Reuse of Grade 23 Ti6Al4V Powder during the Laser-Based Powder Bed Fusion Process

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Titanium alloy powder used for laser-based powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process is costly. One of the solutions is the inclusion of a powder recycling strategy, allowing unused or exposed powder particles to be recuperated post manufacture, replenished and used for future builds. However, during a L-PBF process, powder particles are exposed to high levels of concentrated energy
from the laser. Particularly those in close proximity to the melt pool, leading to the formation of spatter and agglomerated particles. These particles can settle onto the powder bed, which can then influence the particle size distribution and layer uniformity. This study analysed extra-low interstitial(ELI) Ti6Al4V (Grade 23) powder when subjected to nine recycle iterations, tracking powder property
variation across the successive recycling stages. Characterisation included chemical composition focusing upon O, N, and H content, particle size distribution, morphology and tapped and bulk densities. On review of the compositional analysis, the oxygen content exceeded the 0.13% limit for the ELI grade after 8 recycles, resulting in the degradation from Grade 23 level.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1700
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
Issue number12
Early online date21 Dec 2020
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 21 Dec 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by INTERREG VA Programme, managed by the Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB), as part of the NW CAM project. The APC was funded through the NW CAM project.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Additive manufacturing
  • ELI (Grade 23) Ti6Al4V
  • Laser-based powder bed fusion
  • Powder characterisation
  • Powder recycling
  • Selective laser melting


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