Refining Anger: Summarising the self-report measurement of anger

John Maltby, Will Norton, Eoin Mc Elroy, John Cromby, Martin Halliwell, Sophie Hall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The current paper presents a five-factor measurement model of anger summarising scores on public-domain self-report measures of anger. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of self-report measures of anger (UK, n=500; USA, n=625) suggest five replicable latent anger factors: anger-arousal, anger-rumination, frustration-discomfort, anger-regulation, and socially constituted anger. Findings suggested a 5-factor interpretation provided the best fit of the data. We also report evidence of measurement invariance for this 5-factor model of anger across gender, age, and ethnicity. The findings suggest a useful and parsimonious account of anger, summarising over 50 years of research around the self-report measurement of anger.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Personality Assessment
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 8 Dec 2022


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