Refractive error & academic achievement

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Purpose : To investigate associations between refractive error and academic achievement in Northern Irish teenagers. Methods : Self-reported academic achievement and refractive error were evaluated in a subgroup (n=169) of participants from the NICER study. General Certificates of Seconday Education (GCSEs) are national standardised examinations taken at 16yrs. Results for Math and English were graded as HIGH (A*-B) or LOW (C-Ungraded). Refractive error (most ametropic meridian [MAM] and astigmatic error [AE]) at age 15-16yrs was determined by cycloplegic autorefraction. Habitual spectacle/contact lens wear, socioeconmic status (SES by post/ZIP code) and level of parental education (did/did not complete higher education) were recorded. Univariate logistic regression tested associations between GCSE grades (HIGH/LOW) and the variables MAM, AE, SES and parental education. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed for factors showing significant associations. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and p
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationUnknown Host Publication
PublisherLippincott Williams and Wilkins
Number of pages1
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 15 Feb 2016
EventAssociation for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology - United States of America
Duration: 15 Feb 2016 → …


ConferenceAssociation for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
Period15/02/16 → …



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