Reliability of bounce drop jump parameters within elite male rugby players

Lisa Costley, Eric S Wallace, Michael Johnston, Rodney Kennedy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The aims of the study were to investigate the number of familiarisation sessions required to establish reliability of the bounce drop jump (BDJ) and subsequent reliability once familiarisation is achieved. METHOD: Seventeen trained male athletes completed 4 BDJs in 4 separate testing sessions. Force-time data from a 20 cm BDJ was obtained using two force plates (ensuring ground contact <250 ms). Subjects were instructed to ‘jump for maximal height and minimal contact time’ while the best and average of four jumps were compared. A series of performance variables were assessed in both eccentric and concentric phases including jump height, contact time, flight time, reactive strength index (RSI), peak power, rate of force development (RFD) and actual dropping height (ADH). Reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) while familiarisation was assessed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: The majority of DJ parameters exhibited excellent reliability with no systematic bias evident, while the average of 4 trials provided greater reliability. With the exception of vertical stiffness (CV: 12.0 %) and RFD (CV: 16.2 %) all variables demonstrated low within subject variation (CV range: 3.1 – 8.9 %). Relative reliability was very poor for ADH, with heights ranging from 14.87 – 29.85 cm. CONCLUSION: High levels of reliability can be obtained from the BDJ with the exception of vertical stiffness and RFD, however, extreme caution must be taken when comparing DJ results between individuals and squads due to large discrepancies between actual drop height and platform height.
LanguageEnglish
PagesN/A-N/A
JournalJournal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
VolumeN/A
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 14 Jul 2017

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Football
Athletes
Analysis of Variance

Keywords

  • athletic performance
  • plyometric exercise
  • reproducibility of results

Cite this

@article{87d55f27b6c94eb88eb2102e294cc3a3,
title = "Reliability of bounce drop jump parameters within elite male rugby players",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: The aims of the study were to investigate the number of familiarisation sessions required to establish reliability of the bounce drop jump (BDJ) and subsequent reliability once familiarisation is achieved. METHOD: Seventeen trained male athletes completed 4 BDJs in 4 separate testing sessions. Force-time data from a 20 cm BDJ was obtained using two force plates (ensuring ground contact <250 ms). Subjects were instructed to ‘jump for maximal height and minimal contact time’ while the best and average of four jumps were compared. A series of performance variables were assessed in both eccentric and concentric phases including jump height, contact time, flight time, reactive strength index (RSI), peak power, rate of force development (RFD) and actual dropping height (ADH). Reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) while familiarisation was assessed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: The majority of DJ parameters exhibited excellent reliability with no systematic bias evident, while the average of 4 trials provided greater reliability. With the exception of vertical stiffness (CV: 12.0 {\%}) and RFD (CV: 16.2 {\%}) all variables demonstrated low within subject variation (CV range: 3.1 – 8.9 {\%}). Relative reliability was very poor for ADH, with heights ranging from 14.87 – 29.85 cm. CONCLUSION: High levels of reliability can be obtained from the BDJ with the exception of vertical stiffness and RFD, however, extreme caution must be taken when comparing DJ results between individuals and squads due to large discrepancies between actual drop height and platform height.",
keywords = "athletic performance, plyometric exercise, reproducibility of results",
author = "Lisa Costley and Wallace, {Eric S} and Michael Johnston and Rodney Kennedy",
note = "Reference text: 1. Barr, M.J. and V.W. Nolte, Which measure of drop jump performance best predicts sprinting speed? J Strength Cond Res, 2011. 25(7): p. 1976-82. 2. Gathercole, R., et al., Alternative countermovement-jump analysis to quantify acute neuromuscular fatigue. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 2015. 10(1): p. 84-92. 3. McLellan, C.P., D.I. Lovell, and G.C. Gass, Markers of postmatch fatigue in professional rugby league players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2011. 25(4): p. 1030-1039. 4. Schmidtbleicher, Training for power events. In Strength and Power in Sport, edited by Komi, P.V. . 1992, Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 381-395. 5. Komi, P.V. and A. Gollhofer, Stretch reflexes can have an important role in force enhancement during SSC exercise. 1997, Human Kinetic Publ INC 1607 N Market Street, Champaign, IL 61820-2200. 6. Lloyd, et al., Reliability and validity of field-based measures of leg stiffness and reactive strength index in youths. J Sports Sci, 2009. 27(14): p. 1565-73. 7. Bobbert, M.F., et al., Biomechanical analysis of drop and countermovement jumps. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1986. 54(6): p. 566-73. 8. Bobbert, M.F., Drop Jumping as a Training Method for Jumping Ability. Sports Medicine, 1990. 9(1): p. 7-22. 9. Bobbert, M.F., P.A. Huijing, and G.J. van Ingen Schenau, Drop jumping. II. The influence of dropping height on the biomechanics of drop jumping. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1987. 19(4): p. 339-46. 10. Kristianslund, E. and T. Krosshaug, Comparison of Drop Jumps and Sport-Specific Sidestep Cutting Implications for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Screening. The American journal of sports medicine, 2013. 41(3): p. 684-688. 11. Young, W.B., J.F. Pryor, and G.J. Wilson, Effect of instructions on characteristics of countermovement and drop jump performance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 1995. 9(4): p. 232-236. 12. Flanagan, E.P., W.P. Ebben, and R.L. Jensen, Reliability of the reactive strength index and time to stabilization during depth jumps. J Strength Cond Res, 2008. 22(5): p. 1677-82. 13. Moir, et al., Influence of familiarization on the reliability of vertical jump and acceleration sprinting performance in physically active men. J Strength Cond Res, 2004. 18(2): p. 276-80. 14. Markwick, W.J., et al., The intraday reliability of the Reactive Strength Index calculated from a drop jump in professional men's basketball. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 2015. 10(4): p. 482-8. 15. Hatze, H., Validity and reliability of methods for testing vertical jumping performance. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 1998. 14(2): p. 127-140. 16. Moir, Three Different Methods of Calculating Vertical Jump Height from Force Platform Data in Men and Women. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 2008. 12(4): p. 207-218. 17. Kibele, A., Technical note. Possible errors in the comparative evaluation of drop jumps from different heights. Ergonomics, 1999. 42(7): p. 1011-4. 18. Palazzi, D. and B. Williams. Accuracy and precision of the kinetic analysis of drop jump performance. in ISBS-Conference Proceedings Archive. 2012. 19. Baca, A., A comparison of methods for analyzing drop jump performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1999. 31(3): p. 437-442. 20. Moir, A. Garcia, and G.B. Dwyer, Intersession reliability of kinematic and kinetic variables during vertical jumps in men and women. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 2009. 4(3): p. 317-30. 21. Markovic, G., et al., Reliability and factorial validity of squat and countermovement jump tests. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2004. 18(3): p. 551-555. 22. Miyama, M. and K. Nosaka, Muscle damage and soreness following repeated bouts of consecutive drop jumps. Adv Exerc Sports Physiol, 2004. 10(3): p. 63-69. 23. Taylor, K.-L., et al., Sources of Variability in Iso-Inertial Jump Assessments. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2010. 5(4): p. 546-558. 24. Cohen, J., Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (rev. 1977: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. 25. Street, G., et al., Sources of error in determining countermovement lump height with the impulse method. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 2001. 17(1): p. 43-54. 26. Cormie, P., M.R. McGuigan, and R.U. Newton, Changes in the eccentric phase contribute to improved stretch-shorten cycle performance after training. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2010. 42(9): p. 1731-44. 27. Cormack, S.J., et al., Reliability of Measures Obtained During Single and Repeated Countermovement Jumps. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2008. 3(2): p. 131-144. 28. Young, W.B., Laboratory strength assessment of athletes. New Studies in Athletics, 1995. 10(1): p. 88-96. 29. Moir, et al., The influence of familiarization on the reliability of force variables measured during unloaded and loaded vertical jumps. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2005. 19(1): p. 140-145. 30. Farley, C.T. and D.C. Morgenroth, Leg stiffness primarily depends on ankle stiffness during human hopping. J Biomech, 1999. 32(3): p. 267-73. 31. Linthorne, N.P., Analysis of standing vertical jumps using a force platform. American Journal of Physics, 2001. 69(11): p. 1198-1204. 32. Hopkins, W.G., Measures of reliability in sports medicine and science. Sports Medicine, 2000. 30(1): p. 1-15. 33. Moir, Shastri, and Connaboy, Intersession reliability of vertical jump height in women and men. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2008. 22(6): p. 1779-1784. 34. Eagles, A.N., et al., Current Methodologies and Implications of Phase Identification of the Vertical Jump: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Sports Med, 2015. 45(9): p. 1311-23. 35. Weir, J.P., Quantifying test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2005. 19(1): p. 231-240. 36. Fleiss, J., The Design and Analysis of Clinical Experiments. 1986, Taylor & Francis. 37. Atkinson, G. and A.M. Nevill, Statistical methods for assessing measurement error (reliability) in variables relevant to sports medicine. Sports Med, 1998. 26(4): p. 217-38. 38. Stokes, M., Reliability and repeatability of methods for measuring muscle in physiotherapy. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 1985. 1(2): p. 71-76. 39. Thorlund, J.B., et al., Acute fatigue-induced changes in muscle mechanical properties and neuromuscular activity in elite handball players following a handball match. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 2008. 18(4): p. 462-72. 40. Horita, T., et al., Exhausting stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise causes greater impairment in SSC performance than in pure concentric performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2003. 88(6): p. 527-534. 41. Gathercole, R., et al., Comparison of the Capacity of Different Jump and Sprint Field Tests to Detect Neuromuscular Fatigue. J Strength Cond Res, 2015. 29(9): p. 2522-31. 42. James, C.R., et al., Number of trials necessary to achieve performance stability of selected ground reaction force variables during landing. Journal of sports science & medicine, 2007. 6(1): p. 126. 43. Fang, Y., et al., Greater movement-related cortical potential during human eccentric versus concentric muscle contractions. Journal of Neurophysiology, 2001. 86(4): p. 1764-1772. 44. McBride, J.M. and J.G. Snyder, Mechanical efficiency and force-time curve variation during repetitive jumping in trained and untrained jumpers. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2012. 112(10): p. 3469-77. 45. Arampatzis, A., et al., Influence of leg stiffness and its effect on myodynamic jumping performance. Journal of electromyography and kinesiology, 2001. 11(5): p. 355-364.",
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Reliability of bounce drop jump parameters within elite male rugby players. / Costley, Lisa; Wallace, Eric S; Johnston, Michael; Kennedy, Rodney.

In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, Vol. N/A, 14.07.2017, p. N/A-N/A.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Reliability of bounce drop jump parameters within elite male rugby players

AU - Costley, Lisa

AU - Wallace, Eric S

AU - Johnston, Michael

AU - Kennedy, Rodney

N1 - Reference text: 1. Barr, M.J. and V.W. Nolte, Which measure of drop jump performance best predicts sprinting speed? J Strength Cond Res, 2011. 25(7): p. 1976-82. 2. Gathercole, R., et al., Alternative countermovement-jump analysis to quantify acute neuromuscular fatigue. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 2015. 10(1): p. 84-92. 3. McLellan, C.P., D.I. Lovell, and G.C. Gass, Markers of postmatch fatigue in professional rugby league players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2011. 25(4): p. 1030-1039. 4. Schmidtbleicher, Training for power events. In Strength and Power in Sport, edited by Komi, P.V. . 1992, Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 381-395. 5. Komi, P.V. and A. Gollhofer, Stretch reflexes can have an important role in force enhancement during SSC exercise. 1997, Human Kinetic Publ INC 1607 N Market Street, Champaign, IL 61820-2200. 6. Lloyd, et al., Reliability and validity of field-based measures of leg stiffness and reactive strength index in youths. J Sports Sci, 2009. 27(14): p. 1565-73. 7. Bobbert, M.F., et al., Biomechanical analysis of drop and countermovement jumps. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1986. 54(6): p. 566-73. 8. Bobbert, M.F., Drop Jumping as a Training Method for Jumping Ability. Sports Medicine, 1990. 9(1): p. 7-22. 9. Bobbert, M.F., P.A. Huijing, and G.J. van Ingen Schenau, Drop jumping. II. The influence of dropping height on the biomechanics of drop jumping. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1987. 19(4): p. 339-46. 10. Kristianslund, E. and T. Krosshaug, Comparison of Drop Jumps and Sport-Specific Sidestep Cutting Implications for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Screening. The American journal of sports medicine, 2013. 41(3): p. 684-688. 11. Young, W.B., J.F. Pryor, and G.J. Wilson, Effect of instructions on characteristics of countermovement and drop jump performance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 1995. 9(4): p. 232-236. 12. Flanagan, E.P., W.P. Ebben, and R.L. Jensen, Reliability of the reactive strength index and time to stabilization during depth jumps. J Strength Cond Res, 2008. 22(5): p. 1677-82. 13. Moir, et al., Influence of familiarization on the reliability of vertical jump and acceleration sprinting performance in physically active men. J Strength Cond Res, 2004. 18(2): p. 276-80. 14. Markwick, W.J., et al., The intraday reliability of the Reactive Strength Index calculated from a drop jump in professional men's basketball. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 2015. 10(4): p. 482-8. 15. Hatze, H., Validity and reliability of methods for testing vertical jumping performance. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 1998. 14(2): p. 127-140. 16. Moir, Three Different Methods of Calculating Vertical Jump Height from Force Platform Data in Men and Women. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 2008. 12(4): p. 207-218. 17. Kibele, A., Technical note. Possible errors in the comparative evaluation of drop jumps from different heights. Ergonomics, 1999. 42(7): p. 1011-4. 18. Palazzi, D. and B. Williams. Accuracy and precision of the kinetic analysis of drop jump performance. in ISBS-Conference Proceedings Archive. 2012. 19. Baca, A., A comparison of methods for analyzing drop jump performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1999. 31(3): p. 437-442. 20. Moir, A. Garcia, and G.B. Dwyer, Intersession reliability of kinematic and kinetic variables during vertical jumps in men and women. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 2009. 4(3): p. 317-30. 21. Markovic, G., et al., Reliability and factorial validity of squat and countermovement jump tests. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2004. 18(3): p. 551-555. 22. Miyama, M. and K. Nosaka, Muscle damage and soreness following repeated bouts of consecutive drop jumps. Adv Exerc Sports Physiol, 2004. 10(3): p. 63-69. 23. Taylor, K.-L., et al., Sources of Variability in Iso-Inertial Jump Assessments. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2010. 5(4): p. 546-558. 24. Cohen, J., Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (rev. 1977: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. 25. Street, G., et al., Sources of error in determining countermovement lump height with the impulse method. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 2001. 17(1): p. 43-54. 26. Cormie, P., M.R. McGuigan, and R.U. Newton, Changes in the eccentric phase contribute to improved stretch-shorten cycle performance after training. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2010. 42(9): p. 1731-44. 27. Cormack, S.J., et al., Reliability of Measures Obtained During Single and Repeated Countermovement Jumps. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2008. 3(2): p. 131-144. 28. Young, W.B., Laboratory strength assessment of athletes. New Studies in Athletics, 1995. 10(1): p. 88-96. 29. Moir, et al., The influence of familiarization on the reliability of force variables measured during unloaded and loaded vertical jumps. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2005. 19(1): p. 140-145. 30. Farley, C.T. and D.C. Morgenroth, Leg stiffness primarily depends on ankle stiffness during human hopping. J Biomech, 1999. 32(3): p. 267-73. 31. Linthorne, N.P., Analysis of standing vertical jumps using a force platform. American Journal of Physics, 2001. 69(11): p. 1198-1204. 32. Hopkins, W.G., Measures of reliability in sports medicine and science. Sports Medicine, 2000. 30(1): p. 1-15. 33. Moir, Shastri, and Connaboy, Intersession reliability of vertical jump height in women and men. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2008. 22(6): p. 1779-1784. 34. Eagles, A.N., et al., Current Methodologies and Implications of Phase Identification of the Vertical Jump: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Sports Med, 2015. 45(9): p. 1311-23. 35. Weir, J.P., Quantifying test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2005. 19(1): p. 231-240. 36. Fleiss, J., The Design and Analysis of Clinical Experiments. 1986, Taylor & Francis. 37. Atkinson, G. and A.M. Nevill, Statistical methods for assessing measurement error (reliability) in variables relevant to sports medicine. Sports Med, 1998. 26(4): p. 217-38. 38. Stokes, M., Reliability and repeatability of methods for measuring muscle in physiotherapy. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 1985. 1(2): p. 71-76. 39. Thorlund, J.B., et al., Acute fatigue-induced changes in muscle mechanical properties and neuromuscular activity in elite handball players following a handball match. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 2008. 18(4): p. 462-72. 40. Horita, T., et al., Exhausting stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise causes greater impairment in SSC performance than in pure concentric performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2003. 88(6): p. 527-534. 41. Gathercole, R., et al., Comparison of the Capacity of Different Jump and Sprint Field Tests to Detect Neuromuscular Fatigue. J Strength Cond Res, 2015. 29(9): p. 2522-31. 42. James, C.R., et al., Number of trials necessary to achieve performance stability of selected ground reaction force variables during landing. Journal of sports science & medicine, 2007. 6(1): p. 126. 43. Fang, Y., et al., Greater movement-related cortical potential during human eccentric versus concentric muscle contractions. Journal of Neurophysiology, 2001. 86(4): p. 1764-1772. 44. McBride, J.M. and J.G. Snyder, Mechanical efficiency and force-time curve variation during repetitive jumping in trained and untrained jumpers. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2012. 112(10): p. 3469-77. 45. Arampatzis, A., et al., Influence of leg stiffness and its effect on myodynamic jumping performance. Journal of electromyography and kinesiology, 2001. 11(5): p. 355-364.

PY - 2017/7/14

Y1 - 2017/7/14

N2 - BACKGROUND: The aims of the study were to investigate the number of familiarisation sessions required to establish reliability of the bounce drop jump (BDJ) and subsequent reliability once familiarisation is achieved. METHOD: Seventeen trained male athletes completed 4 BDJs in 4 separate testing sessions. Force-time data from a 20 cm BDJ was obtained using two force plates (ensuring ground contact <250 ms). Subjects were instructed to ‘jump for maximal height and minimal contact time’ while the best and average of four jumps were compared. A series of performance variables were assessed in both eccentric and concentric phases including jump height, contact time, flight time, reactive strength index (RSI), peak power, rate of force development (RFD) and actual dropping height (ADH). Reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) while familiarisation was assessed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: The majority of DJ parameters exhibited excellent reliability with no systematic bias evident, while the average of 4 trials provided greater reliability. With the exception of vertical stiffness (CV: 12.0 %) and RFD (CV: 16.2 %) all variables demonstrated low within subject variation (CV range: 3.1 – 8.9 %). Relative reliability was very poor for ADH, with heights ranging from 14.87 – 29.85 cm. CONCLUSION: High levels of reliability can be obtained from the BDJ with the exception of vertical stiffness and RFD, however, extreme caution must be taken when comparing DJ results between individuals and squads due to large discrepancies between actual drop height and platform height.

AB - BACKGROUND: The aims of the study were to investigate the number of familiarisation sessions required to establish reliability of the bounce drop jump (BDJ) and subsequent reliability once familiarisation is achieved. METHOD: Seventeen trained male athletes completed 4 BDJs in 4 separate testing sessions. Force-time data from a 20 cm BDJ was obtained using two force plates (ensuring ground contact <250 ms). Subjects were instructed to ‘jump for maximal height and minimal contact time’ while the best and average of four jumps were compared. A series of performance variables were assessed in both eccentric and concentric phases including jump height, contact time, flight time, reactive strength index (RSI), peak power, rate of force development (RFD) and actual dropping height (ADH). Reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) while familiarisation was assessed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: The majority of DJ parameters exhibited excellent reliability with no systematic bias evident, while the average of 4 trials provided greater reliability. With the exception of vertical stiffness (CV: 12.0 %) and RFD (CV: 16.2 %) all variables demonstrated low within subject variation (CV range: 3.1 – 8.9 %). Relative reliability was very poor for ADH, with heights ranging from 14.87 – 29.85 cm. CONCLUSION: High levels of reliability can be obtained from the BDJ with the exception of vertical stiffness and RFD, however, extreme caution must be taken when comparing DJ results between individuals and squads due to large discrepancies between actual drop height and platform height.

KW - athletic performance

KW - plyometric exercise

KW - reproducibility of results

M3 - Article

VL - N/A

SP - N/A-N/A

JO - Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness

T2 - Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness

JF - Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness

SN - 0022-4707

ER -