Results of search for magnetized quark-nugget dark matter from radial impacts on Earth

J. Pace VanDevender, Robert. G. Schmitt, Niall McGinley, David G. Duggan, Seamus McGinty, Aaron P. VanDevender, Peter Wilson, Deborah Dixon, Helen Girard, Jacquelyn McRae

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    5 Citations (Scopus)
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    Magnetized quark nuggets (MQNs) are a recently proposed dark-matter candidate consistent with the Standard Model and with Tatsumi’s theory of quark-nugget cores in magnetars. Previous publications have covered their formation in the early universe, aggregation into a broad mass distribution before they can decay by the weak force, interaction with normal matter through
    their magnetopause, and a first observation consistent MQNs: a nearly tangential impact limiting their surface-magnetic-field parameter Bo from Tatsumi’s ~1012+/−1 T to 1.65 × 1012 T +/− 21%. The MQN mass distribution and interaction cross section strongly depend on Bo. Their magnetopause
    is much larger than their geometric dimensions and can cause sufficient energy deposition to form non-meteorite craters, which are reported approximately annually. We report computer simulations of the MQN energy deposition in water-saturated peat, soft sediments, and granite, and report the
    results from excavating such a crater. Five points of agreement between observations and hydrodynamic simulations of an MQN impact support this second observation being consistent with MQN dark matter and suggest a method for qualifying additional MQN events. The results also redundantly constrain Bo to ≥ 4 × 1011 T.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number116
    Pages (from-to)1-28
    Number of pages28
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 21 Apr 2021

    Bibliographical note

    Funding Information:
    Funding: This research was primarily funded by VanDevender Enterprises and volunteers. In addition, New Mexico Small Business Assistance to Sandia National Laboratories funded the CTH hydrodynamic simulations.

    Funding Information:
    Acknowledgments: We gratefully acknowledge S. V. Greene for first suggesting we consider quark nuggets and Mark Boslough for critical review and suggestions. Ranger David Dugan provided greatly appreciated guidance and assistance in obtaining the necessary permit from the National Parks and Wildlife Service. Charlie Callahan of Glendowan provided essential guidance and assistance from the point of view of local residents with rights to use this land. Cathal Moy and his associates were invaluable; without their knowledge of local soil conditions and exceptional skill with operating their excavators, the project could not have been accomplished. Volunteers Rebecca Stair and Nathan Girard assisted in the 2018 and 2019 excavations respectively. Finally, Jesse A. Rosen edited this paper and improved the structure, logic, and flow. This work was supported by VanDevender Enterprises, LLC. The CTH simulations were supported by the New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) Program through Sandia National Laboratories, a multi-program laboratory operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (NTESS), a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, with support from Northrup Grumman, Universities Research Association and others, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration. By policy, work performed by Sandia National Laboratories for the private sector does not constitute endorsement of any commercial product.

    Publisher Copyright:
    © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).


    • MQN
    • Macro
    • dark matter
    • magnetar
    • magnetized quark nugget
    • nuclearite
    • quark nugget
    • slet
    • strangelet
    • Quark nugget
    • Magnetar
    • Slet
    • Dark matter
    • Nuclearite
    • Strangelet
    • Magnetized quark nugget


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