ‘rounds’and tries to make an incremental contribution by drawing upon some developments infeminist theory and figurational sociological research since the 1990s. It will argue,contrary to Dunning and Colwell, that there is some evidence, at least at the theoreticallevel, to suggest that the two positions are, perhaps, not as mutually exclusive as has beenpreviously suggested, even though some important distinctions between the twoapproaches remain and that revolve around the roles of values in research. In the light ofthis, this essay also revisits Elias’s work – Involvement and Detachment – in order toclarify some of the complexities associated with this argument. This essay concludes bysuggesting that there are a number of common themes in the work of feminists andfigurational sociologists which, when considered together, provide a relatively usefulbackdrop for further and more fruitful dialogue between feminists and figurationalsociologists. Overall, this essay can be taken as an attempt to contribute to theadvancement of knowledge by suggesting ideas for further theoretical and empiricalverification in the area of gender relations in sport.IntroductionThe exchange between feminists and figurational sociologists in the sociology ofsport has a relatively recent history. It seems to have originated betweenHargreaves and Dunning in the 1980s. It was continued subsequently by these twoauthors in the 1990s and has been extended more recently by MansfieldISSN 1743-0437 (print)/ISSN 1743-0445 (online)/07/040623-23 q 2007 Taylor & FrancisDOI: 10.1080/17430430701425467Katie Liston, Chester Centre for Research into Sport and Society, University of Chester, Parkgate Road, ChesterCH1 4BJ.Correspondence to: k.liston@chester.ac.ukSport in SocietyVol. 10, No. 4, July 2007, pp. 623–645Downloaded by",
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note = "Reference text: Acosta, R. and L. Carpenter. Women in Intercollegiate Sport: Acosta/Carpenter Report. New York: Smith College Massachusetts and Brooklyn College, 1994. Birrell, S. “Feminist Theories for Sports.” In Handbook of Sports Studies, edited by J. Coakley and E. Dunning. London: Sage, 2000. Birrell, S. and Cole, C., (eds). Women, Sport, and Culture. Illinois: Human Kinetics, 2000. Bleier, R. and I. Engle. “Science and Gender: A Critique of Biology and Its Theories on Women.” American Journal of Physics 55, no. 2 (1987): 188–90. Bloyce, D. “Research is a Messy Process: A Case-Study of a Figurational Sociology Approach to Conventional Issues in Social Science Research Methods.” The Graduate Journal of Social Science 1 (2004): 144–66. Sport in Society 643 Downloaded by [University of Ulster at Coleraine] at 06:12 21 March 2012 Brinkgreve, C. “Elias on Gender Relations: The Changing Balance of Power between the Sexes.” In The Sociology of Norbert Elias, edited by S. Loyal and S. Quilley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Caddick, A. “Feminism and the Body.” Arena 74 (1986): 60–88. Carpenter, L. and R. Acosta. Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal, National Study Twenty Seven Year Update, 1977–2004. New York: Brooklyn College of the City University of New York and Smith College, 2004. Colwell, S. “Feminisms and Figurational Sociology: Contributions to understandings of Sports, Physical Education and Sex/Gender.” European Physical Education Review 5, no. 3 (1999): 219–40. Critcher, C. “Radical Theorists of Sport: The State of “Play”.” Sociology of Sport Journal 3 (1986): 333–43. Delamont, S. Feminist Sociology. London: Sage, 2003. Dunning, E. “Sport as a Male Preserve: Notes on the Social Sources of Masculine Identity and its Transformations.” In Quest for Excitement: Sport and Leisure in the Civilising Process, edited by N. Elias and E. Dunning. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986. Dunning, E. “Figurational Sociology and the Sociology of Sport: Some Concluding Remarks.” In Sport and Leisure in the Civilizing Process, edited by E. Dunning and C. Rojek. London: Macmillan, 1992. Dunning, E. Sport Matters. London: Routledge, 1999. Dunning, E. and J. Maguire. “Process-Sociological Notes on Sport, Gender Relations and Violence Control.” International Review for the Sociology of Sport 31, no. 3 (1996): 295–317. Dunning, E. and Rojek, C. (eds). Sport and Leisure in the Civilizing Process. London: Macmillan, 1992. Dunning, E. and K. Sheard. “The Rugby Football Club as a Type of Male Preserve.” International Review of Sport Sociology 5 (1973): 5–24. Dunning, E. and K. Sheard, Barbarians, Gentlemen and Players: A Sociological Study of the Development of Rugby Football. Oxford: Martin Robertson, 1979 (Second edition with Revised Introduction, 2004). Elias, N. “Problems of Involvement and Detachment.” British Journal of Sociology 7, no. 3 (1956): 226–52. Elias, N. What is Sociology? London: Macmillan, 1978. Elias, N. Involvement and Detachment. London: Basil Blackwell, 1987. Elias, N. and E. Dunning. Quest for Excitement: Sport and Leisure in the Civilising Process. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986. Freedman, J. Feminism. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 2001. Griffin, P. Strong Women, Deep Closets: Lesbians and Homophobia in Sport. Illinois: Human Kinetics, 1998. Habermas, J. Legitimation Crisis. Boston: Beacon Press, 1975. Hall, M. Sport and Gender: A Feminist Perspective on the Sociology of Sport. Ontario: Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 1978. Hall, M. Feminism and Sporting Bodies: Essays on Theories and Practice. Illinois: Human Kinetics, 1996. Hargreaves, J. “Where’s the Virtue? Where’s the Grace? A Discussion of the Social Production of Gender Relations in and through Sport.” Theory, Culture and Society 3, no. 1 (1986): 109–21. Hargreaves, J. “Sex, Gender and the Body in Sport and Leisure: Has there been a Civilizing Process.” In Sport and Leisure in the Civilizing Process, edited by E. Dunning and C. Rojek. London: Macmillan, 1992. Hargreaves, J. Sporting Females: Critical Issues in the History and Sociology ofWomen’s Sports. London: Routledge, 1994. 644 K. Liston Downloaded by [University of Ulster at Coleraine] at 06:12 21 March 2012 Hargreaves, J. Heroines of Sport: The Politics of Difference and Identity. London: Routledge, 2004. Kilminster, R. “From Distance to Detachment.” In The Sociology of Norbert Elias, edited by S. Loyal and S. Quilley. London: Routledge, 2004. Kimmel, M. “Baseball and the Reconstruction of American Masculinity, 1880–1920.” In Sport, Men, and the Gender Order, edited by M. Messner and D. Sabo. Illinois: Human Kinetics, 1990. Lenskyj, H. Out of Bounds: Women, Sport and Sexuality. Toronto: Women’s Press, 1986. Lenskyj, H. “Sexuality and Femininity and Sports Contexts: Issues and Alternatives.” Journal of Sport and Social Issues 18 (1994): 358–76. Liston, K. “Established-outsider Relations between Males and Females in Sports in Ireland.” Irish Journal of Sociology 14, no. 1 (2005a): 66–85. Liston, K. “Irish Sporting Bodies.” In Sport and the Irish: Histories,Identities, Issues, edited by A. Bairner. Dublin: University College Dublin Press, 2005b. Maguire, J. “Research Note: Doing Figurational Sociology: Some Preliminary Observations on Methodological Issues and Sensitizing Concepts.” Leisure Studies 7 (1988): 187–93. Maguire, J. and L. Mansfield. ‘“No-body’s perfect”: Women, Aerobics and the Body Beautiful.’ Sociology of Sport Journal 15, no. 2 (1998): 109–37. Malcolm, D. “Stacking in Cricket: A Figurational-sociological Reappraisal of Centrality.” Sociology of Sport Journal 14, no. 3 (1997): 265–84. Mansfield, L. “Feminist and Figurational Sociology: Dialogue and Potential Synthesis.” In Theory, Sport and Society, edited by J. Maguire and K. Young. London: JAI, Elsevier Science, 2002. Mansfield, L. “Feminist and Figurational Sociology: Dialogue and Potential Synthesis.” In Theory, Sport & Society, edited by J. Maguire and K. Young. London: JAI, Elsevier, 2002. Messner, M. Power at Play: Sports and the Problem of Masculinity. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992. Messner, M. and Sabo, D. (eds). Sport, Men, and the Gender Order. Illinois: Human Kinetics, 1990. Murphy, P., K. Sheard, and I. Waddington. “Figurational Sociology and its Application to Sport.” In Handbook of Sports Studies, edited by J. Coakley and E. Dunning. London: Sage, 2000. Oakley, A. “Interviewing Women: A Contradiction in Terms.” In Doing Feminist Research, edited by H. Roberts. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1990. Patterson, F. “Heeding New Voices: Gender-Related Herstories of Asian and Caribbean-Born Elderly Women.” Affilia 18, no. 1 (2003): 68–79. Pike, E. and J. Maguire. “Injury in Women’s Sport: Classifying Key Elements of “Risk Encounters”.” Sociology of Sport Journal 20, no. 3 (2003): 232–51. Roderick, M., I. Waddington, and G. Parker. “Playing Hurt: Managing Injuries in English Professional Football.” International Review for Sociology of Sport 35, no. 2 (2000): 165–80. Scraton, S. and Flintoff, A. (eds). Gender and Sport: A Reader. London: Routledge, 2002. Theberge, N. “Reflections on the Body in the Sociology of Sport.” Quest 43 (1991): 23–34. Treibel, A. “The Changing Balance of Power between Men and Women: A Figurational Study of the Public and the Private Spheres in Western Societies.” In Norbert Elias and Human Interdependencies, edited by T. Salumets. London: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2001. Tseelon, E. The Masque of Femininity: The Presentation of Woman in Everyday Life. London: Thousand Oaks, 1995. Waddington, I. Sport, Health and Drugs. London: E&FN Spon, 2000. Wearing, B. Leisure and Feminist Theory. London: Sage, 1998. Young, K. and P. White. Sport and Gender in Canada. Second edition forthcoming. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2007.",
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Revisiting the feminist-figurational sociology exchange. / Liston, Katie/K.

In: Sport in Society, Vol. 10, No. 4, 01.06.2006, p. 623-646.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Revisiting the feminist-figurational sociology exchange

AU - Liston, Katie/K

N1 - Reference text: Acosta, R. and L. Carpenter. Women in Intercollegiate Sport: Acosta/Carpenter Report. New York: Smith College Massachusetts and Brooklyn College, 1994. Birrell, S. “Feminist Theories for Sports.” In Handbook of Sports Studies, edited by J. Coakley and E. Dunning. London: Sage, 2000. Birrell, S. and Cole, C., (eds). Women, Sport, and Culture. Illinois: Human Kinetics, 2000. Bleier, R. and I. Engle. “Science and Gender: A Critique of Biology and Its Theories on Women.” American Journal of Physics 55, no. 2 (1987): 188–90. Bloyce, D. “Research is a Messy Process: A Case-Study of a Figurational Sociology Approach to Conventional Issues in Social Science Research Methods.” The Graduate Journal of Social Science 1 (2004): 144–66. Sport in Society 643 Downloaded by [University of Ulster at Coleraine] at 06:12 21 March 2012 Brinkgreve, C. “Elias on Gender Relations: The Changing Balance of Power between the Sexes.” In The Sociology of Norbert Elias, edited by S. Loyal and S. Quilley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Caddick, A. “Feminism and the Body.” Arena 74 (1986): 60–88. Carpenter, L. and R. Acosta. Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal, National Study Twenty Seven Year Update, 1977–2004. New York: Brooklyn College of the City University of New York and Smith College, 2004. Colwell, S. “Feminisms and Figurational Sociology: Contributions to understandings of Sports, Physical Education and Sex/Gender.” European Physical Education Review 5, no. 3 (1999): 219–40. Critcher, C. “Radical Theorists of Sport: The State of “Play”.” Sociology of Sport Journal 3 (1986): 333–43. Delamont, S. Feminist Sociology. London: Sage, 2003. Dunning, E. “Sport as a Male Preserve: Notes on the Social Sources of Masculine Identity and its Transformations.” In Quest for Excitement: Sport and Leisure in the Civilising Process, edited by N. Elias and E. Dunning. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986. Dunning, E. “Figurational Sociology and the Sociology of Sport: Some Concluding Remarks.” In Sport and Leisure in the Civilizing Process, edited by E. Dunning and C. Rojek. London: Macmillan, 1992. Dunning, E. Sport Matters. London: Routledge, 1999. Dunning, E. and J. Maguire. “Process-Sociological Notes on Sport, Gender Relations and Violence Control.” International Review for the Sociology of Sport 31, no. 3 (1996): 295–317. Dunning, E. and Rojek, C. (eds). Sport and Leisure in the Civilizing Process. London: Macmillan, 1992. Dunning, E. and K. Sheard. “The Rugby Football Club as a Type of Male Preserve.” International Review of Sport Sociology 5 (1973): 5–24. Dunning, E. and K. Sheard, Barbarians, Gentlemen and Players: A Sociological Study of the Development of Rugby Football. Oxford: Martin Robertson, 1979 (Second edition with Revised Introduction, 2004). Elias, N. “Problems of Involvement and Detachment.” British Journal of Sociology 7, no. 3 (1956): 226–52. Elias, N. What is Sociology? London: Macmillan, 1978. Elias, N. Involvement and Detachment. London: Basil Blackwell, 1987. Elias, N. and E. Dunning. Quest for Excitement: Sport and Leisure in the Civilising Process. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986. Freedman, J. Feminism. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 2001. Griffin, P. Strong Women, Deep Closets: Lesbians and Homophobia in Sport. Illinois: Human Kinetics, 1998. Habermas, J. Legitimation Crisis. Boston: Beacon Press, 1975. Hall, M. Sport and Gender: A Feminist Perspective on the Sociology of Sport. Ontario: Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 1978. Hall, M. Feminism and Sporting Bodies: Essays on Theories and Practice. Illinois: Human Kinetics, 1996. Hargreaves, J. “Where’s the Virtue? Where’s the Grace? A Discussion of the Social Production of Gender Relations in and through Sport.” Theory, Culture and Society 3, no. 1 (1986): 109–21. Hargreaves, J. “Sex, Gender and the Body in Sport and Leisure: Has there been a Civilizing Process.” In Sport and Leisure in the Civilizing Process, edited by E. Dunning and C. Rojek. London: Macmillan, 1992. Hargreaves, J. Sporting Females: Critical Issues in the History and Sociology ofWomen’s Sports. London: Routledge, 1994. 644 K. Liston Downloaded by [University of Ulster at Coleraine] at 06:12 21 March 2012 Hargreaves, J. Heroines of Sport: The Politics of Difference and Identity. London: Routledge, 2004. Kilminster, R. “From Distance to Detachment.” In The Sociology of Norbert Elias, edited by S. Loyal and S. Quilley. London: Routledge, 2004. Kimmel, M. “Baseball and the Reconstruction of American Masculinity, 1880–1920.” In Sport, Men, and the Gender Order, edited by M. Messner and D. Sabo. Illinois: Human Kinetics, 1990. Lenskyj, H. Out of Bounds: Women, Sport and Sexuality. Toronto: Women’s Press, 1986. Lenskyj, H. “Sexuality and Femininity and Sports Contexts: Issues and Alternatives.” Journal of Sport and Social Issues 18 (1994): 358–76. Liston, K. “Established-outsider Relations between Males and Females in Sports in Ireland.” Irish Journal of Sociology 14, no. 1 (2005a): 66–85. Liston, K. “Irish Sporting Bodies.” In Sport and the Irish: Histories,Identities, Issues, edited by A. Bairner. Dublin: University College Dublin Press, 2005b. Maguire, J. “Research Note: Doing Figurational Sociology: Some Preliminary Observations on Methodological Issues and Sensitizing Concepts.” Leisure Studies 7 (1988): 187–93. Maguire, J. and L. Mansfield. ‘“No-body’s perfect”: Women, Aerobics and the Body Beautiful.’ Sociology of Sport Journal 15, no. 2 (1998): 109–37. Malcolm, D. “Stacking in Cricket: A Figurational-sociological Reappraisal of Centrality.” Sociology of Sport Journal 14, no. 3 (1997): 265–84. Mansfield, L. “Feminist and Figurational Sociology: Dialogue and Potential Synthesis.” In Theory, Sport and Society, edited by J. Maguire and K. Young. London: JAI, Elsevier Science, 2002. Mansfield, L. “Feminist and Figurational Sociology: Dialogue and Potential Synthesis.” In Theory, Sport & Society, edited by J. Maguire and K. Young. London: JAI, Elsevier, 2002. Messner, M. Power at Play: Sports and the Problem of Masculinity. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992. Messner, M. and Sabo, D. (eds). Sport, Men, and the Gender Order. Illinois: Human Kinetics, 1990. Murphy, P., K. Sheard, and I. Waddington. “Figurational Sociology and its Application to Sport.” In Handbook of Sports Studies, edited by J. Coakley and E. Dunning. London: Sage, 2000. Oakley, A. “Interviewing Women: A Contradiction in Terms.” In Doing Feminist Research, edited by H. Roberts. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1990. Patterson, F. “Heeding New Voices: Gender-Related Herstories of Asian and Caribbean-Born Elderly Women.” Affilia 18, no. 1 (2003): 68–79. Pike, E. and J. Maguire. “Injury in Women’s Sport: Classifying Key Elements of “Risk Encounters”.” Sociology of Sport Journal 20, no. 3 (2003): 232–51. Roderick, M., I. Waddington, and G. Parker. “Playing Hurt: Managing Injuries in English Professional Football.” International Review for Sociology of Sport 35, no. 2 (2000): 165–80. Scraton, S. and Flintoff, A. (eds). Gender and Sport: A Reader. London: Routledge, 2002. Theberge, N. “Reflections on the Body in the Sociology of Sport.” Quest 43 (1991): 23–34. Treibel, A. “The Changing Balance of Power between Men and Women: A Figurational Study of the Public and the Private Spheres in Western Societies.” In Norbert Elias and Human Interdependencies, edited by T. Salumets. London: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2001. Tseelon, E. The Masque of Femininity: The Presentation of Woman in Everyday Life. London: Thousand Oaks, 1995. Waddington, I. Sport, Health and Drugs. London: E&FN Spon, 2000. Wearing, B. Leisure and Feminist Theory. London: Sage, 1998. Young, K. and P. White. Sport and Gender in Canada. Second edition forthcoming. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2007.

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N2 - This essay revisits aspects of the exchange in the sociology of sport between feminists andfigurational sociologists on the role of values in research, the balance betweeninvolvement-detachment on the part of the researcher, and the role of academic researchmore generally. In this regard, the essay summarizes this exchange in three main ‘rounds’and tries to make an incremental contribution by drawing upon some developments infeminist theory and figurational sociological research since the 1990s. It will argue,contrary to Dunning and Colwell, that there is some evidence, at least at the theoreticallevel, to suggest that the two positions are, perhaps, not as mutually exclusive as has beenpreviously suggested, even though some important distinctions between the twoapproaches remain and that revolve around the roles of values in research. In the light ofthis, this essay also revisits Elias’s work – Involvement and Detachment – in order toclarify some of the complexities associated with this argument. This essay concludes bysuggesting that there are a number of common themes in the work of feminists andfigurational sociologists which, when considered together, provide a relatively usefulbackdrop for further and more fruitful dialogue between feminists and figurationalsociologists. Overall, this essay can be taken as an attempt to contribute to theadvancement of knowledge by suggesting ideas for further theoretical and empiricalverification in the area of gender relations in sport.IntroductionThe exchange between feminists and figurational sociologists in the sociology ofsport has a relatively recent history. It seems to have originated betweenHargreaves and Dunning in the 1980s. It was continued subsequently by these twoauthors in the 1990s and has been extended more recently by MansfieldISSN 1743-0437 (print)/ISSN 1743-0445 (online)/07/040623-23 q 2007 Taylor & FrancisDOI: 10.1080/17430430701425467Katie Liston, Chester Centre for Research into Sport and Society, University of Chester, Parkgate Road, ChesterCH1 4BJ.Correspondence to: k.liston@chester.ac.ukSport in SocietyVol. 10, No. 4, July 2007, pp. 623–645Downloaded by

AB - This essay revisits aspects of the exchange in the sociology of sport between feminists andfigurational sociologists on the role of values in research, the balance betweeninvolvement-detachment on the part of the researcher, and the role of academic researchmore generally. In this regard, the essay summarizes this exchange in three main ‘rounds’and tries to make an incremental contribution by drawing upon some developments infeminist theory and figurational sociological research since the 1990s. It will argue,contrary to Dunning and Colwell, that there is some evidence, at least at the theoreticallevel, to suggest that the two positions are, perhaps, not as mutually exclusive as has beenpreviously suggested, even though some important distinctions between the twoapproaches remain and that revolve around the roles of values in research. In the light ofthis, this essay also revisits Elias’s work – Involvement and Detachment – in order toclarify some of the complexities associated with this argument. This essay concludes bysuggesting that there are a number of common themes in the work of feminists andfigurational sociologists which, when considered together, provide a relatively usefulbackdrop for further and more fruitful dialogue between feminists and figurationalsociologists. Overall, this essay can be taken as an attempt to contribute to theadvancement of knowledge by suggesting ideas for further theoretical and empiricalverification in the area of gender relations in sport.IntroductionThe exchange between feminists and figurational sociologists in the sociology ofsport has a relatively recent history. It seems to have originated betweenHargreaves and Dunning in the 1980s. It was continued subsequently by these twoauthors in the 1990s and has been extended more recently by MansfieldISSN 1743-0437 (print)/ISSN 1743-0445 (online)/07/040623-23 q 2007 Taylor & FrancisDOI: 10.1080/17430430701425467Katie Liston, Chester Centre for Research into Sport and Society, University of Chester, Parkgate Road, ChesterCH1 4BJ.Correspondence to: k.liston@chester.ac.ukSport in SocietyVol. 10, No. 4, July 2007, pp. 623–645Downloaded by

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