Reduction of prevalence of patients meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome with tirzepatide: a post hoc analysis from the SURPASS Clinical Trial Program

Stephen J. Nicholls, Santiago Tofé, Carel W. le Roux, David A. D’Alessio, Russell J. Wiese, Imre Pavo, Katelyn Brown, Govinda J. Weerakkody, Meltem Zeytinoglu, Irene C. Romera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Metabolic syndrome is characterized as the co-occurrence of interrelated cardiovascular risk factors, including insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Once weekly tirzepatide is approved in the US and EU for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. In the SURPASS clinical trial program for T2D, tirzepatide demonstrated greater improvements in glycemic control, body weight reduction and other cardiometabolic risk factors versus placebo, subcutaneous semaglutide 1 mg, insulin degludec, and insulin glargine. This post hoc analysis assessed the effect of tirzepatide use on the prevalence of patients meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome across SURPASS 1–5. Methods: Metabolic syndrome was defined as having ≥ 3 of 5 criteria according to the US National Cholesterol Education Program: Adult Treatment Panel III. Analyses were based on on-treatment data at the primary endpoint from patients adherent to treatment (taking ≥ 75% study drug). A logistic regression model with metabolic syndrome status as the response variable, metabolic syndrome status at the baseline visit as an adjustment, and randomized treatment as fixed explanatory effect was used. The effect of tirzepatide use on the prevalence of patients meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome by categorical weight loss, background medication and gender were assessed. Results: In SURPASS, the prevalence of patients meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome at baseline was 67–88% across treatment groups with reductions at the primary endpoint to 38–64% with tirzepatide versus 64–82% with comparators. Reductions in the prevalence of patients meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome was significantly greater with all tirzepatide doses versus placebo, semaglutide 1 mg, insulin glargine, and insulin degludec (p < 0.001). Individual components of metabolic syndrome were also reduced to a greater extent with tirzepatide vs comparators. Greater reductions in body weight were associated with greater reductions in the prevalence of patients meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome and its individual components. Background SGLT2i or sulfonylurea use or gender did not impact the change in prevalence of patients meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: In this post hoc analysis, tirzepatide at all doses studied was associated with a greater reduction in the prevalence of patients meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome compared to placebo, semaglutide 1 mg, insulin degludec, and insulin glargine. Although more evidence is needed, these data would support greater potential improvement in cardiovascular risk factor profile with tirzepatide treatment in people across the continuum of T2D.
Original languageEnglish
Article number63
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalCardiovascular Diabetology
Volume23
Issue number1
Early online date10 Feb 2024
DOIs
Publication statusPublished online - 10 Feb 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2024.

Keywords

  • Tirzepatide
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Incretin
  • Type 2 diabetes

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