Reliability of Three-Dimensional Linear Kinematics and Kinetics of Swimming Derived from Digitized Video at 25 and 50 Hz with 10 and 5 Frame Extensions to the 4th Order Butterworth Smoothing Window

Ross H. Sanders, Tomohiro Gonjo, Carla McCabe

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to explore the reliability of estimating three-dimensional (3D) linear kinematics and kinetics of a swimmer derived from digitized video and to assess the effect of framing rate and smoothing window size. A stroke cycle of two high-level front crawl swimmers and one high level backstroke swimmer was recorded by four underwater and two above water video cameras. One of the front crawl swimmers was recorded and digitized at 50 Hz with a window for smoothing by 4th order Butterworth digital filter extending 10 frames beyond the start and finish of the stroke cycle, while the other front crawl and backstroke swimmer were recorded and digitized at 25 Hz with the window extending five frames beyond the start and finish of the stroke cycle. Each camera view of the stroke cycle was digitized five times yielding five independent 3D data sets from which whole body centre of mass (CM) component velocities and accelerations were derived together with wrist and ankle linear velocities. Coefficients of reliability ranging from r = 0.942 to r = 0.999 indicated that both methods are sufficiently reliable to identify real differences in net force production during the pulls of the right and left hands. Reliability of digitizing was better for front crawl when digitizing at 50Hz with 10 frames extension than at 25 Hz with 5 frames extension (p <0.01) and better for backstroke than front crawl (p <0.01). However, despite the extension and reflection of data, errors were larger in the first 15% of the stroke cycle than the period between 15 and 85% of the stroke cycle for CM velocity and acceleration and for foot speed (p <0.01).
LanguageEnglish
Pages441 -451
JournalJournal of Sports Science and Medicine
Volume14
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2015

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Biomechanical Phenomena
Stroke
Wrist
Ankle
Foot
Hand
Water

Keywords

  • Inverse dynamics
  • reliability
  • swimming
  • asymmetry
  • Butterworth filter

Cite this

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title = "Reliability of Three-Dimensional Linear Kinematics and Kinetics of Swimming Derived from Digitized Video at 25 and 50 Hz with 10 and 5 Frame Extensions to the 4th Order Butterworth Smoothing Window",
abstract = "The purpose of this study was to explore the reliability of estimating three-dimensional (3D) linear kinematics and kinetics of a swimmer derived from digitized video and to assess the effect of framing rate and smoothing window size. A stroke cycle of two high-level front crawl swimmers and one high level backstroke swimmer was recorded by four underwater and two above water video cameras. One of the front crawl swimmers was recorded and digitized at 50 Hz with a window for smoothing by 4th order Butterworth digital filter extending 10 frames beyond the start and finish of the stroke cycle, while the other front crawl and backstroke swimmer were recorded and digitized at 25 Hz with the window extending five frames beyond the start and finish of the stroke cycle. Each camera view of the stroke cycle was digitized five times yielding five independent 3D data sets from which whole body centre of mass (CM) component velocities and accelerations were derived together with wrist and ankle linear velocities. Coefficients of reliability ranging from r = 0.942 to r = 0.999 indicated that both methods are sufficiently reliable to identify real differences in net force production during the pulls of the right and left hands. Reliability of digitizing was better for front crawl when digitizing at 50Hz with 10 frames extension than at 25 Hz with 5 frames extension (p <0.01) and better for backstroke than front crawl (p <0.01). However, despite the extension and reflection of data, errors were larger in the first 15{\%} of the stroke cycle than the period between 15 and 85{\%} of the stroke cycle for CM velocity and acceleration and for foot speed (p <0.01).",
keywords = "Inverse dynamics, reliability, swimming, asymmetry, Butterworth filter",
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T1 - Reliability of Three-Dimensional Linear Kinematics and Kinetics of Swimming Derived from Digitized Video at 25 and 50 Hz with 10 and 5 Frame Extensions to the 4th Order Butterworth Smoothing Window

AU - Sanders, Ross H.

AU - Gonjo, Tomohiro

AU - McCabe, Carla

PY - 2015/6/1

Y1 - 2015/6/1

N2 - The purpose of this study was to explore the reliability of estimating three-dimensional (3D) linear kinematics and kinetics of a swimmer derived from digitized video and to assess the effect of framing rate and smoothing window size. A stroke cycle of two high-level front crawl swimmers and one high level backstroke swimmer was recorded by four underwater and two above water video cameras. One of the front crawl swimmers was recorded and digitized at 50 Hz with a window for smoothing by 4th order Butterworth digital filter extending 10 frames beyond the start and finish of the stroke cycle, while the other front crawl and backstroke swimmer were recorded and digitized at 25 Hz with the window extending five frames beyond the start and finish of the stroke cycle. Each camera view of the stroke cycle was digitized five times yielding five independent 3D data sets from which whole body centre of mass (CM) component velocities and accelerations were derived together with wrist and ankle linear velocities. Coefficients of reliability ranging from r = 0.942 to r = 0.999 indicated that both methods are sufficiently reliable to identify real differences in net force production during the pulls of the right and left hands. Reliability of digitizing was better for front crawl when digitizing at 50Hz with 10 frames extension than at 25 Hz with 5 frames extension (p <0.01) and better for backstroke than front crawl (p <0.01). However, despite the extension and reflection of data, errors were larger in the first 15% of the stroke cycle than the period between 15 and 85% of the stroke cycle for CM velocity and acceleration and for foot speed (p <0.01).

AB - The purpose of this study was to explore the reliability of estimating three-dimensional (3D) linear kinematics and kinetics of a swimmer derived from digitized video and to assess the effect of framing rate and smoothing window size. A stroke cycle of two high-level front crawl swimmers and one high level backstroke swimmer was recorded by four underwater and two above water video cameras. One of the front crawl swimmers was recorded and digitized at 50 Hz with a window for smoothing by 4th order Butterworth digital filter extending 10 frames beyond the start and finish of the stroke cycle, while the other front crawl and backstroke swimmer were recorded and digitized at 25 Hz with the window extending five frames beyond the start and finish of the stroke cycle. Each camera view of the stroke cycle was digitized five times yielding five independent 3D data sets from which whole body centre of mass (CM) component velocities and accelerations were derived together with wrist and ankle linear velocities. Coefficients of reliability ranging from r = 0.942 to r = 0.999 indicated that both methods are sufficiently reliable to identify real differences in net force production during the pulls of the right and left hands. Reliability of digitizing was better for front crawl when digitizing at 50Hz with 10 frames extension than at 25 Hz with 5 frames extension (p <0.01) and better for backstroke than front crawl (p <0.01). However, despite the extension and reflection of data, errors were larger in the first 15% of the stroke cycle than the period between 15 and 85% of the stroke cycle for CM velocity and acceleration and for foot speed (p <0.01).

KW - Inverse dynamics

KW - reliability

KW - swimming

KW - asymmetry

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JO - Journal of Sports Science and Medicine

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SN - 1303-2968

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